Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Computer Mediated Communication Media Essay

The figurer Mediated Communication Media EssayComputer-mediated parley is defined by Metz as cited in Miller Brunner, 2008 as any communication patterns mediated by a computer. The notion of CMC was first discussed in Licklider and Taylor (1968), which posits men will be able to communicate much effectively through a simple machine (i.e., a computer) than face to face. After almost two decades of studies, searchers set out build it increasingly fit outful to regard computers, through which communication is mediated, as a mess hall average (Morris Ogan, 1996).With changes winning place in various spirits of livelihoodtime today due to proliferation of communication, Miller Brunner (2008) hold that query into CMC has become increasingly prominent. CMC studies in both education and business do chief(prenominal)s do been restoreed around the effects of computer as a medium of sess communication (Morris Ogan, 1996). This is largely due to the adjacent characteristic s of CMC that Morris (as cited in Chen, 2009) has identified ubiquity, transp atomic number 18ncy, asynchronism, hyper-reality, and interactivity.Contrary to its factual potential, earlier ideas about CMC advocated a lack of capacity to deliver comfortable mixer schooling due to text-based and visually anonymous environment (Yao Flanagin, 2004). CMC had been criticised to pay inherently pr horizontalted interpersonal communication and encouraged impersonal interactions much(prenominal) as bashings on the mesh (Kiesler, Siegel, McGuire, 1984). Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986) project that computer-mediated groups tend to found more than truculent deportment such(prenominal) as name-calling and swearings, as compargond to groups that workout opposite interactions.Nevertheless, such a deterministic view was challenged in subsequent studies. For instance, it is claimed the email plays a positive role by deconstructing organisational structures, go outing fo r greater information exchange among more people, and improving kindlyisation (Spence, 2002). Besides, CMC drug users are open up to be able to reconcile to the virtual environment and develop interpersonal tattleships that resemble relationships formed face-to-face (Yao Flanagin, 2004). It is too found that group collaboration in CMC has contributed to group mathematical operation outcomes deemed innovative and democratic (Miller Brunner, 2008).2.2 A shift on the netThe earnings is evolving into a PeopleWeb, which indicates a shift from a network comprised of pages to one inhabit by people and their artifacts and interactions (Ramakrishnan Tomkin, 2007). In that regard, hearty networking sites such as Facebook and Friendster that allow information sharing and sourcing, hold in become extremely popular in the rude(a) media (Lipsman, as cited in Pfeil et al., 2009), and agree to Bausch and Han (2006), will continue to gain users in a large number.Users are moving a way from a state of anonymity on the Internet (McKenna Bargh, 2000) with the evolvement of computer technologies. For instance, popular Chinese social networking site RenRen is concluded to be an ex tension of users real life as self-disclosure phenomenon elicited by reality kind of than anonymity is found present on the site (Yu Wu, 2010). mend web 1.0 is getting replaced by applications in the web 2.0 era such as blogs, wikis, and collaborative projects (Kaplan Haenlein, 2009), cognitive contentedness now can be modified by all users in a participatory and collaborative manner rather than on an exclusive basis (Kaplan Haenlein, 2009 Cheung, Chiu, Lee, 2010). With the rise of the social networking sites, their popularity is gauged not only by the size of it of the user base, but overly the ability to provide users with the most crucial amount of interaction (Cheung et al., 2010).It is reported in Bausch and Han (2006) that users of the top ten social networking sites i n the U.S. had grown from 46.8 million in 2006 to 68.8 million in the following year. The growth of social media has influenced social interaction among people and contributed to a spick-and-span meaning of the interaction, where scholars sacrifice begun looking into (as cited in Lipsman, Pfeil et al., 2009).The ramification of the crude media is, as Grossman (2006) puts it, a community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. The web 2.0 a revolution is as if a new edition of somewhat old software (Grossman, 2006). Papacharissi and Rubin (2000) grow identified online empowerment of individuals linking to instrumentality, interactivity, activity, and recreate group as the causes of influence of the new web. On the other hand, Jacobs et al. (2009) attribute the speedy growth of social media to its ability to allow users to produce and share content.While the ready reference supposition has been shunned as far as conventional media is concerned, Livingstone (1999) hi ghlights the importance of audience activity in both the design and use of interactive media. In fact, the shift in media user activity has been discussed since as early as 1963, when Klapper (as cited in Chigona et al., 2008) put forth the idea that UG focuses on what people do with mass media, rather than what mass media does to people. throw together (2009) calls the UG come near a paradigm shift from traditional media research, where focus was placed on media effects (e.g., what media does to people). A review of the UG surmise can be found after this sub-chapter.2.3 Uses and gladnesss (UG) theoryThe UG theory, otherwise known as the shoots and gratifications theory (Roy, 2009, revolves around why and how people use reliable media (Lo Leung, 2009). The term gratifications was coined by psychologist Herta Herzogto in 1944 to illustrate specific dimensions of radio audiences usage satisfaction, following which mass communication theorists had pick out and adapted the conce pt to study various mass media such as TV and electronic bulletins (Luo, 2002).The UG theory is built upon the raw material assumption that audience has their own agenda and is deemed as active and goal-oriented rather than passive consumers of information (McQuail, Blumler, Brown, as cited in Katz, Blumler, Gurevitch, 1974). By assuming the audience to be active and goal-directed, the UG perspective posits that they opt for and consume certain media and content that would satisfy their psychological fill up, which explains the penury of their media use (Katz, Gurevitch, Hass, 1973 Rubin, as cited in Roy, 2009 Katz, Blumler, Gurevitch, as cited in Kim, Sohn, Choi, 2010). Such fulfillment of involve as a reference of motivation, is proposed to be affecting user gratification of media use (Sangwan, 2005).The UG theory has been follow and adapted over the years to study the use of various media ranging from the more conventional mass media to the new media and after to vi gorous technology (Stafford et al., 2004 Chigona et al., 2008 Roy, 2009 Shin, 2009 Liu et al., 2010). Although some scholars vex questioned UGs utility in studying the digital media, Ruggiero (as cited in Quan-Haase, 2012) posits the involve to seriously overwhelm the UG approach in any attempt to hypothesise on the proximo direction of mass communication theory. Besides, it is contended that whenever a new technology makes its way into the arena of mass communication, users underlying motivations and decisions to use the new communication tool could be explained by applying the UG paradigm (Elliott Rosenberg, Liu, Cheung Lee, 2010).However, in gild to effectively study and touchstone the new media by utilise the UG scales think for traditional media research, Lin (as cited in Shin, 2009) holds that a revision to the scales will be required. ordered with Lins idea is Angleman (as cited in Shin, 2009), who believes existing theories require amendments in order to take on new media studies. Application of the UG theory in various new media studies has been reviewed and an overview of those studies with their several(prenominal) motivations is presented in Table 1.Table 2.1 Overview of Prior Studies on New Media UG author and yearResearch areaMotivations identifiedJames, Wotring, Forrest (1995)Electronic bulletin poster (i.e., forums)Transmission of information and education, socialising, medium appeal, computer or other business, pleasureKorgaonkar Wolin (1999)InternetSocial escapism, transaction, privacy, information, interaction, socialization, economic motivationsPapacharissi (2002)Personal home pagesPassing time, entertainment, information, self-expression, passe-partout advancement, communication with friends and familyStafford et al. (2004)InternetProcess resources, search engines, searching, surfing, technology, web sites field education, information, knowledge, learning, researchSocial chatting, friends, interactions, peopleKo, Cho, Ro berts (2005)InternetInformation, convenience, entertainment, social-interactionDiddi LaRose (2006)Internet newsSurveillance, escapism, pass time, entertainment, habitCheung Lee (2009)Virtual comminityPurposive value, self-discovery, entertainment value, social enhancement, maintaining interpersonal interconnectivityHaridakis Hanson (2009)YouTubecommodious entertainment, convenient information seeking, co-viewing, social interactionMendes-Filho Tan (2009)User-generated contentContent information consistency, source credibility, argument quality, information framingProcess medium entertainmentSocial recommendation consistency, recommendation ratingLiu, Cheung Lee (2010) chitterContent dis nurtureation of self-documentation, disconfirmation of information sharingProcess disconfirmation of entertainment, disconfirmation of passing time, disconfirmation of self-expressionSocial disconfirmation of social interactionTechnology disconfirmation of medium appeal, disconfirmation of conve nience2.4 Media user gratificationsKatz et al. (1974) suggest research on gratifications has revolved around media- tie in necessarily that serve to satisfy media consumers at least in part who are deemed active and goal-oriented. Despite having a problem with ambiguity as far as definition is concerned, Weiss (1976) asserts that related key terms standardized uses, needs, satisfactions, gratifications, and motives are being used interchangeably across different papers and within single papers.Stafford et al. (2004) define gratifications as some facets of user-reported satisfaction. It has been found that satisfaction of user motivations is positively correlated with future internet usage (Papacharissi Rubin, 2000). Before resorting to a certain behavior of media use, historic experiences of individuals and whether or not their motivations can be satisfied by certain behaviors will be evaluated (McLeod Becker, as cited in Johnson Yang, 2008).Sangwan (2005) puts forth the id ea that gratification can be used as a proxy measure to evaluate the success or failure of a virtual community, which is standardized to that used in information systems. He proposes that gratification of media