Monday, September 30, 2019

United States went into its first Asian war in the Philippines

In 1899 the United States went into its first Asian war in the Philippines. From then on there were others against Japan, North Korea and china. The war was waged against Spain and in it, Spain was forced to give up the colony.The explanation was provided by president McKinley as having been motivated by a desire to provide education to the locals. The mission also involved the civilization and Christianization of the Filipinos as fellow brothers and sisters in Christ.This was a lie. The real reason for the acquisition was the rise of imperialist sentiment among the ruling elite. This was inspired by a need to include the United States among the club of world’s great powers.The challenge that arose after the war was that the Philippine independence leaders expected to acquire their independence. America on its part was in a way seeking to replace Spain’s position.This would lead to a war against the Filipinos whom they had supported. America had thus officially entered the league of imperialists.There was at the same time the rise of anti-imperialism advocates in the United States. These got credence from the accounts of soldiers who were fighting abroad through letters written back home.These narrated the horrible activities that the soldiers were involved in for instance massacres. The Americans’ conduct ended up looking worse than the Spaniards had.The American people started changing their minds about the war. By the end of the war in 1901 America could be counted as an imperial power in Asia. It is at this time that the open door policy was declared.As from this point on, the US started getting more involved in world affairs. There was the contribution of troops to china to fight nationalists over there.From this point the us began sending its navy abroad so as to assert its position as a new power. It was also from this point that the government began involving itself in promotion of American investment abroad. Foreign trade also bega n being promoted in ways never seen before. Overseas investment and foreign trade were also promoted.Upon the assassination of President McKinley in 1901, there was the rise of Theodore Roosevelt, a committed imperialist. He favored a big army and navy. He also always dwelt on citizen duties to the state rather than human rights. Roosevelt was a daring and zealous in the pursuit of American interest. There was the belief that the United States had the role of saving the world.In the late 1920’s the government had a challenge. In addition to     The president also had to deal with a number of important foreign policy issues. There were revolutions in South America. The economic situation created serious problems in America's relations with Europe. And Japan launched a campaign of aggression in northeastern China.Hoover failed in his efforts to solve America's economic troubles. But as we will see in our program today, he did succeed with some of his foreign policies. He an d most other Americans, however, would fail to understand the long-term importance of the forces gaining control in Germany and Japan.VOICE TWO:Herbert Hoover's foreign policies were marked by his desire to make friends and avoid war.Like most Americans, the new president had been shocked by World War One. Hoover had seen the results of that terrible war with his own eyes. He led the international effort to feed the many European civilian victims of the fighting. And the new president was a member of the Quaker religious group that traditionally opposes armed conflict.Hoover shared the wish of most Americans that the world would never again fight a major war. He felt the bloody bodies at Verdun, the Marne, and the other battlefields of World War One showed that conflict should be settled by peaceful negotiations.VOICE ONE:Hoover worked toward this goal even before he entered the White House.Following his election, he had several months free before becoming president. Hoover used thi s period to travel to Latin America for ten weeks. He wanted to show Latin American nations that they could trust the United States to honor their rights as independent nations.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Mandatory Child Development and Parenting Classes

