Saturday, August 31, 2019

Bassano’s Last Judgment

The Last Judgment, by Leandro Bassano 16th century Venetian Artist, religious painting of Christ Finished in 1596, currently residing in the National Museum of Western Art; Tokyo, Japan (Ueno). Visited on 11/2/09 from 10:15-11:30 Bassano’s The Last Judgment Painted by Leandro Bassano, a 16th century Venetian artist, The Last Judgment is a stunning work of scared art that takes one’s breath away upon first sight. Finished in 1596, the oil painting stands 73 x 51 cm tall and currently resides in the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, Japan. Visiting this piece on a Monday, I had the pleasure of seeing it mostly to myself. Most people walking by stopped to take a brief look at the well lit painting and I couldn’t help but wonder if they were Christian or not and whether or not the piece would have had a bigger impact if they were. At first glance it was pretty easy for me to see this piece’s relationship to Christianity and the event that it depicts. The painting, to me, appears in 3 sections: the central and most eye drawing section on top, the middle section, and the bottom section. The top section depicts Jesus of Nazareth basked in a glowing light holding a white flag of salvation while a man, most likely his father God, floats above him. He is surrounded by angels and pure followers of Christ at, what the title suggests, is the last judgment. This section is the brightest and most eye catching part of the painting due to the well played contrasting colors surrounding it. All other parts following this are duller and darker in color and really help to create a glowing light in the darkness effect for this top portion. The middle section, duller in tone to its predecessor, appears in two parts. The left side portrays people of the church while the right side shows commoners. I felt this section depicted those who were neither tainted nor completely pure; those who were almost in reach of salvation but who could yet still fall. I thought this section, although smallest in portrayal, represented the largest portion of the Christian community as we are often on the path to salvation but can still easily sway. This middle section was what I believed to be the middle way. As it appears, the top portion of the painting conveys salvation and Christ, while the middle section depicts the church and the people, so all that remains are those in redemption and those who are already damned. This is the bottom and darkest part of the piece. On the left side sits those who can still be saved; the image of angels helping men stand up covey great feelings of regret and redemption. The right side of the section, the darkest and grimmest part of the painting, depicts devils and demons carrying and torturing the tainted and damned. When I first saw The Last Judgment I was curious as to why the brightest piece was on top and not dead center as it was what drew my eye first and foremost; however a quick look at the other sections of the painting quickly draws one to the conclusion of an order with heaven on top, earth in the middle, and hell down below. The colors and style of the painting resemble that of other renaissance pieces surrounding it and really does well in drawing one back in time; giving the viewer a wonderful feel of the Christian religion. Overall this was an amazing piece depicting a holy and scared event in the Christian religion. The Last Judgment, by Leandro Bassano 16th century Venetian Artist, religious painting of Christ Finished in 1596, currently residing in the National Museum of Western Art; Tokyo, Japan (Ueno). Visited on 11/2/09 from 10:15-11:30

The Personal Network Solutions Division of Sony

Sony, â€Å"Manufactures, markets and sells consumer and professional audio and video equipment, telecommunication products, computer and peripheral products, recording media and energy products, semiconductors and other electronic components.† ( It is a very broad company that operates in many different business areas. The focus of this assessment is centered on the personal network solutions division of Sony. Personal Network Solutions Co. (PNSC) Handycam ® and Digital Handycam Camcorders Digital Mavica ® and Cyber-shot cameras Glasstron ® audio/video eyeware Online photo service â€Å"Image StationSM† Memory Stick ®digital media products VAIO ® (Video Audio Integrated Operation) personal computers Trinitron ® computer displays CLIÉ ® handheld device Sony operates in five business units. The computer and digital media devices both fall under the same unit at Sony. Sony does have the benefit of many business strengths. The most notable of which is its business name. Sony products have a reputation for being â€Å"before their time† as far as the features many of them have. Many Sony products demand a premium price for being such a technological masterpiece. Sony has continued to use this premium price scale in its computer line as well. By doing so it prices itself out of the value or budget line that many consumers seek. Sony has a reputation for producing high quality electronic devices and has also developed a loyal customer base. Sony is able to gain customers from an early age with its video game systems PS One and PS 2. Sony could feed off of this and make these customers attracted for life. Sony products are always on the cutting edge of technology. Sony has always pushed the envelope on design and cannot stop if it hopes to remain an electronic powerhouse. Sony hopes to expand its electronic market with the recent introduction of its CLIE† PDA or personal digital assistant. Competitors of Sony†s have dominated this area and now it should be able to compete. As with most companies, where there is strength, there is also weakness. This is definitely true at Sony with its biggest weakness being its inability to distribute its high end products as quickly as the market is demanding them. This was very evident during this past Christmas when Sony released the before mentioned Playstation 2. Demand was so high for this product that it is just now available in the stores as production and distribution has met up with demand. It did not help that there was a defect in the first shipment of the machines to the US and many who had to wait in long lines ended up with useless devices and had to wait until more arrived to have theirs replaced. Being on the cutting edge of the technology field makes opportunities always around the corner. However the work must be done to make it to the corner. Sony puts the needed resources into its research and development of all of its products. Without a doubt, Sony produces some of the most high quality electronic devices in the world. Now it would like to do the same thing in the computer market. Sony first started producing consumer pc†s in the mid 90†³s. Since then it has concentrated primarily on the consumer pc and especially the smaller format or laptop version of the pc. This represents a definite opportunity with which Sony could gain even more of the consumer electronic market. As with all companies there are many threats, which must be considered when conducting business. Some of these threats come from outside the company as some of them come from within. One such outside threat is that of the United States economy. Consumers are much less likely to make major purchases, such as a new computer, during times of economic trouble. While control of the entire economy is out of the hands of Sony, it can make some changes to assure that economic trouble does not completely cause the company to shut down. Sony is also entering an area of electronic business that they are not as familiar with. All electronic products eventually become obsolete. The computer sales market is one electronic area that is very time volatile. Newer, faster computers are always being released. Sony has for a long time operated in electronic business that has not been as technology and time sensitive. Current market conditions for Sony are not where it would like for them to be and are not at levels seen in past years. Much like other technology companies, Sony is in a transition period in which it is trying to find its permanent location in all markets. Sony has a main goal of staying ahead of the competition as all electronic devices enter the digital age. Current Conditions and Alternatives Sony†s current market emphasis is based on offering a consumer driven product line with some business products available in various markets. Sony has not been able to keep up with other computer specific companies in the areas of business applications. â€Å"I don†t recommend any Sony products [to business users] since they don†t have the infrastructure to match a Dell or a Toshiba or a Compaq,† says Ken Dulaney, vice president mobile computing at Gartner Group. â€Å"Their products are more applicable for consumers; they don†t work with businesses.† Sony may not be able to match the competing computer companies on the basis of size, however it is able to compete in terms of quality and technology. Many of the features available on a consumer pc's are not available on business pc†s. Sony could remove some of the more ‘neat† features that its pc†s have and develop a line that would better suit a business application. There is no way to gain a full understanding of how the Internet and access to it has changed the way computers are used and designed. Computers today are much more advanced that those purchased only a few years ago. For those reasons, companies who had previously been involved in computer markets have had to change the way in which it manufactured machines. Sony has the benefit of being fairly new to the computer business and an understanding of the need to adapt to changing broadband technology. CEO Nobuyuki Idei stated, â€Å"What we are and will be is a broadband entertainment company,† in his 1999 vision of the company. Even though there have been some management changes the desire to stay on top of broadband entertainment is still present at Sony. (, surprises, 1) â€Å"Every chance he gets, the 62-year-old Idei spreads the word about Sony's future as an Internet company: Everything from the venerable Walkman to the popular PlayStation game console will soon connect to the Web.†(, Slump at Sony, 1) With new technology always around the corner, Sony must continue its current plan of being a broadband company. Sony has many new products in use today that take advantage of technological advances that have previously been unseen. For Sony to remain a leading edge electronic company it must continue with current company plans. There are many possible alternatives in which Sony can and should pursue. Many of the alternatives are time based and could not be made immediately. However, as Sony is well aware, to compete in an industry that is constantly changing, you, yourself have to be able to make changes as well. Sony could focus the majority of its attention to the cash cow it current has in the video and electronic market. This of course would be its Playstation 2 video game system. This system has already sold over 10 million units and Sony currently expects to sell 20 million in the 01-02 fiscal year due to increase in the production speed of the system. Sony will soon be seeing a new competitor enter the market of its video game system. Microsoft will be releasing it†s own version of a video game system that has many critics panting. Many believe that the new system by Microsoft will be the biggest direct competition in the video game field for Sony since it has entered the field. There is a huge demand in the computer field for compatibility of products. Sony has made it possible for several of its computer products to use the same format of small removable memory. Better know as the Memory Stick, the chewing gum sized ‘card† has ability to store both music and video on a single card. Thus the card can be used in Sony†s video camera line; it†s VAIO line of personal pc†s as well as the long time favorite, Walkman music device. It would also be possible for Sony to enter the business computer field of the market. Although there is definite competition in this market, Sony has the technology in its research and development department to make the business machines fly. The only downfall to this idea is the fact that Sony products are so highly sought after for the ‘neat† features that it†s products posses. To remove features from its current line to make them affordable to the business field would be an image-changing move. Sony products demand a premium price that business customers cannot afford to pay for. Sony joined the major players in the computer business with the introduction of it†s VAIO Direct website where consumers can purchase computers directly from the company. Although not as fully customizable as other companies† computers, Sony still allows the user to make some changes that defiantly affect the performance and function of the machine. Along with this Sony could expand it†s variety of computer uses to include specific areas or markets. The company has already shown its ability to manufacture a top level gaming system for the home. Why could it not take what it has learned from this development and manufacture a gaming specific line of computers that was easily upgradeable as new computer technology becomes available? Along with the gaming pc, there are other areas that could benefit from specifically designed products. For a long time the Apple computer has been the choice for those interested in making movies on the computer. With Sony†s ever increasing line of video cameras and accessories, it is only logical for it to create a movie specific line of pc. Computer design companies pay large prices for computers that are capable of running memory intensive design software. Sony could enter this market with a product designed specifically for the computer drafter. Many believe the next explosion of use for the computer will come in the automobile industry. As time goes by more and more automobiles are incorporating a type of computer into the vehicle. This unit does basic functions such as check e-mail and assist with driving directions. Sony could join efforts with its audio development division to produce an affordable and effective automobile pc. Sony is a world leader in the electronic business. It is new to the field of personal computers. Sony has used its past experience to set up a basis for operation in the computer business. There are some changes that it must make if it wants to remain in the computer business however. Sony should continue with its current plan of producing consumer pc†s and try to avoid the general business market. Consumer pc†s vary from those of business pc†s in both features and price. Sony would have to remove features from its computers while at the same time dropping the price to make them an affordable business option. This decision would change the image of Sony computers from a feature packed, top of the line computer, to one resembling the mainstream computers. Sony should also enter the market specific computer business with models available in three different fields: movie making, drafting, and gaming. With these market specific pc†s, Sony could still include all of the features that make its computers enjoyable to own while adding necessary hardware or software to enable them to meet the specific demands of each field. Most specifically, Sony should definitely create a computer designed with the computer gamer in mind. Sony has reached millions of children with the production of the Playstation line of home video game systems. From here, it should continue with a computer for the children to use as they grow up. The unit should be easily upgradeable but feature all necessary parts from the beginning. With its strong brand recognition, this would, in tern, help in the sales of all Sony electronic products. Sony has made a major advance in its distribution methods of its computers. With the opening of the VAIO Direct website, Sony gave its consumers the ability to customize computers to some extent. The competition of Sony allows its customers to fully customize its computers. If Sony wants to remain at the forefront of the computer business, it must allow the machine to be adapted to specific uses. Much like the customized computers for various markets, Sony must also make its normal computers customizable to the average consumer. This variety in design will help Sony receive the premium prices that it has demanded in the past for its top-notch products.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Consequences of Friedman’s Shareholder Theory for Hrm Ethics