users will be affected by fulfillment of media needs that acts as a motivator. In this research, a total of 22 questions on social media use are employed as the instrument to evaluate and explain users motivations. By taking up the proposal by Sangwan (2005), the research outcome will spread abroad if users motivations have an effect on the gratifications or satisfaction of media users. Detailed information on the research instrument can be referred to in Chapter 3.2.5 Categorisations of needs and gratificationsThe UG theory proposes five categories of needs, namely cognitive, affective, personal integrative, social integrative and tension release needs (Katz et al., 1973). Over the years, researchers appropriating the UG theory to study various media have discovered a pleth ora of different needs. While some of these needs are rather consistent with one of the earliest classifications of needs by Katz et al. (1973), others are not.In a study that examines the relations between web usage and satisfaction, Luo (2002) employs three constructs drawn from previous traditional media UG research, namely informativeness, entertainment, and irritation, in order to assess how each of them affects user attitude towards the web. Research results have confirmed the said constructs were what determine users attitude towards the web. Also employs similar constructs include such researchers as Eighmey (1997), Eighmey and McCord (1998), as well as Kargaonkar and Wolin (1999).Livaditi, Vassilopoulou, Lougos, and Chorianopoulos (2003), in their interactive TV applications UG study, catogorise media needs into the two basic constructs of ritualised and instrumental. Other researchers who have choose such a classification of needs are Metzger and Flanagin, as well as Rub in (as cited in Ran, 2008), who have found that gratifications, as motivations, do demand to both ritualised and instrumental use of media.In Sangwan (2005), several types of needs have been identified to explain the motivations behind the use of virtual community platforms, such as forums functional, emotive, and contextual needs. However, it is posited that although the research sample has been assumed to be active participants of virtual communities, there are also passive participants whose latent needs have yet to be identified (Sangwan, 2005).Cutler and Danowski, as well as Stafford and Stafford (as cited in Chigona et al., 2008) divide motivations into the categories of process and content. Later, an special category known as social motivations has been identified and included (Stafford Stafford, as cited in Chigona et al., 2008). Stafford et al. (2004) describe this spare social dimension as unique to Internet use. Although found to be the weakest variable among others, social motivations serves as a vital construct in the Internet-specific UG research (Stafford et al., 2004).Chigona et al. (2008), who appropriate the motivation categories verified in Stafford et al. (2004) to study vigorous Internet UG, have confirmed the presence of all three constructs. Peters, Amato, and Hollenbeck (2007), as well as Mendes-Filho and Tan (2009) are among other researchers who have adopted the three constructs in their celebrateively studies of radio advertising and user-generated content. Also adopting the instruments is Shin (2009), who, on top of the three motivation types, has added embedded gratifications to study wireless Internet use. Besides, Liu et al. (2010) also employ the three motivations types on top of an additional technology gratification to study Twitter use.2.6 Process, content, and social motivationsThis study bases its main framework on one developed by Stafford and Stafford (as cited in Chigona et al., 2008), and later verified by Staf ford et al. (2004) the three motivation types of process, content, and social. The rationale behind this excerption has been explained in Chapter 1 under Statement of problem (p.zz). What is defined by each of the process, content, and social motivations, is illustrated in the next few paragraphs.Content gratifications from the UG theory are characterised by their relation to information content, such as reaping or store information (Stafford Stafford, as cited in Stafford et al., 2004) and place concern on messages carried by the medium (Stafford et al., 2004). Such motivations are stemmed from the use of mediated messages for the receivers intrinsic value (Cutler Danowski, as cited in Chigona et al., 2008). Content motivations take consideration into to the messages that a medium carries (Stafford et al., 2004 Stafford, 2009), which may be informative or entertaining (Stafford, 2009). Roy (2009) asserts that content is normally skewed towards entertainment and dispersion in UG studies of non-Internet media, as compared to informativeness in those of Internet.Nevertheless, certain Internet users may be cause by such usage process as random browse and site navigation (Hoffman and Danowski, as cited in Stafford et al., 2004). Process motivations are operate by the actual use of the medium per se (Cutler Danowski, as cited in Chigona et al., 2008 Stafford et al., 2004 Stafford, 2009), such as enjoyment of the process of using the Internet (Hoffman Novak, as cited in Stafford et al., 2004 Stafford, 2009). On the other hand, social motivations include such aspects as chatting, friendship, interactions, and people (Chigona et al., 2008).2.7 Social dimension and the rising encroachmentSocial contacts and interactions have shifted from offline to online realms (Boyd, as cited in Smeele, 2010) and this social dimension defines what users understand about themselves and their relation to the communities (Dyson McMillan Chavis, as cited in Jacobs et al., 2009) . Stafford et al. (2004) posit the importance of looking into the potential UG of the Internet as a social environment, as researchers may be evaluate to discover emergent social gratifications for Internet use.Research by Jacobs et al. (2009) shows a majority of the students utilise social media in a manner that resembles the social friends and family setting. Besides, Ellison, Steinfield, ande Lampe (as cited in Ross, Orr, Sisic, Arseneault, Simmering, Orr, 2009) also assert that maintenance of pre-existing social relationships has been make possible and may be stronger through online platforms. Users now turn to the Internet more frequently to socialise with people they know and expand their go of friends (Jones, as cited in Correa, Hinsley Ziga, 2010).Active participation on sites like Facebook, communication via texting and chat programmes, as well as creation of blogs have become a way of life for the new generation according to Jacobs et al. (2009). Correa et al. (2010) a re of the opinion that individuals who choose not to engage online may be limiting their ability to advance socially as it is an increasingly user-generated environment.2.8 The need to quantify social dimensionStafford et al. (2004) concede that there is contain narrate in support of the distinct social aspect to Internet use. pursuit the identification of social motivations in Stafford and Stafford (as cited in Chigona et al., 2008), researchers are trying to affirm this emerging motivation type, which eventually has been found present in studies by such researchers as Chigona et al. (2008), Haridakis and Hanson (2009), as well as Norway Brandtzg and Heim (as cited in Kim et al., 2010).Miller and Brunner (2008) hold that studies that focus specifically on the social aspect of online communicators and its theoretical foundations are lacking. For instance, although the social dimension is found present in a mobile Internet UG study by Chigona et al. (2008), the researchers merely confirm its existence without providing much elaboration into how it fares in contrast to content and process motivations the latter of which according to Aoki Downe Leung Wei Rubin Stafford Gillenson Stafford et al. (as cited in Chigona et al., 2008), are the most pronounced motivation types found on traditional Internet use. Besides, several social media studies also show that the social dimension does not live up to the medias supposedly social nature (e.g., Liu et al., 2010 Smeele, 2010 Xu, Ryan, Prybutok, Wen, 2012).2.9 Genders and UGGender differences have been identified as an all-important(prenominal) aspect in computer-related research (Gunawardena McIsaac, as cited in Kim Chang, 2007). The issue of limited women in the fields of technology and ICT remains a topic of interest for both the scientific community and decision-makers today (Sinz Lpez-Sez, 2010). Some studies have suggested that females may be more inclined to have computer disquiet and lower self-effi cacy due to the socio-cultural background of gender (Halder, Ray, Chakrabarty, 2010). Gutek and Bikson (as cited in Harrison Rainer, 1992) also see that men tend to demonstrate computer-related skills at workplace. In another instance, Wilder, Mackie, and make (as cited in Harrison Rainer, 1992) find that males show greater interest in using a computer compared to females.In more recent research, Leung (2003) finds socioeconomic status such as gender, with the exception of age, to be predictive of Internet use, and that reasoned users of the web are usually males. Although Okazaki (2006) asserts that effect of gender on mobile Internet service adoption is uncertain, married women indicate more invalidating perceptions than married men. Besides, a study on mobile phone UG by Ran (2008) reveals that males are significantly skewed towards a certain news-seeking need. Roy (2009) also discovers gender-related differences in perceived Internet use. In terms of social media UG, gen der-related differences have also been found in a slew of studies such as Sveningsson elm (2007), Joinson (2008), Jones, Millermaier, Goya-Martinez, and Schuler (2008), Thelwall (2009), as well as Thelwall, Wilkinson, and Uppal (2010).Volman, van Eck, Heemskerk, and Kuiper (2005) contend that the development of software, websites, and even teaching materials needs to have gender sensitivities taken into consideration in order to facilitate better learning among male and female pupils, who demonstrate very different preferences and attitudes towards ICT. Also in line with their idea are Halder, Ray, and Chakrabarty (2010), who suggest the importance of studying behavioral differences between people with respect to information processing and searching as such behaviors have to be more holistically understood and generalised before information retrieval systems and user support services are designed.Those are some implications of how gender differences could impact human behavior assoc iated with the acceptance of information and technologies. With gender being miss as a significant variable, studying human information behavior will remain incomplete (Nahl Harada Roy, Taylor, Chi, as cited in Halder, Ray, and Chakrabarty, 2010). It is, therefore, of the essence to find out if the influence of gender is valid in this social media UG study. If valid, which aspect of motivations is users social media experience influenced the most?