There should be a law prohibiting teenage pregnancy.   It would be impossible to make such a law, since the country’s prisons would be filled with fifteen year-old-mothers. A law should, however, be made requiring mandatory child development and parenting classes before high school graduation. The statistics concerning teenage pregnancy are frightening.   One teenager each minute becomes pregnant, in 2004 420,000 babies were born to teenage mother in the United States, and 67% of teenage mothers drop out of high school (Horizon Solutions, 2006).Three out of ten girls get pregnant before the age of twenty at an average of 750,000 girls per year (National Campaign, 2006). Girls as young as thirteen are becoming parents and often with no support from the equally young and inexperienced fathers.   The grandparents are then either forced to raise their grandchildren or the young unprepared girls are forced to give up their future plans to become parents much too early.  Mos t schools in the nation currently offer child development and parenting classes as electives for those who are interested in childcare.   Since most young teenagers will eventually become parents, however, it should be mandatory to prepare them for their future roles.Most public schools in the United States teach sexual education, which includes ways to prevent pregnancy.   Unfortunately, this has not significantly decreased the occurrences of teenage pregnancy.   When compared to the statistics of teenagers in other countries the united States ranks high in the number of pregnancies, because of the differences in how teenagers are prepared for parenting and the expectations for them (Guttmacher).   Part of the differences are that the young people in other countries are not taught to be ashamed to admit to having sex and are taught to be more responsible about preventing pregnancy.   In this country many adults are uncomfortable talking to their children about sex (Coloro so 228). The better young people are educated about and prepared for male-female relationships in early adolescence the less likely they are to give in to peer pressure (Campbell 51).In most schools, no student can graduate without learning about American History, government, English or science.   Students are taught how to have children and usually how to prevent it, but it is not required for them to learn how to care for the children after they have them.   Unless they come from large families, many young people have no idea how much responsibility is required in caring for an infant.   If they did, maybe they would take more precautions to avoid this until they were ready for the responsibility.   If a law was made to make it mandatory for all freshman high school students to take child development and parenting classes, all teenagers would have a better understanding of the responsibilities involved.   This would make them more likely to take better precautions to avo id teenage pregnancy.Parenting is not easy at any age, but when parenting is combined with dating, and trying to finish high school, it can be overwhelming.   When young girls discover they are about to become a parent, they can go through a range of emotions.   Some do not want to take on the responsibility of parenting.   These girls are faced with the difficult choice of abortion or adoption.   If she chooses to put her child up for adoption, she and the father both have to sign their parental rights over to the adoptive parents (Gay 6).  Ã‚   Some of the girls feel happy about having a baby they may see it as playing house or as an accomplishment (American Academy, 2004).   These girls have no real idea how much responsibility is involved in caring for infants.   They often like the idea of caring for someone.The problem is the people who are currently taking the elective parenting courses are usually the ones who know something about caring for infants and are int erested in the subject.   These people already know a little of the responsibility and often are the ones least likely to be teen parents. By making the classes mandatory, those who think it is like playing house or have no idea about babies will get more information.   Many of these classes teach students what to expect throughout the first few years of life.   Infants especially in the first weeks of life need very much of the parent’s time and can be exhausting, and they cry a great deal (Preston 11).   The average day in the life of a mother with an infant consists of waking at approximately 3:00 a.m. and getting very little rest until late the next night.   It involves diaper changes, feedings and constant attention to someone helpless and fragile (O’Callahan 66). When the young people actually begin to realize what life is like for a parent, they can see the consequences of being careless in sexual relationships.   In recent years a new trend has beco me part of child development class.   Many schools have started using programmable dolls, which cry during the night, need changed, fed and held.   These dolls are amazingly lifelike and can provide young people an idea of what it is really like to be a parent (Memorial Community, n.d.). Teaching young people what parenting is like is sometimes more effective than teaching them methods of birth control or about the risks of disease.   In addition to the dolls, child development and parenting courses teach young people how to cope when they do have children.The good news is the message is getting out.   The number of teenagers age fifteen to nineteen who have reported having sex has decreased by just over 13% since 1991 and the number of teen pregnancies has dropped by 36% in the same amount of time (National Campaign, 2006).   There was a trend in the country for a while where teens were not afraid for parents to know they were having sex, but they did not have enough fact s to keep from getting pregnant.   With the increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases, the education about the use of contraception has helped teenagers become more responsible about using birth control to avoid disease and thus pregnancy.If all school districts were mandated to require these classes using the teaching dolls and statistics as a requirement for graduation like they do math and science, students might have a better knowledge of what it takes to be parents.   This would help them know they wanted to wait until they were ready to have children.   It could teach them the financial, emotional and physical requirements involved in having and raising children.   Education is the key to knowledge and knowledge is required to make responsible choices.   In order to teach the teenagers in the United States to make responsible choices, there needs to be a law requiring the system to educate them.Works CitedCampbell, Dr. Ross. How to Really Love Your Child. Wheat on: Victor Books, 1988Coloroso, Barbara. Kids Are Worth It. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.,1994Gay, Kathlyn. Abortion Understanding the Debate. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers,Inc., 2004â€Å"MCH Foundation Partners With Schools to Provide â€Å"Baby Think it Over† Dolls.†Memorial Community Hospital and Health System, 1 May 2007, Penny. What Every Mother Needs to Know About Her Baby’s First Year.Portland, Maine: Ronnie Sellers Productions, Inc. 2006â€Å"Reality Works Infant Simulator and Real Care Parenting Program.† 18 September 2006Horizon Solutions Site, 1 May 2007’Callahan, Kitty. â€Å"A Day in the Life of a Mom.† Baby Talk September 2005: 66-7â€Å"Sex Education: Needs, Programs and Policies.†December2006.TheGuttmacher Institute1 May 2007 The National Organization to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. 1 May 200 7.â€Å"When Children Have Children.† July 2004, American Academy of Child andAdolescent Psychiatry, 1 May 2007

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Cultural Norms, Fair & Lovely and Advertising Essay