Milton Friedman wrote in 1973 that managements â€Å"primary responsibility is to the shareholders who own and invest in the company†. What are the consequences of this philosophy for HRM ethics, and what alternative perspectives might serve the profession in the future? Friedman’s Shareholder Theory Milton Friedman’s shareholder theory has had a broad range of consequences for HRM ethics.The main consequence being that if management are only answerable to owners and shareholders, and must do as they wish, management’s quest will almost always be to maximise profit. Organisations that are constantly trying to maximise profits are often constricted by short-termism. Short-termism refers to the excessive focus of some organisational leaders on short-term earnings which can impede the long-term value creation of a company. Short-termism can have profound effects on an organisations HRM ethics.Before examining the consequences of Friedman’s theory that managements â€Å"primary responsibility is to the shareholders that own and invest in the company†, and before outlining alternative ethical perspectives that might serve the profession in the future, I think it is important to give a brief account of the different agendas of HRM ethics and of Friedman’s reasoning behind his theory in order to relate it to HRM ethics. Fryer (2009) says that there are two contrasting agendas with regards to the relationship between HRM and ethics.He says the first agenda is welfare humanism and the second agenda is managerial performativity. The welfare humanist ethical agenda says that the ethicality of HRM practice should be measured in relation to its responsiveness to the needs and aspirations of employees. Under this perspective, self-actualisation and self-esteem of employees is considered very important and is rigorously promoted. The managerial performativity agenda is the opposite of the welfare humanist agenda. This agenda pl aces the achievement of strategic success above all other considerations, including employee well-being.Supporters of this agenda argue that if an organisation focuses purely on maximising profit within free/liberal market conditions, it will ultimately be in everyone’s best interests. According to Fryer (2009), Friedman was a utilitarian and also followed the managerial performativity agenda. Utilitarian theory proposes that the best way to lend moral legitimacy to a decision is to promote the way forward that will generate â€Å"the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people† (Fryer 2009, p. 77).Oslington (2012) suggested that the work of Adam Smith can be used to support the idea that if an organisation prospers, society in general will benefit from this. Therefore, as Friedman believed, if a firm tries to maximise profits, it will ultimately be in a society’s best interests as many people stand to benefit from the commercial prosperity of a bu siness, including its shareholders, suppliers, customers, the vast majority of employees and society at large as the business generates economic activity. Friedman (1970) wrote a seminal article in the New York Times called The Social Responsibility of Business is to increase its Profits.In this article he argues that any person who believes that a business should be concerned with issues other than maximising profit, issues such as eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and providing employment, are just puppets of the forces that strive to undermine the basis of a free society. This article lays the foundation for Friedman to declare in 1973 that managements only responsibility is to shareholders as he places an increased emphasis on property rights. Fryer (2009) suggests that that property rights are fundamental to Western culture and that the right to own and to transfer property is of the utmost importance.Consequences of Shareholder Theory The consequences of Friedmanà ¢â‚¬â„¢s shareholder theory for HRM ethics are profound. HRM ethics is the moral obligations of an employer towards its employee’s and shareholder theory forces management to focus on short term profit maximisation which justifies actions such as imposing stressful working conditions on employees as long as it improves the performance of the company. Many organisations that follow this shareholder theory have largely questionable ethics towards their employees as they seek to maximise profits without breaking the law.A good example of an organisation that follows this theory is Ryanair. Ryanair’s (2012) code of ethics clearly states that â€Å"Ryanair is committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all employees and abides by employment laws in the countries in which it does business. † Ryanair does not break any laws with regard the treatment of their employee’s. However, they do marginalise workers as they are not actually employees of Ryanair, but independent contractors. Employment law places strict responsibility on employers for their employees, whereas the conditions for independent contractors are not as strict.This allows Ryanair to maximise profits without having to incur extra costs such as tax requirements and providing better work conditions. Short-termism can also directly affect an organisations HRM ethics in other ways. Kreymeyer et al. (2006) carried out a survey of more than four hundred executives across many of the largest U. S. corporations. Analysis of the survey found that, due to the pressures of short-termism, more than half of all respondents said they would delay or cancel new projects, even if the cancellation of those projects meant that the organisation sacrifices value creation in the future.Such projects may include implementing a new HRM system. Implementing a new HRM system may be costly to install at first but if successful, could increase future value creation through many different ways such as reducing conflict within an organisation, improving workforce morale and productivity, reducing employee turnover which in turn could reduce recruitment and training costs. This can show how Friedman’s shareholder theory, which increases the pressures of short-termism, can affect an organisations HRM ethics as profit maximisation in seen as the number one priority of the firm.As HRM ethics focuses on moral obligations of employers to employees, one priority of a firm should be to try to secure the long term sustainability of an organisation in order to provide job security to employees. Friedman’s shareholder theory should back this up but the overriding emphasis on short term goals and profitability can impede long term sustainability. Opportunities that could improve the long term performance of an organisation may be ignored as they might impact on short term profitability.For example, projects may be ignored because of the cost of the initial investment is too h igh or because the payback period of the project is too long. In Krehmeyer et al. (2006) survey, eighty per cent of respondents said that they would reduce discretionary spending on advertising, research and development, maintenance and hiring in order to meet short term performance targets set out by the organisation. These factors can reduce competitiveness of a firm and can put its long term sustainability in jeopardy.Alternative Ethical Perspectives Some ethical perspectives that might serve the business world in the future are Kant’s theory of ethics, Rawls theory and also the Aristotelian theory of ethics. These perspectives can be considered as alternatives to Friedman’s shareholder theory. Kant’s Theory of Ethics The Kantian theory of ethics was created by a German philosopher called Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). His theory of ethics was based on respecting people and also on the idea that a person should never use another for personal gain.Kant did not bel ieve that a person’s actions should be considered right or wrong by examining the consequences of their actions, rather, he believed that it is the motives behind the decision that lend moral legitimacy to it. Klikauer (2010) says that, for Kant, ethics need to be established through a series of logical arguments and without any inclinations or feelings that may cloud judgement. Kant’s ethics are guided by purely ethical laws.Klikauer (2010) also notes that Kantian ethics does not offer business managers any room for manoeuvring with ethical decisions as one’s actions, and more importantly one’s intentions cannot be ethical and unethical at the same, there is no middle ground. There are valuable lessons that can be learned from Kantian ethics but it is also somewhat incompatible with business ethics. Kant believed that one should not use another for personal gain but the essence of management is to use people as a means to an end. The end would be an orga nisation’s goals.Therefore people are treated like costs, which is the opposite of Kant’s Kingdom of Ends which says that humans should be treated as ends. Rawls’ theory of ethics John Bordley Rawls (1921-2002) was an American philosopher that based his theory on the concepts of equality and fairness from behind what he calls a veil of ignorance. Rawls (1972) says that in order to ascertain fairness with regards ethical standards, we must imaginatively project ourselves into an original position. This original position is one that is ignorant of our status in society.He believed that the only fair way to reach a decision was if a person was behind a veil of ignorance, this means a person must revert back to a position where he or she does not know his or her class, race, sex and also what side of the social contract that that person will be on. According to Chryssides and Kaler(1993) once the decision maker has imaginatively reverted back to the original positio n, the social and economic inequalities of the decision are to be arranged so that the greatest benefit goes to the least advantaged.Rawls’ theory is more sympathetic to a welfare humanist agenda as he believes that a business has a duty to less advantaged stakeholders, not just to employees. â€Å"Stakeholders are those individuals or groups who depend on an organisation to fulfil their own goals and on whom, in turn, the organisation depends† (Johnson, et al. 2008,pg 132). Rawls theory could be extremely valuable in the future as an increasing number of organisations are embracing corporate social responsibility (CSR).It has been suggested that more organisations are moving from â€Å"laissez-faire† CSR stance, which is compatible with Friedman’s shareholder theory, to a CSR stance of â€Å"enlightened self-interest† which is now being seen as a more sustainable way for business to be carried out (Johnson, et al. 2008,pg 146). Aristotelian theory of ethics Aristotle (284-322 B. C. ) was a Greek philosopher. Fryer (2009) believed that the Aristotelian theory of ethics relates to virtue ethics as Aristotle believed that discourse can offered as a basis for moral probity.Virtue ethics says that the morality of a person’s actions can be judged in relation to their conformity to the standards of conduct that are acceptable within that given community. Aristotle did not believe that there was an absolute right way to make a decision, he believed the human ability to engage in democratic processes was a defining characteristic that separates us from all other creatures on earth, and that democratic processes were the best way of identifying that way (Fryer, 2009).Lessons from Aristotle’s theory of ethics could be very useful for the business world. Aristotle believed that the only way to lend moral legitimacy to a decision was to involve all those that were going to be affected in the decision making process. An orga nisation can involve all those that are affected by their actions through the use of employee voice mechanisms, collaborating with suppliers and customers and by involving all stakeholders in the decision making process. ConclusionFriedman’s shareholder theory has largely negative consequences for HRM ethics, as shareholder theory forces organisations to operate under the straight jacket of short-termism in the drive to maximise profits for the shareholders who own and invest in the company. Kant’s, Rawls’ and Aristotle’s alternative ethical perspectives might not be perfectly compatible with the business world but each of them, in their own way, can offer valuable insights that could be extremely valuable and might serve the profession in the future. References Chryssides, G. D. and Kaler J. H. 1993), An Introduction to Business Ethics, 1st ed, pg. 180-185. London, UK: Chapman and Hall. Friedman, M. (1970), â€Å"The Social Responsibility of Business is to increase its Profits†, The New York Times Magazine, Available from: http://www. umich. edu/~thecore/doc/Friedman. pdf [Accessed 22nd October 2012] Fryer (2009), ‘HRM: An Ethical Perspective’, in D. Collings & G. Woods (2009), ‘Human Resource Management A Critical Approach’, (Taylor & Francis e-Library) pp. 75-90 Johnson, G. , Whittington, R. amp; Scholes, K. (2008), Exploring Strategy, Text and Cases, 8th ed, London: FT Prentice Hall. Klikauer, T. (2010) Critical Management Ethics. 1st ed. Pg 68-87. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan (James Hardiman Library) Krehmeyer, D. Orsagh, M. Schacht, K. N. (2006) â€Å"Breaking the Short-Term Cycle: Discussion and Recommendations on How Corporate Leaders, Asset Managers, Investors and Analysts Can Refocus on Long Term Value†, CFA Centre for Financial Market Integrity/Business Roundtable Institute for Corporate Ethics, Available From: http://www. darden. virginia. edu/corporate-ethics/pdf/Short-termis m_Report. df [Accessed 24th October 2012] Oslington, P. (2012) â€Å"God and the Market: Adam Smith’s Invisible Hand†, Journal of Business Ethics, vol:108 (iss:4), Pg: 429-438. Available from: http://www. springerlink. com. libgate. library. nuigalway. ie/content/e2255226763w13qp/fulltext. pdf [Accessed 23rd October 2012] Rawls, J. (1972) A Theory of Justice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (James Hardiman Library) Ryanair (2012), ‘Code of Business Conduct and Ethics’, [online] Available from: http://www. ryanair. com/doc/investor/2012/code_of_ethics. pdf [Accessed 24th October 2012]