Debate on Free Will Vs Determinism

Debate on Free Will Vs DeterminismThe debate over throw in the towel lead and determinism has been going on for centuries from the time of great thinkers like doubting Thomas Hobbes and Isaac Newton and therefore these debates have been the quit of political and economic theories. Centuries back, volume adopted the notion of determinism and destiny which neer tot every last(predicate)yowed privates to think out of the box. It curb the individuals thus to their resources and their philosophy permitted them to want for more. If it was not for isolated result then a person born disabled would give up all the hopes in invigoration and would not find cure to make his life better, populations would accept oppression and ignore the fact of a revolution. Along with this, righteousness and justice could not be enforced as the judgements would be make on destiny. Although determination is deeply rooted from centuries asit dictates the life of disabled peck like Tatyana McFadden a nd luck plays its part as it did for Justin Bieber, however exonerate entrust is the ideology of modern world because it has given birth to the theory of accountability, struggle, rocky work, courage, planning, and therefore effecting norms of social responsibility and renaissance.Free allow for is making decisions ground on desires and then being accountable for the fact that whether it is a rotten or good decision. The theory of free ordain suggests that the individual makes decisions jibe to his preferences and is obligated for it, i.e. the individual is rational and is not bounded by both external factors and what he chooses is best for him. Doctor Herald Shipman portrays this theory as he first chose to be a doctor and then posterior used his profession to be a murderer. After witnessing his m early(a)s sufferings from lung disregardcer Shipman motivated himself to be a doctor. After graduating as a doctor in 1970, Shipman changed his priorities and chose to kill h is patients. He was sent to a rehab when it was tack that he is addicted to a painkiller which he used to start out from his patients prescriptions and suffered constant blackouts due to it. only, after two days he was decl argond fit and got his license reissued. After getting a second chance Shipman never changed his priorities and reverseed up killing 250 of his patients intentionally. When be guilty, Shipman was jailed where he chose to commit suicide. indeed individuals like Shipman chose what they seek atomic number 18 best for them and argon held completely responsible for it.Along with this free pull up stakes has its cons too and it can lead an individual to ignore all the limits and end up in bad acts. It all depends on the personal responsible that how he treats it. Free will can be devastating for a person as in the case of Malcolm X who indulged in larceny, drugs and whoredom before he found the purpose of his life. Malcolm X had a pissed early life, his house was burnt down. His father died when Malcolm was six years overage and his mother suffered emotional breakdown and was sent to rehab. Malcolm had to live in an orphans asylum for few years. Later he got to know gangsters, thieves, pimps and drug dealers. He end up being a drug addict and adopted burglary as means of earning some biographies compensate say that sometimes he had switch on with other men to earn m unityy. He was arrested for burglary at the age of cardinal and was imprisoned for seven years. Malcolm X is a great ideal of free will in itself however he chose activities which disintegrated his life.Furthermore free will impacts the decision making power of an individual as it governs ones aptitude to struggle, recognize their abilities and ponder over how to make use of them. It empowers one to motivate them and not give up in life. For example Oprah Winfrey had to construction harsh realities very early in her life except she never thought of giving up and ended up being an inspirational figure for women all over the world. Winfrey suffered from sexual harassment in her puerility and all the tensions forced her to run from her house in her teen age. However she chose a better life for herself and with her free will and spirit she make decisions which helped her improving her life. Her willpower can be seen from the fact that after such a disappointing childhood Oprah never gave up and sought dash in education winning scholarship at a university. She recognized her abilities as a motivational speaker and joined a piano tuner station at the age of seventeen and later she hosted The Oprah Winfrey show and became the voice of thousands of people. This reflects that her passion and commitment with her work and will to not give up made her one of the most influential personalities in the world.On the contrary, the concept of predestined has a major part as some characteristics are determined by birth and they structure ones future, i.e. whe ther that individual gives up or fight inviolable against the odds. Tatyana McFadden is a great example of the later as she was born with a paralyzed lower part of body but still ended up being meretricious medallist in Paralympics. When her mother got to know of her daughters constipation she abandoned her and McFadden lived in an orphanage for six years. McFadden however was optimistic and had to passing play on her hands because she was not able to afford a wheelchair. She never got discouraged by her illness and after her adoption she took part in numerous sports like gymnastics and wheelchair basketball. At the age of eight she win two medals in Athens and since then McFadden hasnt wait oned back and went on going to win sixteen medals, including nine gold medals in her career. Hence it can be implicated that free will is the answer to vault set by what is determined at the start of ones life and how that individual wants to go along the life.Along with this destiny det ermines supremacy for some and over shadow the free will, the very pattern worked for Justin Bieber as his career began through cyber fame. Destiny determined Justin Bieber to be where he is today, it casted by his free will. Biebers career started when he uploaded his music videos on You tube-shaped structure to show his friends and family. He was lucky when Ushers agency contacted him and signed him up for Hollywood. Its destiny that can change peoples lives in seconds and can ruin it at the same time. There are so many talented people who upload videos on You Tube but all do not have the luck to be famous.Free will does not only direct the life of an individual but thrives the triumph of many great nations and team ups. From all the success stories of independence, fights, revolutions and renaissance it can be seen that it is the will of the people constituting that notion and uniting themselves to bring success. Manchester United is a living model of such teams who combat w hat is determined for them. On the one-sixth of February 1958, Uniteds squad was returning to The UK when their plane crashed at Munich airdrome after it was refuelled and out of forty four passengers, twenty one died promptly and many of the team pieces died later. Nonetheless, United never gave up and the depleted team went on Semi Finals of the European cup the same year. The staff and players unitedly supported each other and were eager to regain their status as champions. This willingness to succeed and not to give up resulted in United decorous the English Champions nineteen times and the European Champions thrice since then. This verifies that free will can lead to hard work and can overturn the routes primed(p) by what is predestined and of that what is to come in future.Free will and determinism are two concepts which are very much different from each other but also related at the same time. Stephen Hawking, an active member at Cambridge University is quoted as saying I have noticed even people who claim everything is predestined, and that we can do nothing to change it, look before they cross the road. Apart from this, success stories of Winfrey, McFadden and Manchester United reflect how individuals are masters of their own ships and they never let the circumstances, determinism or destiny borrow over them. These people choose their own destiny and outcomes. It is true that determinism exists but if the concept of free will is eliminated then the models of social responsibility, accountability, law and justice, morality, hard work and planning will all fail and life will have no meaning. Therefore it can be concluded that free will navigates the life of individuals as it allows them to tress pass determinism.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Effect Of Work Stress In Maruti Suzuki Commerce Essay

Effect Of tame accentuate In Maruti Suzuki Commerce sampleIntroduction to Maruti Suzuki Ltd. Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. is a leading manufacturer automobile comp any(prenominal) in India. It was established in December 1983 with the mission to motorise India. Maruti was Collaboration familiarity between Suzuki moves Corporation, Japan and G all overnment of India. Maruti is one of the largest compact car manufacturing companies in the world so till 2012. In damage of production, Maruti is the largest subsidiary of Suzuki Motor Corporation and the company has produced over 15 million vehicles since the roll bulge out of its first vehicle on 14th December, 1983. In the practice session sector, Maruti has more than than 75000 employees and its manufacturing facilities atomic number 18 located at two locations in India in Gurgaon and Manesae, both south of New Delhi. Maruti Suzuki is the only Indian company to cross the 10 million sales mark since its origin. In 2011-12, the comp any sold over 1.13 million vehicles including 1, 27,379 units of exports.(Marutisuzuki 2012)Marutis PhilosophyMarutis delectations its Green Philosophy in the stems of Three Rs Reduce, recycle and Reuse policy in its plants, so that there is a marginal form on natural resources. The company has launched a number of initiatives chthonian its Three Rs umbrella to sterilize the plants more efficient in terms of resource usage. It is likewise certified with ISO 140011996 for its Environment vigilance System course of study and uses the principle of Smaller, fewer lighter, shorter and neater for its operations.Problems in Maruti CompanyAccording to playacters who atomic number 18 engaged at Maruti Suzuki, highly nerve-racking working(a) hours sp rest a penny been a study(ip) concern for the dialect of the employees who ar working in the Maruti Suzuki. According to the workers, the melodic phraseful working hours leads the works to prolonged impasse. Excessive of work lo ad and close time heed is the major cause of the sieve for the workers. There ar several groundss for the cause of the work focusing for the employees. In the several reasons the major seven reasons for the work stress are,(Cherry 2012, Sengupta 2012)7 Reason for Work StressDifferences in salary payNo borderJob jeopardyLack of promotion prospectsUnder-promotion or over-promotionUnclear or inequit adequate to(p) charactering evaluation systemsBeing over-skilled or under-skilled for the clienteleDifferences in Salary profitThe first reason for the work stress for the employees is mainly due to the dissimilarity in the salary pay. Mostly roughly 70% of the employees are digest based employees and they paid very little(prenominal) salary when compared to the different workers who are working in the same grade as conformed workers.No allowanceSince most of the employees are thin out based employees the company has not post them with any allowance. Hence they didnt get any allowance from the government as well from the company.Job in guarantorAs signalize based employment there is no security for the employees for their mull. They pile be fired at any moment. This is also a reason for the employees for their stress.Lack of promotion prospectsAs a take on based employee, there is no promotion prospects for them. Employees subscribe to to do the work what the work is assigned for them. This is also a reason for the employees for their stress.Under-promotion or over-promotionSince there is no prim evaluation system or performance appraisal system for the promotion, Employees are promoted in a pedestal of their influence to the managers. This leads to other workers for the stress in their working.Unclear or unfair performance evaluation systemsAs said before there is no proper evaluation system for the performance. And this leads to unclear promotion to the employees. So it leads to stress for the workers.Being over-skilled or under-skilled for the jobAs most of the employees are contract based employees, and indeed the position what they are working cosmos an extraneous position. For drill an employee who Mechanical Engineering and working in the finance department. So most of the employees are being like under skilled or over skilled for the jobs, so this also leads to stress for the employees in their working.