2. Is it ethical to exploit cultural norms and values to promote a product? Discuss. It is ethical to utilize cultural diversity and values of a community to promote a product. However, such promotion should only be done in a way that there are not demanding to a particular group or cultural norms. Considering the case of Fair and Lovely, promoting the product using the dark and fair skin is divisive and portrays people with dark color as inferior to those with lighter color. In addition to that, the advertising identifies people with lighter color as people who have more opportunities in life, something that is likely to demean people with dark color. To this extent, the promotion is unethical. 3. Is the advertising of Fair and Lovely demeaning to women, or is it promoting the fairness cream in a way not too dissimilar from how much cosmetics are promoted? Advertising of Fair and Lovely are demeaning to women with dark color. Fair and Lovely portray women with light color as the only group that have opportunities. These advertisements offend people with dark color, considering that character, abilities, and opportunities are not defined by color. The advertisement should concentrate on its effectiveness and not describe the difference between light skin and dark people. 5. In light of AIDWA’s charges, how would you suggest Fair & Lovely promote its product? Discuss. Would your response be different if Fairever continued to use â€Å"fairness† as a theme of its promotion? Discuss. I would suggest that Fair and Lovely reconsider the cultural impact of their advertisements. AIDWA should demand that HLL answer a few questions in the respect of their issues. The questions include: Does the Fair & Lovely advertisement depict racism?

Friday, September 27, 2019

Impact of Globalization Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Impact of Globalization - Essay Example Also, because of globalization, most firms were able to launch their products worldwide in a bid to make huge profits. Toyota, for instance, is a motor vehicle manufacturer founded in Japan but in an attempt to increase its revenue it had to spread to countries like the United States and other continents. The same goes for Ford Motor Company that started as an â€Å"International New Venture†. In addition to this, globalization made it possible for some countries to get what they could not produce cheaply as the cost of producing the same could have been higher than buying from international corporations. In spite of the possible advantages of going global, it is argued that this idea has a dividing factor between countries. The fact that governments are put in a situation whereby they must choose between a number of different companies from different countries is seen to be insinuating that there would be bad relations with corporations that are not chosen. Furthermore, the r ole of the government has been changed. The state ought to protect its interests by virtue of its sovereignty, but globalization forces state to privatize their agencies so as to benefit from the advantages that come with privatization. Turning to privatization in a bid to do business affects the government’s role in deciding how to run its agencies and this greatly dictates who may be sponsored to ascend to political power so that they may be easily influenced to sing to the tunes of these international corporations.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS - Assignment Example The prevalence is expected to increase in the future. The paper will seek to describe the tools for management of disease along with various goals as well as the influence of cultural diversity on the tools. There are five essential tools for management of type 2 diabetes. The important first tool is lifestyle modification. The initial stages of the disease can be controlled through diet and exercise alone (Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP), 2014). In advanced stages, lifestyle and diet change plays a significant role in glycaemic control as well as reducing cardiovascular development. Exercise helps in improving metabolic control as also lead to improvement of glucose tolerance (RACGP, 2014). In terms of diets, one should focus on low-fat diets and more nutritious foods. Eating low-fat diet food has been shown to help in cardiovascular protection (RACGP, 2014). The other thing is a regular evaluation. The evaluation helps in identifying factors that may be affecting diabetic person health (RACGP, 2014). The diabetic people may have other challenges to deal with such as other medical conditions, work, and even stress. The other tool is an HbA1c test. The affected person should regularly be tested so as to assess how well the condition is being controlled. The HbA1c goal for diabetic patients is one lower than 48 mmol/mol (NHS, 2013). The target helps in eliminating challenges such as eye disease, kidney diseases, and heart disease. The other tool of management of the disease is through medication. The medication is meant to sustain long-term glycaemic regulation and also to prevent complications associated with the disease (RACGP, 2014). Such therapy may entail control of blood pressure (BP) as well as the level of lipid. The goal of BP for the patient is 6-8 mmol/l at fasting and 8-10 mmol/l in normal time while the lipid goal is 2 mmol/litre (RACGP, 2014). This helps