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Visual Representations of Organization Theory Essay

Visual Representations of Organization Theory - Essay Example As quoted by Morgan, ‘communications theorist Marshall McLuhan noted that the last thing a fish is likely to discover is the water it is swimming in. The water is so fundamental to the fish’s way of life that it is not seen or questioned.’ (2006). Through this Morgan directs our attention to the concept of trap of favored ways of thinking. The fundamental role played by water to the fish analogues many mechanisms, ideologies, concepts upon which organizations are formed. Just the way, water is the world for a fish, and a fish cannot live out of water, so do organizations behave very often. Organizations tend to adopt certain culture, mechanisms, tools and practices which eventually become the fundamentals of the organization and its goals. These features reflect in the motivational aspects of the organization too which forces the employees to work in that direction ‘only,’ thus blocking creativity and other hidden business potential. In this course, o rganizations tend to adopt a kind of language, called as the organizational language which becomes the key factor of organizational growth as communication is vital for any organization’s success. Morgan relates this situation to the psychic-prison metaphor relating it to the trap of favored ways of thinking, and provides guidance to unleash hidden power and creativity. The trap of favored ways of thinking leads to closure of other avenues and opportunities, eventually leading to the situation of work becoming more of a norm or ritual and loss of innovation and creativity. In the process of favored ways of thinking, we tend to see only those things are familiar to us, and tend to ignore the rest. Though existence of creativity may not be the determining factor of any business, it can eventually turn so and, thus, lack of creativity has to be noticed. When the suppression of logic of what is significant is imposed by organizational control, this

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Plan an effective IT infrastructure based on the needs of an Essay

Plan an effective IT infrastructure based on the needs of an organization - Essay Example Despite their growing popularity, cable companies have encountered huge costs of replacing their local loop cables with fiber optic cables to attain high bandwidths. There only demerit is its decreased throughput resulting from concentrated connections within a geographical area. Unlike other connections, cable companies use DOCSI v3 specifications. T-1 and T-3 are a form of leased line connection capable of attaining a data and voice speed of 1.5Mbps and 45Mbps respectively. The difference in speeds translates to a drastic cost implication for the latter. As compared to other forms of internet connection, leased line service are generally more expensive. The only advantage over other networks is its ability to provide permanent and active data connection without the need for dial up services. In addition, T-1 networks can be customized. With a 24 individual telephone and data line at 56kps, it provides a flexible data rate as per the user needs. Dial up connections require a telephone line to establish a server connection. A â€Å"dial up†number provides a link that initiates the connection process. It is the cheapest of all the services. However, the speed and stability provides a challenge. With a maximum speed of 56Kps it lags behind compared to other technologies. An improvement of the dial up connection resulted in ISDN. ISDN uses a circuit switch and a dedicated line. ISDN allows parallel data and telephone transmission (Laan, 2011). Frame relay, just like ATM provides high speed, packet-switched service for sending data between two local or long-distant regions. Both are layer 2 protocal meaning that they can be used in a twisted pair and fiber optic cable. However ATM differ from frame relay in a number of ways. ATM incorporates a mechanism where data is sent in a small 53-byte packages referred to as cells. This splitting of cells into small packages promotes efficient data

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

An effective ways of calculating unemployment and types of it Essay

An effective ways of calculating unemployment and types of it - Essay Example Unemployment can be due to various reasons, some of which are, seasonal layoffs, racial discrimination, technological advancements and changes in the industries, fluctuations in economies, and lack of required skills by the worker. Seasonal layoffs occur in the field of agriculture. The increased focus on automation due to growing technology has also increased the level of unemployment. Unemployment in developing countries is usually caused urban migration that leads the industrial development required to employ these migrants. In developed industrial nations the main cause of unemployment is due to depressions and economic recessions. "The Great Depression brought massive impoverishment. At its depths in 1933, the unemployment rate skyrocketed to over 25 per cent, a dramatic increase from the unemployment rate of slightly over 4 per cent four years earlier" (Frager and Patrias 80). Different policies of unemployment are suggested by different schools of economic thought. For example, Monetarists believe that employment will increase in the long run if inflation is controlled and growth and investment is encouraged. Keynesians believe that emphasis should be given to smoothing business cycles by controlling aggregate demand. Frictional unemployment arises when a person is searching for a job after quitting one job. Generally when a person quits one job it requires some time before he gets another job. During this time he is said to be frictionally unemployed. The problem of frictional unemployment can be minimized with the creation of competent labor markets. If this is done the time period between shifting jobs is negligible. When an economy is developed frictional unemployment is reduced as the possibility of getting a job faster is high. When a person is not qualified enough to meet the requirements of his job structural unemployment arises. In simple words, when the marginal revenue earned by an employee is less than the minimum wage paid to the employee for the particular job, it gives rise to structural unemployment. The level of structural unemployment depends on a number of factors. Structural unemployment will be lower if the mobility of labor across different jobs is higher. It also depends on the structure of n industry and the growth rate of an economy. Classical unemployment is also known as real wage unemployment. When the equilibrium full employment level falls below the wages, it gives rise to classical unemployment. In a situation where classical unemployment exists the wages are not flexible downwards, this implies that unemployment will persist for a longer time. Therefore, such wages should be set in the trade unions with manipulations. Cyclical unemployment is also called demand deficient unemployment. Cyclical unemployment takes place when the demand of workforce by the economy is low. Keynesian economists believe that this type of unemployment takes place because of disequilibrium in the economy. The name cyclical unemployment comes from the fact that this unemployment moves with the trade cycle. When the economy is in boom the demand for labor increases, and when there is an economic crisis or recession the demand for la

Monday, August 26, 2019

Public finance Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Public finance - Research Paper Example The main aim of any social security measure is to provide the confidence for individuals and families that their quality of life would not be eroded by economic or social eventuality. It includes sickness, old age, family, unemployment, maternity, invalidity benefits, and medical care. In democratic countries, implementation of welfare schemes for the vulnerable groups such as children, women, and aged people with disabilities is the political necessity of the society (â€Å"Vito Tanzi’’). People of the country need security against certain possible risks to which they are perennially exposed. The family is the oldest and the primary institution of social security. The situation leads to need for social security differs from place to place. In Europe, industrial revolution which concentrated at urban and industrial centers affected the rural folk badly by disturbing the institution of social security in the joint family system. When an individual was unable to take car e of his/her family, society comes forward to protect them while realizing the importance of social security. In United Kingdom, laws were enacted for providing minimal food and shelter in a workhouse to the poor. Along with these, additional economic and social security measures such as private savings, private insurance, life insurance, mutual aid, mutual benefit schemes, and compensation by employers’ medieval guilds were implemented both by government and private sectors (â€Å"Madhava Rao’’). Social security The need for social security support for any country is greater than ever. Governments should provide protection for their citizen against economic risks in the form of economic benefits and tax credits. These may help families with the costs of bringing up children and enable to save for retirement which provides support for them in their old age. In the way governments so far ruled Britain took many steps to redistribute income to alleviate poverty, and help people to maintain living standards. Since 1997, governments carried out major changes in both policy and administration to reform the social security and tax systems with the purpose of modernizing the welfare state. In social security, mainly two basic entitlements, viz, human rights and citizenship rights were becoming an important factor. Both these together include economic, social and cultural rights (â€Å"Julia Griggs’’). Human rights are generally universal and unconditional. They have seen as placing responsibilities towards an individual. On the other hand, citizenship rights are related to membership of a particular country. General citizenship includes the responsibilities such as paying taxes, care for children, and uphold the law. However, the terms and conditions of rights and responsibilities differ from country to country as some countries spend more on social security and their demanding conditions match with generous rights. Both human rig hts and rights of citizenship have been used as arguments for economic, social as well as cultural rights. Adding, the right to social security involves the right to gain access and maintain benefits. Public Finance Public finance generally deals with the finances of the government which includes the rising and disbursement of its funds, and is concerned with the operation of the public treasury. In recent days, the study of public finance is increasingly assuming importance as it is a matter of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Technologies for Treating Hazardous Waste Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Technologies for Treating Hazardous Waste - Essay Example Sanitary landfill is the used of an area as an isolation place of the solid waste until the danger of the waste is reduced. This kind of treating solid waste can be successful if the area is large and the isolation is good (â€Å"Solid Waste,† n.d.). Gasification on the other hand is the exposure to high temperature/extreme heat with the use of oxygen to decompose the waste. It has the advantages of lessening the size of waste and makes the transportation of waste easier. This is a type of incineration that has no contribution to air pollution. Composting is one of the oldest ways to treat solid waste. It is used specifically to solid wastes that decompose. It makes the area of decomposition very appropriate to the waste, so that decomposition occurs faster (â€Å"Solid Waste Management† n.d.). From the said technologies, gasification is the best. It can be observed that it has more advantages. It lessens the volume of waste in a shorter time because it reduces the waste on the spot. It also does not contribute pollution to nature especially to air unlike other thermal treatment. It brings back energy. And lastly it demands less space compared to sanitary

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Radio activity Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Radio activity - Lab Report Example This experiment illustrates that coins can be used in the laboratory to visualize the process of radioactivity. Radioactivity is a terminology used to refer to the spontaneous changes that occur in the nucleus of unstable atoms accompanied by release particles or electromagnetic radiation. In some cases, it is caused by conflict of two strongest in nature. In connection to this, there are several nuclear isotopes. These isotopes emit radiation and are unstable; some of the radiations emitted by these isotopes are gamma, alpha, and neutron emissions. Gamma radiations are photons that are packets of electromagnetic energy. In the electromagnetic energy spectrum, gamma radiations are the most energetic ionizing radiation. They have about 10,000 more energy than the photons that are found in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, they also have no electrical charge and mass. Since they have high energy, they can travel at the speed that is equal to that of the light and go for long distances without losing their energy. As a result, they are very dangerous and pass through the human body. Alpha particles, on the other hand, have two protons and two neutrons and, therefore, are the same as a helium particle. When an alpha particle is emitted the parent nucleus changes to another element. A neutron particle on the hand has no charge and, therefore, is neutral. Radioactivity is a random process therefore it is impossible to predict the specific time when a particular atom will decay (Cutnell and Johnson 6). Due to the random nature of radioactivity it is, therefore, a probability event that is entirely dependent on chance. In radioactivity, the half-life is the time taken for the number of radio nuclei of a radioactive sample to reduce to half. The randomness of radioactivity process can be compared to the tossing of a coin activity because the chances of a head or a