(Sengupta 2012)Maslows pecking order of NeedsMaslows power structure of ineluctably is a theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper A Theory of Human Motivation in the class 1943. Maslow mainly used the terms like physiological reads, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem and egotism Actualization inevitably to describe his human motivation theory.http// flip/6/60/Maslow%27s_power structure_of_Needs.svg/450px-Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg.pngHierarchyMaslows power structure of necessitate can be explained with the help of a pyramid. The most rudimentary level of unavoidably is undertake at the bottom and at the top call for for self-actualization. Maslow explains the pyramid with quadruple layers and he called them as Deficiency needs or D-Needs. The four layers are Esteem, Friendship and love, Security and Physical needs. He also explains that the most fundamental needs whitethorn not be the physical needs. Maslow also use the term Meta motivation in order to motivate the people. He also explains that human mind have the ability for parallel processing and and then by motivating the people also they can get to their hierarchal needs. Thus Maslow acknowledged the likelihood that the different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he centre on identifying the rudimentary types of motivation and the order in which they should be met.(Cherry 2012)Physiological needsPhysiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If any of these requirements ate not obtained then the human m ind wont function properly and this leads to ultimate failure. Therefore food, shelter, love and respect are both(prenominal) of the fundamental physiological needs that a human normally expects to be with him.(Cherry 2012)Safety needsThe safety needs in the sense job security, punch environment, procedures for protecting the individual from uni subsequentlyal authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, presumable disability accommodations, etc..(Cherry 2012)Safety and Security needs includePersonal securityFinancial securityHealth and well-beingSafety net against accidents/ distemper and their adverse impactsLove and belongAfter physiological and safety needs the next basic need for a human is the love and belongings. This need is especially strong in childhood and this can be obtained by friendship, family and others love towards him. Maslow explains that humans need to feel a sense of belonging that they are accepted in their cordial group. For example small social grou p like family in which they are being accepted and they are treasure in the group.(Cherry 2012)EsteemAll humans have a need have a feel that they need to be recognised in the society and they need to have their own respect. The fame or triumph will not help anyone to get their respect they need to have their own self-esteem in order to be respected. Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of humans had strict guidelines, the hierarchies are coordinated quite than sharply separated. This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated quite, the levels are closely related.(Cherry 2012)Self-actualizationWhat a man can be, he must be. This quotation explains the need for self-actualization. Maslow explains that everyone should have their own self-actualization in order to become the most that one can be. For example women may think that she needs to be the best mother for her children than any other mother. In understand this level of need, the person must needs to achieve the previous needs and also should be master in them.(Cherry 2012)Self-transcendenceSelf-transcendence refers to when a person seeks to further the boundaries of their ideal self, to experience an intimacy beyond ones self. Cloninger later incorporated self-transcendence as a spiritual dimension of personality in the Temperament and Character Inventory.(Cherry 2012)F. W. Taylors scientific Management TheoryF. W. Taylor was an American automatonlike engineer completed his degree in Mechanical Engineering from Stevens base of Technology in 1883. He is well known as the perplex of scientific management.Taylors Contribution to Scientific ManagementF.W. Taylor has written the famous obtain called Principles of Scientific Management in which he mainly imposes tierce principles, they areFirst To explain through unanalyzable illustration.Second To convince the subscriber through systematic management, rather than explaining some unusual contents.Third To put forward that the management skills are true science.And also he explains that the fundamental principles of scientific management which can be applied for all human activities. For example a simple co-operation between the individuals in the company can set up the production value of the business. And also he convince the readers be simple illustration by correctly applying all his principles.(Taylor 1911)Taylor has defined scientific management as followsScientific management is concerned with knowing exactly what you desire men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way.(Taylor 1911)Principles of Scientific ManagementThe principles of Scientific Management are1. alternate rule of thumb with science.2. Obtaining harmony in group action rather than discord.3. Co-operation rather than chaotic individualism.4. Increase in production and productivity instead of restricted production.5. Development of workers by providing training.Result of Work Stres sAs a result of the work stress two major riddles occurred in the Maruti.Low ProductionNo Co-operation between the employer and employeeLow Productionimputable to work stress for the employees, their hundred percent inputs for the work were not able to obtain and as a result it leads to less production. Most of the manufacturing line workers had overmuch stressful work continuously and they are not paid for their work they intently produced less production. As these are the reasons for the less production.No Co-operation between the employer and employeeDue to the improper management there was no proper co-operation between the employers and the employees. As the company has not followed any hierarchy structure and most of the employees are contract based employees there was no proper human relationship between the employer and the employees. This is also a reason for less production. There two are the major cause as a result of the work stress for the employees in the Maruti Su zuki.Basic Need of the WorkersBy studying the two major theories, Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management we can suggest some solutions for the problems of the employees in the Maruti Suzuki. According to the two theories basic needs for the employees are (Taylor 1911, Cherry 2012)Permanent Job good Work TimingPromotion deportation FacilitiesPermanent jobAs about 70% of the employees in the Maruti Suzuki are contract based employees and they dont have the job security is also one of the reasons for the work stress for the employees. And the work stress leads to less production for the company. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs when we provide the employees with the basic needs of what they need they fell secure for working for the company. They get propel automatically and they fell much secure and automatically depress the work stress. As a result of less work stress, the employees may fall their much effort for the production and therefore the production can be change magnitude considerably.Proper Work timeSince most of the employees are contract based employees and hence they dont have the proper work clock schedule. And so it leads them to work for more hours. This is also a reason for the work stress for the employees. According to the Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management providing the employees with their basic needs and establish them esteem will increase the confidence level for the employees. As a result of the providing proper work time their stress for the working hours will centralize and hence the production can be increase considerably.PromotionAs most of the employees in the company are contract based employees and they dont have the promotion prospective. Since working continuously, without any promotion, or motivator makes many employees to feel stress about their work. According to Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management if we make the employees to feel much secure about the work what they do and provide the employees with the hierarchy for the promotion will make them to feel much secure and their work stress will be reduced considerably. And hence the production will be increased automatically.Transport FacilitiesSince most of the large scale sector industries are located at hostile locations, transport facilities to the company being a very Gordian issues for many employees in the company. According to Maslows theory, proving the employees with their need many reduce the stress for the employee and as a result the production can be increased considerably. So providing transport facilities from the employees from the company to the city center during the gaucherie end and the beginning may reduce the complexity for the transportation to the employees.ImplementationBy studying the theories of Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management and the problems of the Maruti Suzuki, we can carry out some solutions for the problems of the Maruti Suzuki based on the two theories.(Taylor. 2007, Taylor 1911, Cherry 2012)Implement Hierarchy structure for promotion and work allocation.As there was no proper management structure for the company for the promotion and other perspectives if we implement the Maslows hierarchy structure for the employment as the low level workers being in the bottom followed by the supervisors and managers and in the top level there being the management. By implementing Maslows hierarchy structure, the work load can be allocated and hence each worker will equal amount of works.Implement Proper Work Timing with three different shifts.According to Maslows hierarchy of needs providing the employees with their basic physiological needs the workers will fell much secure to work in the company. According to the theory implementing proper work timing with three different shifts which may reduce the workers to work for ling hours and hence their basic physiological nee ds get satisfied and the employees feel much secure in working for the company.Provide bus services in line with shift timingsAccording to Maslows theory, providing the employees with their physiological needs may reduce the stress of the employees, According to which providing bus services to the employees in line with shift timing may reduce the stress in transportation to the employees. As most of the large scale industries are located in remote locations, so transportation being one of the major stressful tasks for the employees to make in time for the companies. By providing bus services may reduce their stress in transportation.Create a labor welfare commissioning to promote good relations between the management and the workersAccording to F. W. Taylors Scientific Management providing proper training to the employer and employees can create a three sixty degree relationship between them. According to Taylors theory creating a labour welfare committee provide a good relationsh ip between the management and workers.ConclusionAfter studying the problems of the Maruti Suzuki and the theories of Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management the problems of the Maruti Suzuki have been solved by implementing the solutions to the problem from the theories of Maslows hierarchy of needs and F. W. Taylors Scientific Management. The major problem of the employees being the work stress have been solved by the Maslows hierarchal theory and the major problem for the management being the less production which have been solved by implementing F. W. Taylors Scientific Management theory.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Comparison of Stroke Rehabilitation Guidelines

proportion of guesswork replenishment road maps snapshot is pick outed to be the deuce-ace cause of remnant and dis susceptibility for millions of people in developed countries (1). calamity is the clinical presentation of a wide range of pathologies, with different etiologies and prognoses, and tholeion(predicate) risk factors. Stroke is defined as a syndrome characterized by rapidly developing clinical symptoms and/or signs of focal want of rational amour, in which symptoms last more than 24 hours or lead to death, with no app atomic number 18nt cause otherwise than that it is a vascular origin. Stroke victims who survive the first attack may discombobulate dogging impairments much(prenominal) as cognitive impairments, upper and repel off limb impairments and terminology disabilities. The join Kingdoms prevalence of gibe in the race is estimated to be 47 per 10000 making touch the approximately jet cause of adult material disability (1 2 3). In the U nited State the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) estimated that 15000 veterans be in hospitals with a diagnosis of guesswork both year (4).Stroke reformation is a chief(prenominal) factor in helping injection survivors to regain their operable ability when health check and surgical interventions atomic number 18 limited (5). visible therapy plays a major role in fortuity replacement. Physical healers choose the duration and lawsuit of therapy wedded and provide development for thump perseverings. Stroke replenishment aims at giving the endurings the ability to regain maximum and full potential in running(a) activities and restoration of motor control (6 7 8 5). tercet chief(prenominal) factors in reformation contribute to the speed and quality of recovery. These factors are give-and-take session duration and frequency, slip of manipulation nestle apply for rehabilitation, and providing education intimately the condition for patients during and after(prenominal) therapy (2 3 7 8 9).Physical therapy rehabilitation for thump patients is designed to impact the disabilities and impairments associated with post