Friday, August 23, 2019

Critically explore the claim of an increasingly individualized Essay

Critically explore the claim of an increasingly individualized employment relationship - Essay Example 91). Generally, psychological contract is presumed to be an implicit understanding of mutual obligations which is owned by employees, employer, and employing organisation. Psychological contract is also associated with legal and formal employment contract that define the formal responsibilities, duties, and obligation of the employee and the employer in the employment relationship. As elucidated in the psychological contract concept in an organisation, employer-employee relationship ought to have a mutual reciprocal exchange which strengthens the relationship. In most cases, employees are satisfied when there are greater differences between their contribution in the organisation and the inducement offered by the organisation. From the organisation perspective, employees’ contribution ought to be sufficient to attract more inducement from the organisation. Employees’ commitments should also be adequate to elicit employees’ contribution. Some scholars emphasise tha t employees could advance their performance if the organisation does not interfere too much with the employees’ norms. However, to facilitate mutual interaction in the work environment, employees should respect the rights of the organisation as well as the set ethical conducts. Individualised employment has in the recent past turned out to be a universal state of affair in a large number of local and multinational organisations. This ever-increasing occurrence can be attributed to several internal and external factors. To some extent, scholars and researchers have concurred with the notion that the concept of psychological contract has a significant role in the contemporary individualised employment relationship. However, there are some scholars who are passionately against the idea. To understand how employment relationship is individualised by psychological contract, the essay below will critically explore the claim that the concept of psychological contract is the manifest ation of increasingly individualised employment relationship. In the contemporary economy, psychological contract can be presumed to be an individual belief on the existence of a mutual obligation between the employee and the employer. The mutual obligations which exist between the employee and the employer are brought about by the perception that, any promise that has been made either implicitly or explicitly should be respected. As a result, the fulfilment of promissory obligation by one side is contingent which helps to define the fulfilment of the other party’s obligation. Psychological contract is assumed to comprise employees’ perceptions on the mutual obligation present in the agreement between the employer and the employee. Moreover, mutual obligations that prevail between contemporary employees and employers are to a great extent sustained through the reciprocity norm. The reciprocity norm that exist between the employer and employees therefore results into in dividualised employment relationship Psychological contract is presumed to be shaped by the implications of promise verse needs. Based on the fact that expectation is as a result of needs, the level in which each part can influence these needs is constrained. As a result, the critical element in modern development is the extent in which each part

Supply Chain Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Supply Chain - Coursework Example ate a rail network in stages in order to link the most important residential and industrial centers in the state, which will form an important part of the railway planned for the GCC network. Etihad Rail Mission: Provide a safe and sustainable passenger and freight transport railway system in the UAE through innovation and continuous improvement of technologies and practices. Etihad Rail is committed to three guiding principles: Safety and security, effective connectivity and economic growth and efficiency and sustainability. †¦Etihad Rail is the most preferred by customers who cite its impressive speeds of up to 120km/hr. and punctuality of departure and arrival times. The reason behind this is the availability of several electromotive engines at any one time thus preventing any delays. (Morgan 2014)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Good quality of customer care and the prompt acting on customer’s feedback that augurs well with customers. According to Etihad, the customers come first and they aim to satisfy them fully (John, 2011). Etihad has several electromotive engines on standby at any one time in case of any breakdown in the ones on operation. This facilitates immediate substitution in case of any delays...Additionally, it connects most of the centers of population in United Arab Emirates, assuring customers on the reliability of delivery.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Etihad rail conforms to customers’ expectations of good transport system. It is fast with speeds approaching 120 km/hour and departs and arrives on destinations in time. The prices are also relatively fair suiting most of the middle income travelers that make

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Revolutionary War Essay Example for Free

The Revolutionary War Essay The first spawn of the American Revolution came from the gentry or in other words from the rich and wellborn. These were the first to resent Parliament’s efforts to curtail their rights within the British Empire. They voiced their unhappiness in published statements and in speeches before elected assemblies. These influential planters, wealthy merchants, and prominent clergymen discovered that the revolutionary movement generated a momentum that they could not control. As the relations with the mother country deteriorated, the traditional leaders of colonial society were forced to invite the common folk to join the protest as rioters, petitioners and then as soldiers. Newspapers, sermons, and pamphlets helped transform what had begun only as a squabble among the gentry into a mass movement. Once the common people had become involved in shaping the nation’s destiny they could never be excluded again. No one in 1763 consciously made their mind up on fighting for independence it just happened. What Americans came to believe to be â€Å"common sense† in 1776 would have been thought of as madness or treason just a decade before. The bonds of loyalty that had glued the British Empire were dissolving slowly. It is only with the benefit of hindsight that the confrontations of this period seem to have led to the Revolution. The men and women who lived through these difficult years did not know what the future would bring. At several points British rulers and American colonists could have compromised. They could have attempted in some ways to ease growing tensions. Their failure to do so was the result of thousands of separate decisions, errors and misunderstandings. The Revolution was a complex series of events, full of unexpected turns, extraordinary creativity and great personal sacrifice (Bailyn, 1967). In 1760 George the III, only 22 was given the ultimate responsibility for preserving the empire. In the public eye they praised the new monarch, but in private they expressed great concern. The king had led a very sheltered life that lacked many of life’s experiences. He had not gotten a good education, but had an aptitude for mechanical ability. He was basically considered stupid and slow witted. He had a difficult time in grasping the concept of imagination, generosity and wisdom during a difficult period in history. He decided to play an aggressive role in government this did not sit well with England’s political leaders. For decades a powerful group of men who called themselves â€Å"Whigs† had set policy and controlled patronage. George the II was ok with this but when George the III came into power he dissolved this relationship. He placed people in charge that had absolutely no political knowledge and the only relationship for the job would have been just to have known someone. The Earl of Bute was selected as chief minister and this totally outraged the â€Å"Whigs†. They accused George of trying to instill a personal Stuart monarchy that was free from traditional constitutional restraints (Morgan Morgan, 1953). The king does not bear the sole blame for England’s loss of the empire in America. The members of Parliament, the men who actually drafted the statutes that drove a wedge between the colonists and the mother country, failed to respond creatively to the challenges of events. With rare exception, they clung to the principle of parliamentary sovereignty and when Americans questioned whether that legislative body in London should govern colonial affairs, parliamentary spokesmen provided no constructive grounds for compromise. The establishment of a separate American commonwealth bound to British only by commerce and common allegiance to the monarch received no support in the House of Commons, this a huge problem for American colonialist (Higginbotham, 1971). Parliament’s attitude was in part a product of ignorance. Few men active in English government had visited America. For those who attempted to follow colonial affairs did not get accurate information for the best decisions. Getting any kind of mail or information took a four week boat trip. To get a response took about three months. The result of the lag in communication between England and America became rumors that passed for factual events and a misunderstanding is the influence parliament took for the formulation of colonial policy. At the end of the French and Indian War, is seemed impossible that the colonists would challenge the supremacy of Parliament. But the crisis in imperial relations that soon developed forced the Americans first to define and then to defend principles that were rooted deeply in the colonial political culture (Morgan Morgan, 1953). For more than a century, the colonist’s ideas about their role within the British Empire had remained a vague bundle of assumptions about personal liberties, property rights, and representative institutions. By 1763 certain fundamental American beliefs had become clear. Colonists affirmed the importance of representative government. They also accepted the authority of local assemblies to tax their constituents. To declare that the House of Commons in London enjoyed the same right made no sense to them. Parliament was too far and its members could not possibly understand what American interests were. Political thought in the colonies contained a strong moral component, one that British rulers and American Loyalists never fully understood. The origins of this religious perspective on civil government are difficult to locate with precision (Bailyn, 1967). The Great Awakening raised men’s and women’s consciousness of an obligation to conduct themselves according to scripture in public as well as in private. At the same time many Americans who were not swept up by the evangelical fervor adopted the â€Å"commonwealthman† tradition. Insistence on public virtue such as sacrifice of self-interest to the public good became the dominant theme of revolutionary political writing. Media took center stage, colonial newspapers spread the word and ideals throughout the new nation and this was true for the northern part of the country were most were literate. Following the Seven Year’s War more than seven thousand British troops, members of the regular army remained in North America. Their alleged purpose was to protect Indians from predatory frontiersmen and to preserve order in the newly conquered territories of Florida and Quebec. But no one person in the British government actually made the decision to keep an army in the colonies. This unexpected circumstance occurred because various officials in London assumed that someone else had issued the order and what was in facet a no decision resulted in bureaucratic confusion and inertia that provided the initial catalyst for Anglo-American hostility. The war had saddled Britain with a huge national debt. It cost quite a lot to maintain scattered troops and military posts on the American frontier. This burden weighed heavily on the English taxpayers and this made government officials search for different avenues to gain revenue (Shy, 1976). Meanwhile back in America the colonialist was beginning to believe that the revenues spent on the army were too high, because of the inadequacies of the troops. Another factor that played into the make up of the war was that colonialists wanted to move west of the Appalachian Mountains and British refused. The colonialist saw this to be the army’s fault and a problem stopping them from economic development. It was soon after this that George Grenville proposed the first bill that would tax the colonialist to pay for the military there in the states, the Sugar Act. This was soon by the Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Declaratory Act, Townshend Revenue Act, Tea Act, Coercive Acts and the Prohibitory Act. The last being what drives the Continental congress closer to a decision for independence (Morgan Morgan, 1953). The war lasted longer than anyone had predicted in 1776. While the nation won its independence, many Americans paid a terrible price. Indeed, a large number of men and women decided that however much they had loved colonial society they could not accept the new government. Over one hundred thousand men and women permanently left America. Americans turned their attentions to the business of building a new republic. Congress appointed a delegation to negotiate a peace treaty. According to their official instructions, they were to insist only upon the recognition of the independence of the United States. The peacemakers drove a remarkable bargain to say the least, a much better one than Congress could have expected. The preliminary agreement signed on September 3, 1783 guaranteed the independence of the United States and it also transferred all the territory east of the Mississippi River, except Florida which would remain under Spanish rule, to the new Republic (Rankin, 1964). The American people had waged war against the most powerful nation in Europe and come out victorious. The treaty marked the end of a colonial rebellion, but it left them to work out their new country. Many new questions would need to be answered and through difficult times were worked out to what we have today in America. Many referred to the American Revolution as a play with many acts that led up to its historical standing. Works Cited: Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University press, (1967). Higginbotham, Don. The War of American Independence. New York: MacMillian, (1971). Morgan, Edmund S., Morgan, Helen M. The Stamp Act Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, (1953). Rankin, Hugh F. The American Revolution. New York: Putnam, (1964). Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed. New York: Oxford Press, (1976).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Effect of Organisational Support on Job Satisfaction

Effect of Organisational Support on Job Satisfaction Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this research is to test the effect of Perceived Organisational Support on Job satisfaction and to determine the effect of mediation of Trust on Job Satisfaction in the two different sectors of employment- Public and Private. Here Sector of Employment acts as a moderator and Job Trust as the mediator. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was prepared and administered to 182 employees working in the public and the private sector in different industries like Banking, Mining, Power Generation and Information Technology. Findings: The research has established positive relationships between the three constructs of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and job trust for the overall model and public sector employees, whereas these relations are not significant in case of private sector employees. The mediation effect of Trust is significant at 10% for the overall model sans separately in the private and public sector. Research limitations/implications: The respondents have varied profiles in terms of age/ years of experience, seniority level and the industries that they work in. These results may not be generalizable to all employees in other organisations in different industries and geographic areas. Also, a large percentage of responses have been collected through the internet which is not an entirely accurate and reliable form of data collection. Practical implications: The research findings are expected to help the existing organizations in the public and private sector to figure out reasons for decreasing job satisfaction of the employees and devise ways to improve the perception of organizational support. Originality/value: This paper studies the difference in the relationships exhibited between Perceived organisational support, job trust and job satisfaction in the private and public sector in the Indian context. This is one of the first attempts towards studying the employment sectors on a comparative basis. Keywords: Perceived Organisational Support, Job Trust, Job Satisfaction, Public Sector, Private Sector Introduction: Job Satisfaction is a measure of how content an individual is with his job. Quite a few models have been developed in order to explain causes and effects of job satisfaction, for example, affect theory, dispositional theory, two factor theory and the job characteristics model. For years researchers have been trying to establish relationship among various parameters affecting the job satisfaction, job commitment, job dedication and job performance of the employees in the organizations. This is particularly important for organizations in order to improve working conditions, figure out the motivating factors and thus increase employee productivity by creating a healthy work environment. Job Satisfaction is an indicator of employee perceptions and feelings about their jobs. It can also predict work behaviours like organisational citizenship,absenteeismandturnover.Another important and relevant research finding is the relationship between life satisfaction and job satisfaction which is fo und to be reciprocal. It means that a person who is satisfied with his job may be quite satisfied with his life and vice versa. Job satisfaction is believed to positively affect the productivity of the employee which is vital to business units that are aiming to increase outputs. Perceived organizational support is usually thought to be a dynamic relationship between the employer and his employees. According to Rhoades and Eisenberger(2002) the stakeholders share a reciprocal relationship where higher POS is related with sincere efforts put in by the employee to achieve organizational goals. Research findings suggest that professional employees were more likely to perceive higher organizational support when they strongly identified with their workplace and a positive correlation was observed between job performance and POS (Heckman et al., 2009). Our research aims at analyzing the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Trust acts as a mediator in our model. Perceived organizational support is the degree to which employees believe that their organization values their contributions and cares about their well being. Trust is to believe the person who you trust to do what you expect and job satisfaction describes how content a n individual is with his or her job. This research attempts to study and establish relationships between the constructs for the public and private sector employees in India. There are various standard scales available to measure each of these parameters. In this study we have mostly used the shortened version of the scales. Research background and Hypothesis Perceived Organizational Support: The concept of organizational support has generated enough interest in order to study its impact on performance of the employees. The perception an employee develops about his/her organization valuing his contributions and caring about his interests and well being is termed as Perceived Organizational Support (POS)(Eisenberger and Rhoades,2002). A meta-analysis has indicated that three major categories of expectations that an employee has from his work organization are associated with POS. They are evenhandedness of procedures, support of the immediate superior and performance related rewards and favorable job conditions. Taking into account the employers expectations from their employees, they value dedication and loyalty. Emotion centric view of organizational commitment underlines that the sense of unity felt by the employee and the values that he shares with the organization determine the performance and absenteeism levels, probability of quitting his job (Mathieu Zajac, 1990;Me yer Allen, 1997; Mowday, Porter, Steers, 1982). Social Exchange theorists state that employment is a give and take relationship of dedication and loyalty for tangible rewards and social benefits (e.g., Bateman Organ, 1983; Brief Motowidlo, 1986). The antecedents of POS and its outcomes are explained by the organisational support theory which (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, Sowa, 1986). This theory assumes that to determine organisations readiness to reward employee efforts and meet their socio emotional needs, employee forms general beliefs about the concern shown and expected in future by his organisation towards him. POS is also considered an assurance of the assistance that will be available to the employee in times of distress (cf. George, Reed, Ballard, Colin, Fielding, 1993). Actions taken by the agents of the organisation are representative of its intent and are not personal motives. The personification of the organisation is supported by its moral and legal respon sibilities, culture, norms and policies. Employees form perceptions based on the above indicators about the support they get from their work organisation (Levinson, 1965). This theory also states that POS should develop some kind of an obligation in the employee to perform for the organisation and help reach its objectives. The role discernment of employees is assumed to depend on the activities that the organisation sees as necessary for successful job performance (Porter Lawler, 1968). Performance is expected to increase with higher efforts put in by the employee and the perception that such fruitful efforts will be rewarded (Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler, Weick, 1970; Katz, 1964). Job Trust Trust is one of the most important fundamentals on which an employer-employee relationship is based. This relationship goes a long way in instilling confidence and destructing fear by creating a work environment free of worry and suspicion (Zeffane, 2003). Trust has also been suggested to be a psychological state according to which it is measured on the basis of perceived vulnerability or risk due to the uncertainty involved (Kramer, 1999). In our research work we are concerned with the trust within the organization i.e. the extent of trust the employees have in the organization they work for, basically between employees and managers or supervisors. Thus in an organizational context trust is based on the social exchange theory mainly (Whitener et al., 1998), which explains trust to be an outcome of exchange of benefits between the two parties involved. The underlying concept involved here is â€Å"reciprocity†, which establishes the fact that investment in the employees in an organization in terms of recognition, empowerment, justice, support and other favours will always be returned and not go waste (Gouldner, 1960). According the research done by Prusak and Cohen (2001), it is possible for managers to develop an environment of trust in the organization by encouraging mutual trust, and support. This in turn increases the level of perceived faith in the organization by the employees. It has also been argued that this trust (McAllister, 1995) is the key to organizational trust and control. It leads to increased level of employee participation which involves decision making power in the hands of the subordinates which would inevitably lead to increase in mistakes. Thus, by delegating this power to the subordinates the organization increases the risk factor but at the same time, since this delegation needs a bond of trust (Yukl, 1994), gives a clear indication that organization believes in its employees and thus the individual perceives this organizational trust and in turn contributes effectively and positively towards the organization. It is also true that each individual perceives the level of trust differently. So, it is futile to hold common assumptions across all work relationships and thus context based analysis is required. The trust levels also vary on the basis of who is participating in the relationship i.e. at what level of the organization (Graham et al., 2006). Thus, this trust e xisting in an organization determines to a large extent an organizations culture and work dynamics, by influencing factors like organizational structure, job satisfaction and commitment (Zaffane et. al, 2003). Hence, we have taken this as one of the constructs (as a mediator) in our analysis of the relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction was attributed to greatest possible earnings with the least amount of work done (Taylor, 1970). This controversial theory encouraged a number of other studies to prove the significance of other factors in determining job satisfaction. These factors were identified as communication apprehension, perceptions of immediate supervisors and employee esteem (Falcione, 1977). Also, job satisfaction was determined to be influenced by the returns or rewards expected by the individual and the extent to which she was able to achieve them in the job. (Jorgensen, 1973). Employee perceptions were considered more important in determining job satisfaction than physical evidences like pay (Brayfield et al., 1951). The short form version of Brayfield and Rothes scale was developed to measure employee perceptions about their job and organization (Algho et al., 1992). A lot of research has been targeted at job satisfaction and the turnover rates in the organizations or the employees inte ntion to quit. (Spector et al., 1997). In this regard, job satisfaction was proved to be related to job identification. Both of them were determined to be organizational anchors and were used to predict the turnover within organizations (De Moura et al., 2009). A precedent to job satisfaction was identified as job insecurity (Reisel et al., 2010) and an antecedent was found to be role conscientiousness and performance of extra-role tasks (Nathan et al.). Job satisfaction has often been positively linked to training and development opportunities in the organization. A significant positive relationship was observed between employer provided training satisfaction and overall job satisfaction of employees. Satisfaction with training and development significantly affects career decisions and is a valued factor among employees, thus significantly impacting job satisfaction (Schmidt, 2007). Also, job satisfaction was conceptually established as a mediator between perceived organizational s upport and job commitment. Empirically, a positive relationship was established between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction (Chiu et al., 2010). In a recent study on job satisfaction, a total of nine factors grouped under four headings were considered as precedents of job satisfaction. The four headings included organizational change, organizational support, job characteristics and managerial role. It was empirically proved that decentralization, informal communication, support from supervisor, participative organizational culture, autonomy and empowerment of employees and the type of role in the organization significantly influenced the job satisfaction of employees (Lee et al., 2008). The role of supervisory or immediate boss support was determined to be significant. As per the study, supervisors were perceived as the representatives of the organization by employees and are responsible for acting as the interface between organization and employees. Thus, they nat urally build a relationship with employees. Quality of this relationship was the significant determinant of employee perceptions and job satisfaction (Ladebo, 2008). The use of information systems in the organization has been observed to have a positive impact on employee job satisfaction. In the evolving workplaces of present, the ability to work flexibly and efficiently is observed to have a major impact on the technologically advanced employees. Thus, the installation of an efficient Information System, which provided easy access to information was observed to increase the job satisfaction scores significantly (Chen et al, 2008). The relationship between POS and Job Satisfaction POS is related to, yet different form the constructs like job satisfaction. POS is determined to have a strong influence on employee reactions to their jobs on various dimensions, including job satisfaction, job involvement and job commitment (Rhoades, 2002). As per the norms of reciprocity, an employee would react positively to good treatment from the supervisor or immediate boss. As the immediate boss is the direct representative of the organisation, a fair treatment from him would be seen to be organisational support and would encourage employees to go beyond