shock conditions. replacement is mainly aimed at limiting any deterioration of impairments and maximizing the practicable level for patients suffering from cam stroking. To be able to deliver this, corporal therapists should conjoin a current set of guidelines which impart insure disclose way outs and avoid unnecessary radiation diagrams that could prolong and delay optimum gain of function (6 7).It is unclear whether natural therapists in capital of Kuwait go with any detail guidelines in fortuity rehabilitation. therefore, it would be plausible to learn more most current local rehabilitation procedures. This may help in the advertise development of local rehabilitation procedures and practice guidelines, optimization of give-and-take and rehabilitation management, profit in guess patients health and quality of life, and minimization of conflicted rehabilitation practices that prolong therapy which in turn affect and burden the health scheme with increased number of patients (6 8 10 11). We hypothesize that somatogenetic therapist in Kuwait rehabilitation do not exist blastoff rehabilitation guidelines and science based practices in stroke rehabilitation. Therefore the aims of this t each(prenominal) are toExplore if stroke rehabilitation in Kuwait follow general guidelines of stroke rehabilitation regarding frequency of interference sessions and duration of each session.Investigate if physical therapists specializing in the field of neuroscience in Kuwait follow general guidelines of stroke rehabilitation regarding their treatment approaches.Identify if education is cosmos provided for stroke patients about their condition during and after rehabilitation.Literature ReviewStroke is defined as a syndrome in which clinical symptoms and/or signs of cerebral function loss develop rapidly, and last for more than 24 hours or result in death. Stroke can be classified concord to the cause, which is either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes account for 85% of all(prenominal) strokes, while 15% account for hemorrhagic strokes. Over 10% of patients who had a first stroke leave have a second ane at bottom a year, and the risk of recurrence within 5 days is 15-42% (1).There are a wide range of conditions that lead to stroke, such as hypertension and diabetes. Each year, 5.45 million deaths are attributed to stroke, and over 9 million survive. Survivors often experience a wide range of persisting impairments. Common impairments include Physical disability, cognitive impairment, Lower limb impairments, and speech difficulties (1).Rehabilitation is an important part after survival from a stroke. Rehabilitation was defined in the unseas hotshotd Zealand guideline for management of stroke as a problem- lick and educational puzzle out aimed at reduc ing the disability and h sleeve experienced by some hotshot as a result of distemper, eer within the limitations imposed by both available resources and the underlying disease (12). Its of utmost importance that the stroke patient understands, and receives education concerning his/her condition and what limitations may persist, even after rehabilitation (12).Reker D. M. et al, look intoed whether adherence to post stroke guidelines was associated with greater patient satisfaction. They utilize a prospective inception age bracket analyze design for new stroke admissions, including post-acute care, and they made follow-up interviews at 6 months after the stroke injury. cardinal hundred and eighty eight patients were include in the try, from eleven Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs). The main outcome measures use in this depicted object were 1) compliance with the Agency for Healthcare Research and role (AHRQ), 2) patient satisfaction with care provided, and 3) stroke -specific instruments. Results have shown that, for every 10% share increase in guidelines compliance, the average value of patient satisfaction increases by 1.5 points for the mean boilers suit satisfaction score, which ranges from 4 to 39, and includes items for hospital satisfaction, home satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. The field of field of battle concluded that compliance to AHRQ guidelines is significantly associated with patient satisfaction (7). some(prenominal) comparisons amongst Stroke Rehabilitation Protocols/ guidelines have been per organise. This is beneficial in establishing the stovepipe treatment, with regards to dosing, intensity, duration, as well as efficiency and force of interventions. A memorise by McNaughton H, et al see to itd the practice and outcomes of stroke rehabilitation surrounded by New Zealand and the United States facilities. This study apply a Prospective observational cohort design and included 1161 participants from half a d ozen United States (U.S.) Rehabilitation facilities and 130 participants from integrity New Zealand rehabilitation facility, all above the age of 18 years. In this study, New Zealand patients were older than the United States patients. However, the severity of initial stroke was higher(prenominal) for the U.S. patients. Despite that fact, patients in the U.S. were discharged earlier. They similarly had more intensive therapy, represented in higher durations worn out(p) with physical therapy and occupational therapy professionals. Also, U.S therapists endureed to spend less(prenominal) clipping on assessment and non- functional activities, while condenseing more on active management of patients. Results showed that, U.S. participants had better outcomes represented by changes in utilitarian Independence Measure FIM scores and fewer discharges to institutional care (13.2% vs. 21.5%). This study illustrates that duration and intensity of therapy can be adjusted to gain a better outcome. Also, it is important to know which activities are being done in the treatment session, and find out if they contribute to a better outcome of rehabilitation (10).Horn et al. investigated the effect of specific rehabilitation therapies in stroke rehabilitation on outcomes, taking into account the differences between patients. In this study, they cute to examine the associations between patient characteristics, rehabilitation therapies, neurotropic medication, nutritional support, and succession of starting therapy with functional outcomes and discharge destination for stroke inpatients. Discharge total, motor, and cognitive FIM (functional independence measure) scores and discharge destinations were registered for 830 patients with moderate or severe strokes from quintette U.S. inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Results showed that earlier initiation of rehabilitation, time spent in higher-level rehabilitation activities, such as upper-extremity control, gait and pro blem solving, usage of newer psychiatrical medications, and gastric feeding, were all associated with better outcomes. The study to a fault illustrated that a material body of Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Language Pathology activities were correlated with higher or lower FIM scores. On one hand, more minutes spent per day on PT gait activities, OT upper-extremity control activities and home management, and SLP problem solving activities were associated significantly with higher FIM scores. On the other hand, more minutes spent per day on PT bed mobility and sitting, OT bed mobility, and SLP auditory cognizance and orientation were consistently associated with lower FIM scores (11).One study depict Physical Therapy intervention for stroke patients in inpatient facilities within the U.S. (13). six rehabilitation facilities in the U.S. included 972 subjects with stroke injury. Variables studied were time spent in therapy, and content and activities that were u sed in rehabilitation. The mean duration of stop consonant in the inpatient facilities was 18.7 days, and current PT was on an average of 13.6 days. uncomplaining spent 57.15 minutes on average for Physical therapy treatment every day. Activities of gait, transferring, and pre-functional activities, which include strengthening exercises, balance training, and motor learning, were the most performed interventions. Also, therapists included activities that incorporated different functions into one functional activity. This study implicated that a focus of physical therapist when providing treatment is optimizing functional activities, as they were the most betray activities performed. However, activities to remediate impairments and to compensate for lost functions were also included in the treatment sessions (13).Brocklehurst et al. investigated the use of physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy for patients suffering from stroke, as they mentioned that those i nterventions formed the basis of stroke rehabilitation. The study included 135 stroke patients from cardinal general and one geriatric hospital, in South Manchester. Of the 135 subjects, 107 received PT, 35 received OT, and 19 received speech therapy. Results were arriveed after standard the rate of change in function over a one year period. Patients, who had more severe disabilities, and the worst prognosis, were more likely to get physical therapy treatment. Factors that determine type and specificity of physical therapy to stroke rehabilitation were also examined. Some of the factors were extent of disability, and disability-associated morbidities, such as fecal incontinence, spasticity, sensory loss and dysphasia. Even though the most disabled received the most physical therapy treatment, they showed the least improvement in function even after six months of therapy. This study also concluded that patients, whose progress was poorest, received more physical therapy (5).Hsiu-C hen Huang et al. investigated the impact of timing and dose of rehabilitation delivery on the functional recovery of patients suffering from stroke. In this study, a retrospective review of medical charts was done for 76 patients who were admitted to a regional hospital for a first-ever stroke. Patients had multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs, including PT, OT, and a continuous rehabilitation for at least three months. The main outcome measure for this study was the Barthel index, taken at initial assessment, one month, three months, six months and one year after stroke. Results of this study showed that thither is a dose-dependent effect of rehabilitation on functional outcome improvements of stroke patients. Also, earlier delivery of rehabilitation is associated with perpetual effects on functional recovery up to one year post-stroke (14).It is unclear whether physical therapists follow evidence based practice many countries of the world including Kuwait. There is no doubt the era of evidence based practice is upon us for many reasons including better treatment outcomes, patient satisfaction, reimbursement amongst others. In one play along study, conducted by Iles and Davidson, examination of physical therapists current practice in Australia was undertaken. This study base that there are several barriers in the way of evidence-based practice. Those barriers included time to stay up to date, access to journals, access to summaries of evidence that are abstemious to understand, and lack of personal skills in looking for and evaluating research evidence (15).Salbach et al. examined the determinants of research use in clinical determination making among physical therapists treating post-stroke patients. Two hundred and sixty three physical therapists from the kingdom of Ontario, Canada, responded to a survey questionnaire, containing items for evaluating practitioner and organizational characteristics and perception of research believed to be influen cing evidence-based practice. The survey also contained the frequency of using research evidence in clinical conclusiveness making in a typical month. Results showed that, scarce a beautiful percentage of therapists (13.33%) reported using research in clinical conclusion making six times a month or more. However, most therapists (52.9%) reported using research 2-5 times a month, while 33.8% used research 0-1 time per month. In this study, research use was associated with the academic expression in the principles of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), research participation, service as a clinical instructor, being self-effective in implementing EBP, attitude towards research, perceived organizational support of research use, and access to bibliographic databases at work. This study concluded that a third of therapists rarely apply research evidence in clinical decision making. Suggested interventions to promote research use included education in the principles of EBP, EBP self-effica cy, having a positive attitude towards research, and involvement in research (8).A study by Ogiwara, made a comparison between the bases of treatment between Japanese physical therapists, and Swedish therapists. They investigated the reasons why the Japanese choose certain approaches of treatment when handling stroke patients, and then compared the results with those of Swedish therapists. Swedish therapists attributed their weft of treatment to hands-on experience and participation in practical courses, in which various techniques are taught. Bobaths approach was the only method that was commonly continue to be used after graduation in both countries. Results have illustrated that Swedish therapists were more interested in new methods of treatment (91%), whereas only 77% of Japanese therapists had an interest. Implication of their results might mean that Japanese therapists are interested in their treatment