their normal call of duty to reciprocate the good treatment (Rousseau, 1989). POS is defined as the perception which employees have of how much the organization values them, their contributions or cares about them. High POS would meet psychological needs of employees, e.g. approval, esteem and social identity needs. It would also motivate the employees by raising the expectations of rewards on above average or above expected performance (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Percieved organisational support has a positive relationship with psychological well being which is defined in terms of job satisfaction and life satisfaction. This relationship is mediated by effective commitment (Meyer et al., 2002). POS is most often observed to be positively related with organizational commitment (Shore et al., 1991). However, POS is still distinct from organisational commitment because while POS measures the extent to which organisation cares about its employees as per their perceptions, organisational commitment measures the extent to which employees see themselves as being committed to the organisation and thus satisfied (Shore et al., 1993) Without POS, employees may be unhappy with the tasks associated with their jobs and may be dissatisfied. POS is affected by the various aspects of an organizations treatment of its employees (Tansky et al., 2001). Organizational support is measured in terms of customized training op portunities and options of flexible working hours. Career satisfaction acts as a mediating variable for relationship between perceived organizational support and employees intentions to continue in the organization (Armstrong et al., 2009). Training and mentoring before special assignments has been seen to be a strong indicator of organisational support. These initiatives give a sense of security to employees and reassure them and organization will help them meet challenges. Thus, they identify more with the job and do it more efficiently (Cuplan, 2002). Many senior women managers have complained of the managements failure to recognise their talent and lack of support and advancement opportunities within the organisation. Women form only a tiny fraction of males in senior positions (Wellington et al., 2003). Such perceptions often lead to quitting the job, which is a significant indicator of reduced job satisfaction at negative perception of organisation justice (Jawahar et al., 2008). Both POS and JS are observed to be having significant relationship with organisation commitment, which shows the presence of a correlation between these variables. Organisational identification is seen to have a strong positive effect on outcome variables like job satisfaction (Abrams et al., 2001). Organisational support however indicates how well organisation takes care of the OID for their employees. POS theory suggests that if organisation takes good care of employees, they will develop a stronger attachment to the organisation (Rhoades et al., 200 1), hence being more satisfied and committed (Rhoades et al., 2002). Based on the above discussion, hypothesis H1 is proposed: H1. Perceived Organizational Support (POS) has a significant positive influence on Job Satisfaction (JS) The relationship between Job Trust and Job Satisfaction: Theoretically it seems quite obvious that job trust leads to job satisfaction in employees. Measuring the job trust implies probing into how the individual views the organization and also the bond he has with the organization (Perry et al., 2007). Many researchers have reported a positive relationship between job satisfaction and job trust. According to a research analysis aimed at studying the antecedents and outcomes of trust (Derks 2002) found job satisfaction and job commitment as the major consequences. The level of trust existing in an organization determines to a large extent an organizations culture and work dynamics, by influencing factors like organizational structure, job satisfaction and commitment (Zaffane et. al, 2003). Thus, by building a high trust relationship with the subordinates, managers can increase organizational effectiveness through improved levels of job satisfaction. But once this trust is broken, it leads to a never ending cycle of mistrust and conse quently an organizational environment, where employees are distressed, insecure and unsatisfied (Zaffane et. al, 2003). And since job satisfaction and job commitment are strongly related to trust, job commitment being the antecedent of job satisfaction (Mowday 1974), such a situation is really alarming for organizations. The job trust is mostly perceived as the trust between the employees and their managers or the superiors. It has been further proven that if the employees show trust in their superiors then the superiors have greater influence on them (Goris et al. 2003). The reason being the superiors are responsible for many duties which shape the career of their subordinates like performance evaluations, guidance in terms of job responsibilities and training. Thus if the trust on the basis of such parameters in a manager increases then as a result job satisfaction also increases (Dirks et al. 2001). Also, this increased level of trust encourages cooperation, reduction in conflicts and thus improved job satisfaction. Hence the Hypothesis H2: There exists a positive relationship between Job Trust and Job Satisfaction The relationship between POS and Job Trust Many studies have been conducted on measuring the levels of job trust (Dietz and Den Hartog, 2006) and POS in organisations. Trust between two entities is stated as the readiness of one (Trustor) to be susceptible to the actions of the other (Trustee). This readiness of the trustor is basically his expectation that the one he trusts will act in his favour irrespective of exercising control and supervision (Mayer et al., 1995). Job Trust is considered of high importance in todays organisations because it has been empirically established that when trust levels are high, organisation commitment is high (Brockner et al., 1997). As per the definition of trust used above lack of trust means a higher need of monitoring (Handy, 1995) and increased trust levels suggests lower need for supervision (Bradach and Eccles, 1989; Ouchi, 1979). POS as defined above is believed to affect Job Trust though there is not enough empirical evidence available. There is enough research available on the antece dents of POS and its outcomes but none talks about the Job Trust with specific mention. POS is has its theoretical roots in the social exchange relationship (Allen and Brady, 1997), in which the employee is obliged to reciprocate to the organisation like he feels about it (Eisenberger et al., 2001). If employees believe that their organisation or for that matter immediate superior is truly interested in their well being then trust will develop (Doney et al., 1998). Researches indicate that increased perception of organisational support results in increased efforts jointly put in by the employees to achieve the organisations objectives (Eisenberger et al., 1986). Research conducted by Cook and Wall(1980) noted that there is a positive correlation between trust and involvement with the work organisation. Similarly studies reveal a positive relationship between POS, affective attachment and expectations of performance related rewards (Eisenberger et al., 1990). According to a research conducted by Florence et al., (2006), the relationship between procedural justice and tru st is partially mediated by POS. Also trust has been found to mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organisational citizenship behaviour (Konovsky and Pugh, 1994), POS is also a mediator of the link between the above two (Moorman et al., 1998). Thus we can expect a possible linkage between trust and POS. Hence the Hypothesis H3: There exists a positive relationship between POS and Job Trust Employment sectors moderating role on the model In this research we have taken into account the moderating effect of the dichotomous moderator: the employment sector of the respondent i.e. public and private sector. The definition of employment sector in the Indian context refers to the government owned and operated organisations which come under public sector and privately owned entities which are termed the private sector organisations. Employee job satisfaction has been studied extensively on various occasions but a research aiming to bring out differences in the levels of observed POS, Trust and Job Satisfaction and the relationships between them in Public and Private sector have not been studied in depth. Since the work culture of these two sectors are very different and so are the job factors. The work environment in the private sector is more competitive, open and result-oriented while in public sector its conservative, less open to new ideas and generally plunged by stagnation in the long run. So, we aim to analyze the var iables of POS, trust and job satisfaction in these two sectors and try to find the differences in perception due to the way the system works. 0.322* 0.553* 0.253* 0.184/ 0.441* 0.439*/ 0.642* 0.096/ 0.412* In the above figure Number 1/ Number 2: Standard beta coefficient of Public sector/ Standard Beta Coefficient of Private sector Methods Sample In all 183 respondents employed in managerial capacity in public and private sector establishments in India were administered this survey asking their perceptions about the job, organisational support and satisfaction. The questionnaires were electronically mailed to the target group which constituted equal number of respondents from both sectors and a wide arena of industries like banking, information technology, power generation etc. Measures Unless otherwise stated all the following constructs have been measured by Likert scales with responses ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Perceived Organisational Support: Employees perception of organisational support has been measured using an 8 item and a 5 point scale developed by Eisenberger (2001). A sample item is, My organization strongly considers my goals and values. Job trust: Trust that the employee has in his or her organization has been measured using a 7 item and a 5 point scale developed by Tyler (2003). A sample item is In my organization, my views are considered when decisions are made. Job Satisfaction: The contentment that the employee derives from the nature of his job is measured by a 7 item and 7 point scale developed by Brayfield and Rothe (1951). A sample item is . I feel fairly satisfied with my present job. Limitations and Conclusion One of the limitations of this research proposal is the diversity in the years of experience of the respondents. Public sector employees who were administered this survey had a higher average years of experience while the private sector employees were new entrants into employments. The difference in expectations and parameters on which their perceptions are based may have affected the results of the research. Second, the respondents in the public and the private sector work in entirely different industries. For example, the respondents from the public sector undertakings are mainly from the banking and power generation sector whereas private sector respondents belong to information technology, consultancies etc. Direct comparison of public and private sector employees working in the same industry has not been brought out clearly. Third, the method of data collection through the internet is not entirely accurate and reliable. References Allen, M.W. and Brady, R.M. 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Managerial behavior, performance, and effectiveness. New York: Mc- Graw-Hill. Cook, J.D. and Wall, T.D. (1980), ‘‘New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfillment, Journal of Occupational Psychology, Vol. 53, pp. 39-52. Dietz, G. and Den Hartog, D. (2006), ‘‘Measuring trust inside organizations, Personnel Review, Vol. 35 No. 5, pp. 557-88. Doney, P.M., Cannon, J.P. and Mullen, M.R. (1998), ‘‘Understanding the influence of national culture on the development of trust, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 601-20 Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P.D. and Rhoades, L. (2001), ‘‘Reciprocation of perceived organizational support, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 86 No. 1, pp. 42-51. Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P. and Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990), ‘‘Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 75 No. 1, pp. 51-9. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. and Sowa, D. (1986), ‘‘Perceived organizational support, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 71 No. 3, pp. 500-7. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507. Florence, S., David, C., Liesbeth, M., V. (2006) â€Å"Perceived Support as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Justice and Trust†, Group and Organisation Management George, J. M., Reed, T. F., Ballard, K. A., Colin, J., Fielding, J. (1993). Contact with AIDS patients as a source of work-related distress: Effects of organizational and social support. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 157-171. Katz, D. (1964). The motivational basis of organizational behavior. Behavioral Science, 9, 131-146. Konovsky, M.A. and Pugh, S.D. (1994), ‘‘Citizenship behavior and social exchange, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 656-69. Levinson, H. (1965). Reciprocation: The relationship between man and organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 9, 370-390 Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger, â€Å"Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature†, Journal of Applied Psychology, 2002 Vol. 87, No. 4, 698-714 Mathieu, J. E., Zajac, D. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-194. Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H. and Schoorman, F.D. (1995), ‘‘An integrative model of organizational trust, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 709-34. Meyer, J. P., Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Moorman, R.H., Blakely, G.L. and Niehoff, B.P. (1998), ‘‘Does perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behaviour, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 351-57. Mowday, R. 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Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Losses In Xlpe Insulated Cables Engineering Essay