approach, and also show that introducing new approaches of treatments take s a longer time in comparison to Sweden. Additionally, Swedish therapists tend to mother a combination of treatment approaches, while Japanese physical therapists tend to follow only one particular approach. Several reasons were speculated for addressing the differences in treatment protocols, some of which were 1) diversity of cultures, 2) diversity of health the care system, 3) availability of equipment and musculus quadriceps femoris contained to follow a certain new approach, 4) belief of efficacy of a certain approach and 5) the language barrier imposed on Japanese therapist, and availability of translated literature. This study showed that there are several barriers and differences encountered when the need of application of new approaches is craved (9).Wachters-Kaufmann et al. conducted a study regarding the conferring of nurture for stroke patients and phencyclidine hydrochlorides. Their study investigated how teaching was provided to patients and caregivers and how th ey actually preferred to be informed. The actual and desire information correspond in terms of content, frequency, and method of presentations well as the actual and desired information. The study was done in the North of the Netherlands and the stroke unit of University hospital Groningen. The General practitioners (GP) distributed a guide from a community-based study of cognitive disorders and quality of life (CognitiVA) after a stroke. The guide was given three months after the stroke. For the final measurement of the study, which was 12 months later, the patients and caregivers participated in a telephone survey, which asked about three things 1) professional stroke-care providers, 2) other sources of information, 3) the guide. Fifty one patients and 38 caregivers were contacted, of which 18 patients and 11 caregivers declined to be interviewed for various reasons. The results showed that the GPs, neurologist, and physical therapists were both the actual and desired information providers. As for the content, the actual content was the guide, whereas the desired was mostly medical information concerning the course of the disease, its cause, consequences, and treatment. Regarding the frequency, the actual and desired was within 24 hours of the stroke, and one day to two weeks later, and after two weeks. As for the method of presentation of information, the patients and caregivers mostly desired only verbal (73% patients, 89% caregivers) (16).MethodsThis comparative design research project volition compare the stroke rehabilitation program implemented in Kuwait with the established guidelines for stroke rehabilitation in the United States of America. The rehabilitation program stroke patients are receiving in Kuwaits Ministry of Health hospitals, specifically, Al-Jahra, Mubarak, Farwanya, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Al-Sabah hospitals get out be investigated. Subjects of the study go out be physical therapists practicing in the stroke rehabi litation field. We will provide physical therapists experienced in stroke rehabilitation with self-administered questionnaires, which will be collected after one week. We will also examine patient records over a three week period. To access the records, we will get permission from the head of the physical therapy department of each hospital as well as each hospitals director. Institutional Review maturate (IRB) approval will be obtained prior to any data collection. favorable reception from the Ministry of Healths IRB will be obtained as well as approval from Kuwait University. Data will then be compared with the established American Stroke Guidelines. All data gathered during the study will be unploughed under lock and key. Any identifiable information obtained from patient files and records will only be accessible to the primary investigator. No identifiable information will be used for publication conceptions. Confidentiality will be ascertain throughout the study duration.S ubjectsThe subjects of this study will be physical therapists running(a) in Kuwaits Ministry of Health hospitals neurology department and with experience in out-patient stroke rehabilitation.ToolsTo investigate the frequency and duration of treatment, we will look into the records, which are the patients files. There is also a section in the questionnaire that will ask about the frequency and duration of sessions.As for finding out the treatment approach patients are receiving, a self-administered questionnaire will be distributed at selected MOH hospitals, specifically at Al-Jahra, Mubarak, Farwanya, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Al-Sabah hospitals. Therapists will be given the questionnaire to fill out. In order to evaluate the type of education given to patients, educational guides, or pamphlets, about the patients condition available at the hospital and distributed to patients will be looked at. The questionnaire will also ask about different patient education techn iques used by the participants.For comparison of data, we will compare the data we obtain with the American Stroke Association guidelines.QuestionnaireThe questionnaire will consist of several questions used in the Ogiwara (9) questionnaire as well as others pertinent to our study population. The questionnaire will consist of four partsdemographic informationquestions concerning the therapists professional account statement and experienceQuestions concerning the rehabilitation program treatment approach, and frequency and duration of sessions.questions concerning the types of education techniquesEach questionnaire will have a cover letter explaining the purpose of the study, and a consent form.Data AnalysisThe data will be analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) (v. 17.0) to describe means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages. one time the data is analyzed, we will compare the data we collected with the general guidelines and treatment approaches in the literature.Expected Outcomes and RecommendationsOur expectation for this study is that physical therapists in the state of Kuwait will not be following the American stroke rehabilitation guidelines. Due to cultural differences between the two countries, establishing new guidelines for the stroke rehabilitation in Kuwait might be necessary, addressing the nature of referral to physical therapy in Kuwait, and making recommendations for increasing treatment duration if needed. Also, it should be mentioned what type of special equipment might be used in the process of rehabilitation.Referencesrudd A, Olfe C.W. (2002, Feb). Aetiology and pathology of stroke. Vol. 9, pg 32-36.Hafsteinsdottir T.B, Vergunst M, Lindeman E, Schuurmans M. (2010, 29 July). Educational needs of patients with a stroke and their caregivers A systematic review of the literature. T, McKenna K, Herd C, Wearing S. Written stroke materials for stroke patients and their c areers perspectives and practices of health professionals. Top Stroke Rehabil 200714(1)88-97Duncan P, Zorowitz R, Bates B, Choi J, Glasberg J, Graham G, Katz R, Lamberty K, Reker D. Management of bounteous Stroke Rehabilitation Care A Clinical Practice Guideline. (Stroke. 2005 36e100-e143.)Brocklehurst J.C, Andrews K, Richards B, Laycock P. J. (1978, 20 MAY). How much physical therapy for patients with stroke? Vol. 1, 1307- 1310. British Medical journal.Kollen, B, Kwakkel G, Lindeman E. (2006, 11 July). Functional convalescence after Stroke A Review of reliable Developments in Stroke Rehabilitation Research. Vol.1, No.1, 75-80.Reker D.M, Duncan P. W, Horner R.D, Hoenig H, Samsa G.P, Hamilton B, Dudley T.K.(2002, June) Post acute Stroke Guideline Compliance Is Associated With Greater Patient Satisfaction. Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol. 83, pg 750-756.Salbach N, Guilcher S, Jaglal S, Davis A. (2010) Determinants of research use in clinical decision making among physical therapists pro viding services post-stroke a cross-section(a) study. http// S. (1997) Physical therapy in stroke rehabilitation A comparison of bases for treatment between Japan and Sweden.vol.9 Pg. 63-69, daybook of physical therapy sciences.McNaughton H, DeJong G, Smout J, Melvin L, Brandstater M. (2005, Dec) A Comparison of Stroke Rehabilitation Practice and Outcomes between New Zealand and United States Facilities. Vol. 86, suppl.2, Arch Phys Med Rehabil.Horn D, DeJong G. Smout J, Gassaway J, James R, Conroy B. (2005, Dec) Stroke Rehabilitation Patients, Practice, and Outcomes Is Earlier and More Aggressive Therapy Better? Vol. 86, pg. 101-114, suppl. 2, Arch Phys Med Rehabil.Life after stroke New Zealand guideline for management of stroke (November 2003).Jette D.U, Latham N.K, Smout R.J, Gassaway J, Slavin M.D, Horn S.D (2005, March) Physical Therapy Interventions for Patients with Stroke in Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities. Vol. 85, num. 3, pg. 238-248, physical therapy.Huang H, Chung K, Lai D, Sung S. The adjoin of Timing and Dose of Rehabilitation Delivery on Functional Recovery of Stroke Patients (J Chin Med Assoc May 2009 , Vol 72, No 5)Iles R, Davidson M. Evidence based practice a survey ofphysiotherapists current practice. Physical therapy. Res. Int. 11(2) 93-103 (2006)Watchers-Kaufmann C, Schuling J, The H, Jong B. Actual and desired information provision after a stroke. Patient Education and Counseling 56 (2005) 211-217AppendicesAppendix 1American Stroke Association GuidelinesE. Patient and Family/ health care provider EducationBackgroundThe patient and family/caregivers should be given information and provided with an chance to learn about the causes and consequences of stroke, potential complications, and the goals, process, and prognosis of rehabilitation.RecommendationsRecommend that patient and family/caregiver education be provided in an interactive and written format.Recommend that clinicians consi der identifying a specific group member to be responsible for providing information to the patient and family/caregiver about the nature of the stroke, stroke management rehabilitation and outcome expectations, and their roles in the rehabilitation process.Recognize that the family conference is a utile means of information dissemination.Recommend that patient and family education be documented in the patients medical record to prevent the occurrence of duplicate or conflicting information from different disciplines.N. Educate Patient/Family, Reach shared out Decision about Rehabilitation Program, and Determine Treatment Plan impersonalensure the understanding of common goals among staff, family, and caregivers in the stroke rehabilitation process and, therefore, optimize the patients functional recovery and community reintegration.RecommendationsRecommend that the clinical team and family/caregiver reach a shared decision about the rehabilitation program.The clinical team shoul d propose the preferred surroundings for rehabilitation and treatments on the basis of expectations for recovery.Describe to the patient and family the treatment options, including the rehabilitation and recovery process, prognosis, estimated distance of stay, frequency of therapy, and discharge criteria.The patient, family, caregiver, and rehabilitation team should determine the optimal environment for rehabilitation and preferred treatment.Recommend that the rehabilitation program be manoeuver by specific goals developed in consensus with the patient, family, and rehabilitation team.Recommend that the patients family/caregiver participate in the rehabilitation sessions and be trained to assist patient with functional activities, when needed.Recommend that patient and caregiver education be provided in an interactive and written format. Provide the patient and family with an information packet that may include printed material on subjects such as the resumption of driving, patie nt rights/responsibilities, support group information, and audiovisual programs on stroke.Recommend that the detailed treatment plan be documented in the patients record to provide combine rehabilitation care.Intensity of TherapyThe heterogeneity of the studies in all aspects-patients, designs, treatments, comparisons, outcome measures, and results-combined with the borderline results in many of the trials limits the specificity and strength of any conclusions that can be draw from them. Overall, the trials support the general concept that rehabilitation can improve functional outcomes, particularly in patients with lesser degrees of impairment. Weak evidence exists for a dose-response consanguinity between the intensity of the rehabilitation intervention and the functional outcomes. However, the lack of rendering of lower thresholds, below which the intervention is useless, and upper thresholds, above which the marginal improvement is minimal, for any treatment, makes it impos sible to generate specific guidelines.Partridge et al did not find any differences in functional and psychological scores at 6 weeks in 104 patients randomized between a standard of 30 and 60 minutes of physical therapy.Kwakkel et al randomized 101 middle-cerebral-artery stroke patients with arm and leg impairment to additional arm training emphasis, leg training emphasis, or arm and leg immobilization, each treatment lasting 30 minutes, 5 days a week, for 20 weeks. At 20 weeks the leg training group scored better for ADLs, walking, and dexterity than the control group, whereas the arm training group scored better only for dexterity.The clinical trials provide powerless evidence for a dose response relationship of intensity to functional outcomes.

Competing Against Low Cost Steel Imports

Competing Against Low Cost brand name ImportsNucor is the second prominentst sword causer in North America on total production capacity in the end of 2006, with 18 brings. With the stratum 2006 Nucor was the most usefulness competent brand manu detailuring business by having the capacity to produce 25 million stacks of make with revenues of $14.8 billion and net kale of $ 1.8 billion. In the late mid-sixties Nucor assembleed the brand name mini-mill assiduity and since that time, mini-mills wear plump broadly exist in the bighearted incorporated firebrand companies out of most niche merchandises. Nucor in the late 1980s do a brave entry into the flat-rolled firebrand foodstuff, afield of big stigma. Nucor acquire small- constitute leadership strategy, product development by employ variety and technologies, shade systems, safe relationship between employees and productiveness, corporate culture and using focus diffrenation, in range to reduce and achieve piteous be per ton produced. The commercialize sh be of Nucor plus by 17% in both twelvemonths 2005 and 2006. According to the four generic competitory strategies Nucor appraise suffering-coast provider strategy as their strategic direction. They argon de endpointined to come over lower overall be then rivals and tempting to a blanket(a) range of consumers. Nucor followed ontogeny strategies which atomic number 18 naked as a jaybird acquisitions, new plants construction, continued plant upgrades and personify lessening efforts, and joint ventures. Nucor internally has formal a unrefined materials strategy to suppress forthwith and indirectly through worldwide fuck offth with joint ventures, the production of 6 to 7million tons of iron of high-pitched quality metals for consumption of its leaf blade mills. Such acquisition is imperative to get together purchaser consume for manufactured sword priceys. Nucor has a wide array of products and distributively product must go through a unlike ope rations regular recurrence. This is an implication to the susceptibility of each unit. Nucor outsidely has the qualification to deliver shipments anywhere in USA. This is a profit equal competitory receipts that arrests quick and on-time pitching of products. Nucor adopts prospered tradeing and sales strategies. In line with its goals of becoming a globular player, it continues to build long-term relationships with contract clients who purchase value added products, 92% of the production of Nucors brace mills was change to out come out customers in 2005-2006. It shows how Nucor is chief(prenominal)(prenominal)taining long- term contracts, and maintaining profitable value-added products. Nucor is known for developing and commercializing new efficient product technologies for the mark manufacturing subscriber line. The alike(p) enables it to reduce its operating costs and compete effectively in the market. Considering Nucor i nfrastructure, centralization at the connection in the early 2000s has supported the current success and supported the various units. Solid training and employee relation structure fetchs to the continuous growth. As for services and quality, Nucor focuses on fast delivery and affix customer integrated technologies. Quality bind is considered outstanding to maintain the potency and exact specifications of the manufactured product. Considering political factors, variations amongst countries laws provides favorable and unfavorable circumstances for a large connection to do headache in that country. Nucor deals with tax insurance in USA catch up at bottomg federal, state, and local taxes, bear on its bottom line. Nucor has to get wind the taxes of other countries planned for contracts implementation. As for economic factors, exchange rate fluctuations and pertain group rate changes are considered by Nucor as bases for decisions on expansion, and disputation. Markets ar e enthralling for steel companys entrance when the currency is week, and interest rates low. No striking advancement has had to a greater extent opposition on the steel assiduity than the new technological improvements. While some(prenominal) industries are outsourcing much of their manufacturing, Nucor has been able to play the opposite sexual climax and pass in the interior(prenominal) market. Technology increases efficiency of factories, decreases inventory, and enhances product quality. The efficient mini-mill is an example of this.Strategic IssueGiven the internal and external factors, that steel situations in the world had been improved by 2005-2006. The termss were high in the U.S by 50% in 2000 as well as Nucors Sales. However conflicting steel companies, dumping in home domestic market and U.S market on a lower floor market prices that leads to over capacity and more supply than demand. Inside US and Outside US market. The Demand increase by 6% should Nucor c ontinue focusing on the U.S steel market or begin to expand into another foreign markets? Or should they soak up to deal with budding volume of low priced foreign imports in the US market and how to compete with foreign steel producers? Do they postulate to expand the capacity of the company steel-making and start building new plants, new acquisitions, and new joint ventures?External EnvironmentExternal factors include those influences cut side the persistence in the macroeconomic that should be considered in shaping the companys strategies in long-term direction are legislative factors, economic, socioeconomic, and technological factors.Political and legislativeBusinesses are heavily regulated, from state to federal to international. These regulations challenge the ease of achieving profit tolerances. A channel must deal with the local laws and regulations of another business when attempting to compete in a foreign territory. For Nucor mass, the growing international arguing directs addressing and dealing with various types of laws, mainly taxation. Nucor deals heavily with the tax insurance and regulations in the United States paying federal, state, and local taxes. Each imposes heavy effects on their bottom line.Taxes however do not invariably negatively continue a business. many international steel companies were selling their products at below market cost to undercut domestic rivalry. Taxes imposed protect the domestic intentness. The same is important when competition is high. Nucor is a large company that is vitrine to international trade agreements. It is monetaryly essential for a company to guess the costs associated to all regulations and tariffs on import and export summonses, especially that competition ad world(a)ization are required to maintain net profit in the future.Economic factorsAs Nucors strategy has evermore been to become a market leader, much of its growth comes from international markets, especially developing ones. Thus, it is always lavatoryisterdid to exchange rate fluctuations. Markets become attractive when their currency is weak. This was the situation of the steel industry during the economic downswing in 2001. When markets become attractive repayable to weak currency, the demand for steel would increase and consequently the supply to tack together the increasing demand.To finance the large expenditures, loans are very common. As interest rates decrease, corporate loans increase to fabricate an expansionary economy. The same lead create positively charged effects on corporate spending of major steel buyers, and consequently suppliers. Hence, steel demand and supply would increase.Socioeconomic factor steel industry operates on a business to business model. The same allows for greater efficiency and protects from the take chances impact of negative social factors. These factors include consumer behavior, fashions, geographic positioning, consumer intellections, ectA company li ke Nucor must understand the sub-cultures of each market piece where it exists, and concentrate on the most profitable.Nucor considers expansion through acquisition. This carries along the attempt of mixing two distinct cultures. Nucor must be able to proceed and embrace new knowledge employees, skilled labor, and other valuable assets. Moreover, the real individual cultures layabout be a source of risk, so ensure adequate safety environment should be a priority. Nucor differentiates itself by high wages, incentive establish pay, and a flat organization. Each of these has a positive impact on the existing Nucor organizational structure. The existing challenge and risk would be to create equilibrium between preserving a positive culture, and an increased profit strategy of which lower wages is nighhow a must.Nucor community recognizes its map in protecting the environment. It gives attention to the environment of the communities in which it operates and recognizes its immen sity to the employees. Protecting the environment is critical to its operations and long-term success. To illustrate, Environmental compliancy is a priority for Nucor management equal with all other business functions.Technological factorsWhile many competitors within the steel industry are outsourcing many of their manufacturing payable to increased technology, Nucor is able to take the opposite approach and expand in domestic market. Technology increases efficiency, decreases inventory, and improves the product quality. Nucor, for example was able through the new technology utilize to efficiently use the gnomish factory production mini mill to increase its capacity utilization. The mini-mill simplifies the shape when compared to the more tradition integrated mill. It cuts many corners in the production cycle and also uses larger percentage of mo metal. This in return cut back the amount of pollution from making steel heartyly by eliminating the some(prenominal) elements of the old blast furnace process.Technology also provides greater enhancement for technology and sales. The products build detailed computerized models with test statistics, and efficiency attributes. The sales department is able to directly deal with customers through the internet. Transactions are seamless(prenominal) and process quickly. Technology has enhanced the steel industry processes but it has its d sensitive backs that need to be considered. For example, computer failure, database errors, and any simple user error can affect the business. Having specialists and IT managers lead make up its positive impact on domineering these risks.Industry AnalysisThere have been two major factors influencing the steel industry- consolidation of global companies, and revolutionary technological changes among competitors affecting prices, production, and consumer satisfaction. National boundaries have melted to encompass an ever increasing world market.Since, the beginning of the tw enty-first century, the industry has been hovering around 75% capacity utilization, a level withal low for many companies, thus, forcing them to globally consolidate. Examples of these consolidations are the three European companies who co-ordinated to act the worlds largest steel producer and the two Japanese companies who did the same to form the second-largest steel producer. Driving ForcesThe defining characteristics of the industry are increasing globalization of the industry, and technological changes. As for globalization, it is a driving force as it allow for have an effect on the overall industry growth. When considered, globalization willing pave the way for consolidation between companies allowing them to be beardown(prenominal) players in the industry where their success or failure will have an impact on the overall industry growth. Technological changes can have great impact on the industry. When more improved technologies are used, production and prices will be a ffecting the industry growth. The global steel market grew by 8.2% in 2007 to reach a value of $529.7 billion. In 2012, the global steel market is forecast to have a value of $759.1 billion, an increase of 43.3% from 2007. find out Success FactorsThe Key success factors (or KSFs) are competitive factors most affecting every industry members ability to prosper. KSFs includeNecessary resources, competencies, and capabilities (organizational style)Competitive capabilitiesexpertness in a particular technologyScale economies or eff curve benefitsStrong network of wholesale distributors, and suppliersNucor was established in 1966 and continues to grow strongly according to a number of mark success factors and strategic organizational strengths. The companys organizational style is remarkable and features a number of factors that contribute to Nucors success. First, the company employs a decentralized business style. In 1966, Iverson assumed the role of president to be decentralized mann er has been used and been very successful. A decentralized business style distributes the administrative responsibilities or powers among several(prenominal) government rather than a large number (Decentralization). This style has permitted Nucor to empower their managers and employees. By Improving the level of empowerment allows each division manger control over day-to-day decisions and transactions that will increase profitability. Nucors decentralized business style also helps the Co. to be lean. Lean manufacturing incorporates the production of goods using less waste, less human effort, manufacturing, spears, inventory, and less time. Equivalent to their lean business style, Nucor is continually seeking for improvement. Stable aim to decrease production cost is always a priority and ultimately helps to lower costs of steel to buyers. Moreover, a focus on dealing with employees helps in reducing employee turnover and increase productivity. Safety is an important consideration for Nucor and is consistently monitored and improved. Employee surveys are conducted every 3 years which helps to give an insight on employee attitudes and concerns. Management then compares the surveys crossways plants and divisions to control potential problems areas and increase employee satisfaction. Finally, Nucor focuses on creating strong relationships with outside parties. This enables it to establish long-term sustainability with these parties. Furthermore, structure and supply cost will often be decreased which allows for lower costs for buyers. Strong relationships established ensure long-term sustainability and lowered prices for Nucor. The booming business structure of Nucor along with the management styles plant has allowed the Co. to become a leader in the industry. The Company has established a reputable brand and has created brand awareness both domestically and internationally. It presently has a significant market constituent of the U.S. market and is buddin g as a global leader in tough industry. Moreover, their increase in size has helped them increase production capacity. Last but not least, Nucor has a strong technological focus and is works at all quantify to boost manufacturing and production pace. Innovation also is always considered and helps the company hang on a leader.Being the largest steel manufacturer, Nucor remains a profitable company in one of the most alternating(prenominal) industries in the economy. Nucor enjoys this success for several reasons, employee relations, quality, productivity, and aggressive focus on innovation and technical excellence. Nucors strategy low cost providing, they know they are selling a commodity for which the competitive edge in the industry is lowering prices through innovation and productivity. Firms in other Industries Offering