Losses In Xlpe Insulated Cables Engineering Essay Power cables, mainly underground power cables form a bulk part of electrical power systems network. Accordingly, when medium voltage XLPE cables were first installed in the late 1960s, cable manufacturers and electric utilities expected them to perform reliably for 20 to 30 years. However, history has shown that these cables had high percentage of life losses whereby the service life of some of these cables was far shorter than expected. Many cables failed after only 10 to 15 years in service. The failure of XLPE cables was happened due to the aging process. Aging of XLPE cables is related to the temperature of the insulation. For XLPE cables, the normal maximum operating temperature is 90  °C. At this maximum value, the consumption rate of anti-oxidant has been calculated to afford a cable life of 30 years. Increasing the XLPE cables operating temperature will increase the rate which the anti-oxidant is used up. Subsequently, it will reduce the service life of XLPE cables. The rea ction follows the Arrhenius relationship which is an exponential function. From this, even a small increase in temperature, it will hence give significant impact on the aging process of XLPE cables. Once the anti-oxidant in the cables is used up, the cables will start to oxidize and become easily broken. Then, the cables will be subject to stress cracking and electrical failure at positions of mechanical stress. In addition, the presence of harmonics in power system causes a conductor to overheat. This overheating process makes the cable to increase in term of temperature to its insulation. Therefore, cable will soften and the mechanical performances will reduce which is called as premature aging. Thus, it is important to investigate the presence of harmonic in any electrical equipment. From this we could know the temperature due to the overheating process and evaluate the life losses of any associated cables. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 2 ABSTRACT 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 4 1 INTRODUCTION 8 1.1 Background 8 1.2 Premature Aging due to Harmonic 9 1.3 Development of Power Cables 9 1.3.1 Oil-Impregnated Paper Power Cables 10 1.3.2 Solid-Dielectric-Extruded Power Cables 11 Technology of XLPE Cables 13 1.4 Losses in Power Cables 15 1.5 Objectives of Study 16 1.6 Scopes of study 17 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 18 2.1. Introduction 18 2.2. Power System Harmonics 18 2.2.1. Definition of Harmonics 19 2.2.2. Source of Harmonics 19 2.2.3. The Harm of Harmonic 20 2.2.4. Effects of Harmonics on Power System 21 Motors and Generators 21 Transformers 22 Power Cables 22 Capacitors 23 2.2.5. Economical Damage due to Harmonic Losses 23 2.3 Underground Power Cables 24 2.3.1 Gas-filled Cable 24 2.3.2 XLPE Cables 27 3 EVALUATION OF THE AGING COST DUE TO HARMONIC LOSSES IN XLPE CABLES 29 3.1 Introduction 29 3.1.1 Flowchart 30 3.2 Calculation of Losses 31 3.2.1 Resistance of the conductor 31 3.2.2 Skin Effect 32 3.2.3 Proximity Effect 33 3.2.4 Total Power Losses 33 Joule Losses 34 Dielectric losses 34 3.3 Probabilistic Evaluation of the Economical Damage due to Harmonic Losses 35 3.3.1 Expected Value of the Aging Cost due to Harmonic Losses 35 3.4 Conclusion 39 4 DATA, MODELLING AND ASSUMPTIONS 40 4.1 Data 40 4.2 Assumptions 41 5 RESULTS, ANALYSIS, AND DISCUSSIONS 42 5.1 Results 42 5.2 Discussions 45 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 46 6.1 Expected result 46 6.2 Conclusions 47 6.3 Recommendations 47 REFERENCES 49 APPENDICES APPENDIX A 52 APPENDIX B 58 APPENDIX C 67 APPENDIX D 68 APPENDIX E 69 APPENDIX F 72 APPENDIX G 73 Background By means of the discovery of electricity in the early 19th Century, all countries in the world nowadays have virtually utilized electricity as a source of light and energy. This has led to the existence of distribution-transmission line system carrying current, even if at different voltages and transporting it over long distances till the end users or customers. For the distribution-transmission line system, engineers had thought critically in finding the suitable power cables for power system. Mainly, most of the bulk electrical energy generated from the generation centers is being transported to major load centers within a large geographical area by the transmission systems using overhead lines [1]. In the other words, the distribution system delivers the electrical energy from these load centers to customers who are within a smaller geographical area. For safety, reliability and aesthetics, the electric circuits used to transport energy to such customers are usually underground power cables, though this kind of arrangement is expensive but has more advantages than the overhead lines [2]. Over the years, high demand of reliable electricity power supply has led the electricity markets to be highly competitive. Electric utility companies now have to develop means of maintaining, enhance the safety and reliability of their expensive power system components to operate advantageously and meet the demands of their customers. One of power system component that constitutes a bulk part of the distribution and transmission line systems in urban areas is the underground power cable. For instance, in the United Kingdom there are about 93000 km of 11 kV cable and more than 13000 km of 33 kV [6]. In Malaysia with rush of development has led to increasing demands of electrical energy. Doing this, underground cable distribution is increasing significantly. It is estimated that there are about 180000 km of underground cables in Malaysia, forming about 80 % of the underground power distribution system. This shows that, the technology of underground power cables has grown up very fast by the time as the world is moving extremely in science and technology. However, lately the presence of harmonic in electrical energy systems is well known [3]. The harmonics are due to nonlinear loads such as static converter and can damage the system components [6]. In the case of the cables, harmonics can cause relevant additional losses in the conducting and in the insulating materials which cannot be neglected. From the economical point of view, the presence of harmonics can cause economical damage which increasing the operating costs and decreasing the useful life of the system components. The economical damage due to harmonic losses can be defined as the summation of the operating costs and the aging costs. As stated in [13], the operating costs are referred to the costs of the incremental energy losses caused by the harmonic flow in the component, where the term incremental means that these losses are superimposed to the ones at the fundamental while the aging costs are referred to the incremental investment costs caused by the premature aging of the components caused by the harmonic pollution. Premature Aging due to Harmonic Aging failures have become a major and urgent concern in many utilities since many power system components are approaching the turning point to the end of life. For the case of power cables, the premature aging occurs due to harmonic pollution. The harmonic flow can lead to additional heating in power cables. Subsequently, temperature will rise and premature aging may result. Development of Power Cables [1] Power cable technology had its beginnings in the 1880s when the need for power distribution cables became pressing. With urban growth, it became increasingly necessary to replace some of the overhead lines for power transmission and distribution system with underground cables. The illumination of the larger cities proceeded at such a rapid pace that under some circumstances it was impossible to accommodate the number and size of feeders required for distribution, using the overhead line system approach. In fact this situation deteriorated so notably in New York City that, in addition to the technical and aesthetic considerations, the overhead line system began to pose a safety hazard to the line workers themselves, the firemen, and the public. As a result, the city passed an ordinance law in 1884 requires removing the overhead line structures and replacing them with underground power cables. Similar laws and public pressure were applied in other cities, with the consequence that by the early 1900s, underground electrification via insulated cables was on its way to becoming a well-established practice [14]. A practical lead press was invented in 1879 and subsequently employed to manufacture 2kV cables for Vienna in 1885. During the same period, vulcanized rubber was used to produce cables on a commercial scale, although use of guttapercha had already been made as early as 1846. Impregnated-paper power cables were first put on the market in 1894 by Callender Cables of England, using impregnant mixtures of rosin oil, rosin and castor oil and only in 1918 were these replaced by mineral oils. In North America, impregnated-paper cables were first supplied by the Norwich Wire Company. Varnished cambric cables were introduced by the General Electric Company in 1902. The behavior of these cables with hightemperature was subsequently improved the addition of black asphalt. Some of the more common early solid and liquid insulating employed in various underground cable installations were natural rubber, gutta-percha, oil and wax, rosin and asphalt, jute, hemp, and cotton. In 1890, Ferranti developed the first oil-impregnated-paper power cable. By following their manufacture, his cables were installed in London in 1891 for 10 kV operations. In addition, the cables were made in 20 ft lengths as the total circuit was 30 miles in length about splicing joints were four required. Nevertheless, these cables performed so well that the last cable length was removed from service only in 1933. Cable installation continued to proceed at a rapid pace, so that by the turn of the 20th century many major cities throughout the world had many miles of underground power cables. For example, already by the end of 1909, the Commonwealth Edison Company in Chicago had 400 miles of underground cable operated in the voltage range between 9 to 20 kV. Montreal had some 4500 ft cir cuits of three-conductor cables installed in ducts under the Lachine canal for 25 kV operations; the same voltage was used for cable traversing the St. Lawrence River in 1906. With some experiences behind them, cable manufacturers were increasingly gaining confidence and during the St. Louis Exposition in 1904 power cables developed for voltages as high as 50 kV were put on display [14]. Oil-Impregnated Paper Power Cables [14] During the period prior to World War I, extensive use was made of oilimpregnated paper cables of the three-conductor belted type for voltages up to 25 kV. Due to non-uniform stress distribution in the cable construction, the belted cable proved to be highly partial discharge susceptible when attempts were made to extend the operating voltage range with larger wall thickness to approximately 35 kV, to meet the increased power demand following World War I [18]. This problem was resolved by shielding the individual conductors, using 3-mil-thick copper tapes. The outside of the shielded conductors was thus maintained at the same ground potential. Figure 1.3.1 Cross-section of an Oil-impregnated Paper Insulated Cable In addition, the belt insulation was replaced with a binder consisting of fabric tapes and strands of interwoven copper wire. The purpose of the latter was again to maintain the shields of the three cables at the same potential. Over the years, the conductor shapes of the three-conductor shielded paper insulated cables have evolved into three forms, namely circular, oval, and sectoral. In many utilities a substantial portion of the present-day distribution load is still carried at 35 kV via three-phase oil-impregnated paper belted cables, with the three conductors individually grounded. There is little inducement to replace these cables with solid extruded dielectric cables, whose outer diameter for an equivalent power rating would exceed that of the ducts accommodating the more compact threephase oil-paper belted cables. Moreover, the oil-paper belted cables have been characterized by remarkably long in-service lifetimes that often exceed 65 years. Belted cables with unshielded conductors are still deployed but only for working voltages equal to or less than 15 kV. With the individual conductors shielded, it was possible to extend the use of the three-phase belted cables for voltages as high as 69 kV, though on the average their application has been confined to voltages below 35 kV. The main reason for this upper limit has again been associated with the occurrence of partial discharges, which had in numerous instances led to the deterioration and failure of the dielectric at the elevated voltages. The partial discharges were found to take place in voids, which were formed either during the manufacturing process or during the load cycling while in service. Solid-Dielectric-Extruded Power Cables [1, 14] With the discovery of the hydrocarbon thermoplastic polyethylene (PE) in England in 1933, polyethylene became rapidly, the insulant of choice for RF coaxial cables. PE was first used as an insulant for power cables in the 1950s. In the mid 1960s, conventional PE became the material of choice for the rapidly expanding URD systems in the United States. It was known to be superior to butyl rubber for moisture resistance, and could be readily extruded. It was used with tape shields, which achieved their semi-conducting properties because of carbon black. By 1968, virtually all of the URD installations consisted of polyethylene-insulated medium voltage cables. The polyethylene was referred to as HMWPE; this simply meant that the insulation used had a very high average molecular weight. The higher the molecular weight, the better the electrical properties. The highest molecular weight PE that could be readily extruded was adopted. Jacketed construction was seldom employed at that time. Extruded thermoplastic shields were introduced between 1965 and 1975 leading both to easier processing and better reliability of the cable [19]. XLPE was first patented in 1959 for a filled compound and in 1963 for unfilled by Dr. Frank Precopio. It was not widely used because of the tremendous pressure to keep the cost of URD down near the cost of an overhead system. This higher cost was caused by the need for additives (cross linking agents) and the cost of manufacturing based on the need for massive, continuous vulcanizing (CV) tubes. EPR was introduced at about the same time. The significantly higher initial cost of these cables slowed their acceptance for utility purposes until the 1980s. The superior operating and allowable emergency temperatures of XLPE and EPR made them the choice for feeder cables in commercial and industrial applications. These materials do not melt and flow like HMWPE. The emergence of power distribution cables insulated with PE have replaced a significant portion of the oil-impregnated-paper insulated power cables used at operating voltages up to 35 kV. But lower voltage PILC cables are still being manufactured, due to their in-service longevity and reliability. In spite the long record of service and reliability of PILC cables, they are being gradually replaced by the less hygroscopic polymeric insulated cables, XLPE. XLPE cables have distinct advantages which are lighter weight, better electrical and thermal properties, less maintenance, and easier terminating and jointing procedure etc. Today, XLPE cables are being extensively used in many countries all over the world. In 1959, Japan and USA commercialized XLPE cables up to medium voltage rating. Since then a fast development of XLPE cables has taken place. Presently, XLPE cable of 500 kV class has been installed in Japan. The introduction of XLPE has increased the capability of polymeric insulated cables because of their higher temperature ratings. XLPE insulations perform well at elevated temperatures. Their normal operating temperature is about 90  °C and designed to withstand an emergency overload and short circuit ratings of 130  °C and 250  °C, respectively. Technology of XLPE Cables XLPE has become the most favored insulant. Germany, USA, Asian and Scandinavian countries have installed gigantic quantities of such cables. Japan has developed XLPE cables up to 500 kV which is the highest voltage rating of XLPE cables manufactured so far. The basic material for XLPE cable is polyethylene (PE). PE has very good electrical properties. However, its mechanical strength decreases significantly above 75  °C restricting its continuous operating temperature to 70  °C only. The improved thermal characteristics of PE are obtained by establishing a large number of cross-links between its liner molecular chains employing suitable techniques. The introduction of XLPE has increased the capability of polymeric insulated cables because of their higher temperature ratings. The processes for converting PE to XLPE are electron irradiation, chemical cross linking, and organic silane method. Electron irradiation is a slow process and it is difficult to ensure an even degree of cross linking throughout the thick insulation required for power cables. Therefore this process is usually restricted to thin insulation of 1 to 2 mm thickness only. Chemical cross linking process is the process by which cross-linking of PE is established using organic peroxide such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP) at high temperature in the range 250 to 350  °C and pressure 15-20 kg/cm2. This method is employed in the production of XLPE cables of all voltage range, from LV to EHV. Sioplas technique is a relatively new method of cross linking PE into XLPE. Cross linking is achieved by mixing suitable silane to PE and exposing this to ambient conditions. This method has the distinct advantage of lower capital expenditure as no special arrangements to maintain high pressure and temperature are required. But the process is very slow for thick insulation and hence restricted to low voltage and medium voltag e XLPE cables. The general construction of XLPE cable consists of copper or aluminium conductor, extruded layer of semi conducting material over conductor (for voltage class above 3.3 kV), extruded XLPE insulation, extruded layer of semi-conducting material (for cables of voltage rating above 3.3 kV), copper wire or tape as metallic screen, armour, inner sheath and outer sheath, usually made of PVC etc. Three core XLPE cables are generally used up to maximum 33 kV. Cables of 66 kV and above voltage rating are of single core construction. Figure 1.3.2 Solid dielectric extruded power cable [14] The manufacturing process of XLPE cables consists of mixing of PE with cross-linking agent (DCP) and antioxidants, extrusion of semiconducting layers and insulation over the conductor, crosslinking the PE compound in curing lines at high temperature and pressure and cooling the core to ambient temperature. All these processes are carried out in one step employing catenaries lines for curing and cooling, hence the name continuous catenaries vulcanization. Semiconducting layers and insulation are extruded using triple extrusion technique. The curing process was initially carried out with steam at high temperature and pressure. This resulted in the formation of microvoids within the insulation and restricted the application of steam curing process up to 33 kV. To achieve reliable HV cables, it was therefore necessary to employ curing in the absence of steam. For this reason, dry curing methods were developed, where PE was crosslinked under nitrogen pressure in silicone oil, in molten salt and also in long dies. The numbers of microvoids were drastically reduced. A new curing process has recently appeared namely silane process which is more economical. Losses in Power Cables Losses in power cables include losses in conductor, insulation, sheath, and screens armors. Conductor losses (I2Rac losses) depend upon the rms current I effective AC resistance of the cable conductor. Dielectric losses comprise of losses due to leakage through the cable insulation and caused by dielectric polarization under AC stresses. It includes the net dielectric losses depend upon cable voltage, its frequency as well as the permittivity and loss tangent of the cable dielectric material, as shown by the equation below: Power loss = à Ã¢â‚¬ °CoV2ÃŽÂ µr tan ÃŽÂ ´ [2] (1) Generally, tan ÃŽÂ ´, which partially controls the dielectric losses, is significantly higher for oil-paper insulation as compared to XLPE insulation. For most of the dielectric materials used in cables, tan ÃŽÂ ´ depends upon temperature, applied stress and supply frequency. For oil-paper insulation tan ÃŽÂ ´ is also strongly influenced by moisture content. Therefore, in voltage cables, a moisture level of less than 0.05 % is desirable in order keep dielectric losses within acceptable limits. The presence of voids and microcracks can also influence dielectric losses. These voids are formed in the insulation or at the screens/insulation interfaces during manufacture, installation or operation. In polymeric cables, they are formed during the extrusion process while in paper-insulated cables, during the impregnation cycle. Voids may also form in cables by the differential expansion contraction of cable materials due to cyclic loading or short circuit conditions. These voids have a higher electric stress as compared to the bulk insulation. However, the gas inside a void usually has lower breakdown strength as compared to the main insulation. When the electric stress in void exceeds the breakdown strength of gas within the void, PD occurs. Any partial discharge in such voids increases the effective tan ÃŽÂ ´ value for insulation. Consequently, when the applied voltage is raised above the charge inception threshold, the dielectric losses exhibit a distinct increase. Similarly, impurities in the cable insulation and screening materials also increase dielectric losses. The AC current flowing along each cable conductor induces emf the metallic sheaths of the cable. Without grounding, such sheaths would operate at a potential above the ground potential and can pose a hazard. Furthermore, it will accelerate degradation of the jacket and materials, thereby affecting the cables life and reliability. When the sheaths are bonded, circulating current flows in them causing power losses. However, for three-core cables such losses are negligible. In addition to circulating currents, eddy currents are also induced in sheaths of both single and multi-core cables causing additional losses which usually are of small magnitudes. 1.5 Objectives of Study This project is conducted to evaluate the expected value of aging cost due to harmonic losses in XLPE cables. Therefore, this project is conducted regarding to these objectives: To investigate the effects of harmonics losses on XLPE cables from economical point of view. To evaluate the expected value of the aging cost due to harmonics losses in XLPE insulated cables. 1.6 Scope of study This study will focus on XLPE insulated cables This study will use the characteristics of single core underground cables. The effect of harmonics losses on XLPE cable will be investigated A program will be developed to evaluate the expected value of aging cost due to harmonic losses. The economical damage due to harmonic losses is quantified by means of the expected values of the operating costs and of the aging costs. For this, it will focus only for the calculation of the expected values of the aging costs. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction We design power systems to function at the fundamental frequency [1]. In Malaysia, the fundamental frequency is standardized at 50 Hz. This design is prone to unsatisfactory operation. At the same time, failure will happen when subjected to voltages and currents those contain substantial harmonic frequency elements. Frequently, the electrical equipment may seem operate normally. However, when they operate under a certain combination of conditions it might enhance the impact of harmonics which cause results to damage [20]. Most people do not realize that harmonics have been around for a long time. Since the first AC generator began to operate more than 100 years ago (Sankaran, C., 1995), electrical power systems have experienced harmonics. When harmonics present in electrical equipment, it can cause the equipment to malfunction and fail to work. In this case proper design and rating are needed to prevent the presence of harmonics. 2.2 Power System Harmonics The objective of the electric utility is to deliver sinusoidal voltage at fairly constant magnitude throughout their system. In fact, in order to achieve this objective is reasonably complicated because there are loads that exist on the power system that will produce harmonic currents. These currents produced may result in distorted voltages and currents that can give negative impact to the system performance in different ways. As the number of harmonic producing loads has increased over the years, it has become increasingly necessary to address their influence when making any addition or changes to an installation. We should consider two important concepts that have to bear in mind with regard to power system harmonics. The first concept is the nature of harmonic current producing loads (non linear loads) and the second concept is the way in which harmonic currents flow and how the resulting harmonic voltages develop. Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of electronic and other non-linear loads, these waveforms quite often become distorted. This deviation from a perfect sine wave can be represented by harmonics sinusoidal components having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. Thus, a pure voltage or current sine wave has no distortion and no harmonics, and a non-sinusoidal wave has distortion and harmonics. To quantify the distortion, the term total harmonic distortion (THD) is used. The term expresses the distortion as a percentage of the fundamental (pure sine) of voltage and current waveforms. In addition, current harmonics can distort the voltage waveform and cause voltage harmonics. Voltage distortion affects not only sensitive electronic loads but also electric motors and capacitor banks. 2.2.1 Definition of Harmonic Harmonics are defined as current and voltages at frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency [4]. For example, if the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz, then the second harmonic is 100 Hz, the third is 150 Hz, and etc [5]. The presence of harmonics in electrical energy systems is well recognized due to nonlinear loads such as static converters and it can damage the system components [6]. These nonlinear loads will draw current in abrupt pulses rather than in a smooth sinusoidal manner. Then, these pulses cause distorted current wave shapes which in turn and cause harmonic currents to flow back into other parts of the power system. In the case of power cables, harmonics can cause relevant additional losses in the conducting and in the insulating materials which cannot be neglected in the cable size [6]. 2.2.2 Source of harmonics Most harmonics originate from the generation of harmonic current caused by nonlinear load signatures [4]. The major sources of power system harmonics include switching operations, power electronic devices and other nonlinear loads and etc [7]. Electronic devices are nonlinear and thus they create distorted currents even when supplied with a purely sinusoidal voltage. As nonlinear currents flow through a facilitys electrical system and the distribution-transmission lines, additional voltage distortions are produced due to the impedance associated with the electrical network. Thus, as electrical power is generated, distributed, and utilized, voltage and current waveform distortions are produced [8]. As the number and ratings of power electronic devices connected to the power systems increase, the harmonic currents injected into power system and the resulting voltage distortions have become a major problem for power quality. This is the current issues that always be taken into account nowadays. Furthermore, the installation of power factor improving capacitors may lead to resonance conditions that amplify specific harmonic currents flowing into transformers and generators. On the other hand, large industrial ac motors may also provide a path for the harmonic currents. These currents can cause overheating problems for the motors, generators, and transformers. Power grid connected electric devices which can generate harmonic currents in the power system include fluorescent light ballast transformers, induction motors, incandescent light dimmers, overexcited transformers, arc welding equipment, AC/DC rotary converters, battery chargers, computers, and any type of device that utilize s rectified AC power to drive DC equipment [9]. 2.2.3 The Harm of Harmonics Harmonics only mean trouble if the power system is not well designed to handle them. High harmonic neutral currents are a problem only if the neutral is not properly sized. Current harmonics are not a problem to a transformer if it is derated appropriately. Even some voltage distortion below 8 % THD at the point of utilization is acceptable as long as sensitive equipment is not affected. However, it is always important to be aware of the presence of harmonics and to try to minimize them by purchasing low distortion electronic ballasts and reactors for PWM ASDs. This will not only keep the harmonics in check and improve the power factor in the facility, but will also save energy by reducing losses on power system components. In addition, any time there is a considerable increase of non-linear loads, it is important to check power system components to prevent problems. 2.2.4 Effects of Harmonics on Power System Harmonic currents and voltage distortion are becoming the most severe and complex electrical challenge for th