Substitute ProductsPorters tailfin forces analysisSuppliers of Raw Materials, Parts, Components, or Other ResourceInputsRivalry among competing SellersCompetit ive pressures created by the joc rudimentarying of rival marketers for mitigate market position and competitive advantageBuyersPotential New EntrantsThey basketball team competitive forces affecting industries attractiveness areCompetitive rivalry (High Threat)The global competition in the steel industry faces Nucor and the vast array of competitors that exact the industry. Intense competition among competitors in the domestic market of Nucor causes a cyclical effect within the industry. Each competitor strives to win bids of contracts, causing a stiff price war in the market. As price is the main factor for specialty among competitors and it is the bases of the industry, the company with the lowest mend costs will survive the longer, and be the most profitable. Nucors use of both base pay and incentive pay ensure output is relative to pay and, therefore, decreases its improve costs.The business model differentiation is also primary means of competition. Nucor has a decentral ized structure with control being at the factory level. This advantage allows for focused decision making, and efficient use of profits.Extremely high spend barriers are a major risk to competitive competition. During clock of economic downturn or overproduction, inefficiencies are weeded out. The United States boasts one of the strongest protections for businesses with its bankruptcy laws to ensure they can make it through these tough times. Counter this though, the U.S. also has some of the toughest laws over against closing ineffective plants. Extremely high exit barriers are a major risk to competitive competition.Competition from Substitutes (Low to moderate Threat)This terror is considered low as there are some substitutes for the use of steel. From auto manufacturing, to geomorphological supports, to fasteners, there are relatively few products available with the strength, durability, and cost efficiencies of steel. The largest pick to steel would be use of another mat erial. Plastics are on the nip of the list, but have not found the same durability as steel. Wood may have aesthetic appeal but cannot rubbish with steels robustness. Alternatives increase market presence at times of economic downturn and times of increase in steel material cost. To hedge this threat many manufacturers maintain inventories of steel reserves. Large companies also trade steel futures to ensure stability of price and guaranteed supply for a future condition time. The goal is to maintain low costs and market share during times of economic fluctuation.Bargaining Power of Buyers (High Threat)The buyers impose the greatest they are the bases for price competition by influencing the demand. The ultimate goal of the buyer is to get the best quality product at the lowest price. The ultimate goal of the seller (Nucor) is to get most attainable profit for the least cost. Because the market is modify with numerous suppliers and taking into account the two different goals o f suppliers and buyers, the steel industry is commonly a buyers market.Bargaining power of Suppliers (High to moderate Threat)The supply of raw materials, steel shreds, iron ore, or recycled steel can have a great effect on the cost strategy. Most of the steel used for manufacturing in US is imported. Due to the difficulty in suppliers ability to unendingly meet the demands of the companies such as Nucor, joint ventures between suppliers and manufacturers are established. The same ensures low costs for manufacturers. Acquisition of the supplier might also be undertaken by the manufacturer. Also, the power of unions labor and unionized labor, could affect the labor costs for steel produces in placing weak competitive force and on cost disadvantage vis--vis firms with nonunion labor.The Threat of Entry (Moderately Strong Threat)The main definitive for an entry into an industry is the costs associated. Barriers to entry have increased due to merging and globalization growing of many c ompetitors. Economies of scale and capital requirements are the greatest barriers I the steel industry. Larger quantity orders of raw materials are usually discounted. Higher production volumes directly discount the associated costs. During times of strong growth, such as the 1960s-1980, economies of scale are very good. During stagnation or recession, these approaches often cause diseconomies due to under utilization of capacity.Product differentiation is also a major barrier to entry. Steel is not sold on its overall difference, but more commonly on price. legion(predicate) manufacturers utilize the same technologies and process. Price wars are seen in minimization of fixed costs as stated earlier. Directly with this, there are few switching costs from one manufacturer to another. Little brand committal is recognized in an industry that does not appeal to consumer loyalty or brand image. Entrants must find a way to compete based on lower costs.Access to raw materials is addition ally a barrier. Many times raw materials must be bought in large quantities (economies of scale). The cost disadvantages associated with small material purchases can be huge and directly increase overall manufacturing costs this make competition challenging in a market where margins are already slim. Government policy is not a major threat to entry on the domestic level, but at the international level the barriers are enormous. Well established relationships by large steel manufactures with governments allow for easy creation of contracts in a foreign territory.The creation of these contacts takes time, executive work hours, and vast amounts of money. As most steel manufacturers must be globally competitive to maintain profits, government policy is threatening entry barrier. At first glance it may count the mature steel industry would not be very attractive. This may be true to a new entry on a small scale, but with the advance of globalization the steel industry is again becoming v ery attractive.Industry Profile and AttractivenessThe Industry position and competitive structure future for a low-cost steel producer such as Nucor is attractive due to the good shape of their financial situation to gain sales and market share however the industry market environment maybe un attractive to some rivals but for some other rivals it may indicate some opportunities. The demand for steel globally has been rising strongly in recent years, and this is likely to continue. The industry has become attractive for new entrants from the international market since these companies are not overburdened by union contracts and since governments may provide special incentives in order to help them establish a customer base in steel, which can help in forming an important part of a nations economic infrastructure. Although the U.S is already dumped with outsider steel products, it is still considered to be a reliable and potential market for other global companies.As summary of the Nu cor case gives many insights into the company and the industry. In general, the steel industry is a very strong industry to compete in successfully. The question here is the steel industry an attractive one? The answer would yes, if the entering company is already in the industry and well set up and highly regarded. Moreover, its very important that the company is in a position to acquire other companies and/or form joint ventures. Nucor currently has done an amazing job woful itself up from near bankruptcy to an industry leader. Major numbers of challenges have been met and overcome throughout the companys life. However, this does not mean that there will not be more major challenges for Nucor. Nucor is nowadays is facing growing competition from both domestic and international rivalries. Its critical that Nucor continues to grow and increase global market share. Current management must continue to specialize in Nucors tenderness product and capitalize on a proven successful orga nizational structure. Can Nucor continue to succeed as a global steel company into the future? This is the main concern.Nucor is capable of continuing its entrepreneurial spirit as it grows larger because its marketing and management techniques. Since Nucor has been an innovative and risk-taking company, their profits will continue to expand. Nucor has embodied techniques that have been profitable to the company. An example of these techniques is the fact that Nucor managers would set standards for quality and output for groups of 25 to 30 employees and reward them with every week bonuses. By emphasizing quality and efficiency in employees and then honour them for it, Nucor only increases its own profits. Company SituationNucor Situation IntroductionNucor deals with key specific issues in the steel industry including the fast growth of steel producers in the world reflecting as an increased capacity in steel production creating prices war, and the competition in an industry where technology usage has been a way for saving costs. Despite their specialization into steel, Nucor Corp. has become a benchmark for both the U.S. steel industry and U.S. industry in general. Nucor is one of the accelerated growing and most efficient steel producers in the world. Despite the declining demand for steel, Nucors growth has been phenomenal, from pouring its first batch of steel in the 1960s to support in-house operations the company has become one of the top five producers of steel in the U.S.Nucor has repeatedly achieved technological feats other steel producers thought impossible. Their hourly pay is among the lowest in the industry, yet they have the highest productivity per worker of any steel producer in the U.S. But can it continue to do so?Financial AnalysisAccording to Nucor Corporation Financial Ratios data for 2005 2006 provided in Table 2 positivity1 Profitability ratios are used to assess a businesss ability to generate bread as compared to its expenses and other relevant costs incurred during a specific fulfilment of time. For most of these ratios, having a higher value relative to a competitors ratio or the same ratio from a previous period is indicatory that the company is doing well.Gross profit margin FYE212/06 increased by 14% reflecting an increase in sales for 2006.Liquidity ratios remained almost the same reflecting the continuous ability of the company to meet its obligations and invest further in the new technologies adoption strategy.Activity3 Are ratios that measure a firms ability to convert different accounts within their balance sheets into cash or sales Inventory turnover and total asset turnover were positive and most in-line with past results. Nucor maintains the ability to draw class investors with its relatively strong financial exploit, though down a bit from previous years. The increase in activity ratios is affected by the increase in sales FYE 12/06.Leverage4 Ratios used to calculate the financial leverage of a company to get an idea of the companys methods of financing or to measure its ability to meet financial obligations. There are several different ratios, but the main factors looked at include debt, equity, assets and interest expenses. Leverage ratios decreased by 1% FYE12/06 as compared to year 2005. The same reflects the ability of the company to meet its obligations and the reduction in reliance on leverage to meet its strategic plans.As globalization and acquisition is the focus, the leverage ratios are important. Debt has remained relatively low as compared to assets and equity, 23% and 44%respectively.Liquidity5 Are ratios used to determine a companys ability to pay off its short-terms debts obligations. Generally, the higher the value of the ratio, the larger the margin of safety that the company possesses to cover short-term debts. The current strategies may require short-term loans to finance acquisition. With these ratio levels, Nucor is in the position to shop for g ood interest rates. Total cash reserves for 2007 were roughly $1.4Billion, which will directly aid a globalization and expansionistic approach.As conclusion, at the end of year 2006 Nucor was in very good shape financially and the financial performance is strong for the 2004-2006. The date in table 1 shows how Nucor increased tons sold during the year 2000- 20006 with increasing in sales and market share of their products.SOWT AnalysisIn this part which is simply but powerful tool for sizing up a companys resource strengths and competitive efficiencies, its market opportunities, and the external threats to Nucor future well-being of Nucor Table 2. Nucors strengthsTechnology Innovation Is one of Nucors key strengths due to the amount of resources they can save because of it. Nucor also has established plants with low pollution levels. The ability for Nucor to use this to its advantage allows them to be more competitive with the market by substantially lowering their production cost. It also allows them to be environmentally friendly, which is a huge worldwide social concern these days. unbroken Innovations allows Nucor to hold its technological edge on the competition. Nucor is always moving and always improving its business cycle through the use of continuing innovation. Nucor is an industry leader when it comes to innovation.Strong market position Nucor Corporation has many different competencies that allow it to hold a strong position in the steel industry. These include its adopted new technologies, successful management structure, strong established market relations, and the long successful existence in the market. The company has heaven-sent industry position and positive financial results for the past over 40 years.Corporate Philosophy One of Nucors strategic strengths is its philosophy of empowering its workers and reducing the inefficient layers that plagues corporate. Company structure is decentralized with minimal management layers.Cost control Nuc or focuses on cost control. To be competitive in a market with little product differentiation, price is the main competitive factor. One of Nucors core competencies is that its expertise in keeping costs low. The same is maintained by adopting technological innovation that helps increase production at lower costs.Nucors WeaknessesA weakness is something a firm lacks, does poorly, or a condition placing it at a disadvantage in the marketplace and these are6Missing capabilities in key areas leading to dependence on a volatile market location Nucor faces some significant weaknesses with its location. Nucor has plants, all of which are located within the US. The problem is that Nucor cannot effectively serve international markets as good as competitors having plants worldwide. The shipping of steel to overseas countries is extremely expensive. Nucor is not in a great market position. Customers can go some place close together(predicate) to buy their steel essentially knocking off a lar ge shipping cost. Nucor also does not give deals on quantities purchased. Nucors most significant weakness lies with its domestic market. With the US Market being its primary customer base, Nucor is not able to offset losses because of a diversified location worldwide. Nucor is currently in a Market where growth is declining significantly.Deficiencies in competitively important physical, organizational, or intangible assets through high expansion and technology costs The expansion policy accompanied with dependency on scrap steel and energy prices and the vol