Case-bassed assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Case-bassed - Assignment Example Further West (2011) states that the Dyspnea on exertion is due to the failure of the ventricular of the left output rising during and also results in an increase of pressure on the Pulmonary vein. In the case of one having cardiac asthma, the pulmonary congestion is associated with bronchospasm that is normally precipitated by the action of edema fluid in the walls of bronchi to the external receptors. John has the above-named symptoms for cardiac asthma, but a further examination of the presented features may provide other possibilities. Moreover, the gain of weight and increased breathing rate may indicate the possibilities of blood pressure issues. The evidences of occasional coughing increase the chances of Bronchial Asthma. Research has shown that there is an overlap between the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Rosto (2009) predicts the typical symptoms for asthma to include wheezes, shortness of breaths, tightness of the chest and coughing. The specific features common for asthma in adults may be identified if the above-mentioned symptoms are worse at night and early in the morning, occur during exercise, cold air, and allergen exposure or aspirin. All these symptoms can be identified in the case of John. On the other hand, coughing up of blood especially from the respiratory tract is referred to as hemoptysis (Leigh & Marley, 2013). Among the various other causes of hemoptysis that is relevant to John is that it may be the origin from the bronchitis. In this regard, the main features of the hemoptysis include a productive cough for three months of the year for two successive years in smokers. Furthermore, the saliva of patients with asthma may at times appear pink when it contains large amounts of a type of blood cells called eosinophils. Another possible cause for the occasional blood streak could be lung cancer which mostly affects smokers above the age of 40. Notably, Lazaro, Girbau and

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Understaffed Nursing Problems in Hospitals Research Proposal

Understaffed Nursing Problems in Hospitals - Research Proposal Example It is noticeable that the nursing shortage has become a global issue that has put patients care at higher risk and residents are complaining of poor care. It has been found that some nursing homes are highly understaffed that have endangered the lives of patients (Ellis & Hartley, 2004). Thousands of nurses are needed in nursing homes to address the health issues of patients who need assistance to recover from chronic diseases. But, they are losing hope and facing more health complexities due to the shortage of nursing staff. Some evidence-based major complexities that emerge from lack of nurses' assistance include hypertension, catheterized patients, urinary infections, poor feeding resulting in malnutrition, dehydration and most prominently decrease in the participation rate of patients in healthy activities (Siela, 2009). Nursing staff is responsible for taking care of patients during medicines intake or meal time and their absence lead patients to more complex health conditions. †¢ Problem and Problem Statement: Present literature over closely related issues shows that no study has contributed to highlight the factors, which are responsible for causing understaffed nursing problems in hospitals. †¢ The significance of the Problem: Lack of identification of responsible factors is a crucial issue and its solution can lead to resolving problems of the understaffed nursing sector. This problem has significant importance as it will help practitioners and researchers recognize the areas, which need proper attention and modification to provide standard healthcare services to the patients. Additionally, a research-based study covering an important issue related to understaffed nursing department might also contribute to open the gate and beneficial opportunities for those individuals, who seek to build up the career in the field of nursing.  A study conducted by Buerhaus, Donelan & Ulrich in 2005 aimed to find out the rate and impact of registered nurse s in the hospitals.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Marketing Strategy WH Smith Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words

Marketing Strategy WH Smith Case Study - Essay Example WH Smith (WHS) was established in 1792 and went public in 1949. The retail division presently operates 542 retail stores and 127 travel stores across the country. In addition, the division operates e-retailing business through the website. The news division of WHS is UK’s largest wholesaler of newspaper and magazines. The company’s key product portfolio includes books, stationery, travel guides, greeting cards and gift packaging, art materials, entertainment products such as music and video CD’s, DVD’s, computer games and confectionery. The company derives a majority of its revenues from the UK, having divested itself of the Asia-pacific arm.Major competitors that need to be considered, looking at the diverse range of products offered, may be identified as, Borders Group, Barnes & Noble, Bertelsmann, Lagardere, HMV, Virgin, Woolworths, Asda, Tesco and a number of specialist small retailers.The most obvious strength of the company is its 542 reta il outlets on every high-street in the country and 127 travel stores at railway stations and airports, allowing the company to reach a wide customer base – 70% of the British public visit a WHS store at least once every year!Travel Retail is a strong performer within the retail division and recorded growth rates of 3% in revenue (Â £311 million) and an increase of 24 % in its profits in 2005 compared with the previous year. While passenger growth at airports was 2%, the sales at airport outlets grew by 7%. (Datamonitor, 2006). Distribution: WH Smith News has 47 distribution centres across the UK and delivers up to 50 million newspapers and magazines every week. All distribution centres employ state-of-the-art technology, such as 'Pick and Pack' machinery, to help to improve customer service and reduce costs. I.T. Systems: The company is in an excellent position to exploit the cutting edge Information Technology

Monday, September 23, 2019

Consumer Behaviour (Conduct a literature review on the topic of Essay

Consumer Behaviour (Conduct a literature review on the topic of consumption meaning) - Essay Example Needs can only be identified and prioritized if we apprehend how consumers give meanings to those needs. This document analyzes the meaning that consumers give to consumption by examining various academic literatures. Consumers have a personal domain of knowledge which is nurtured and affected by their native habitat, social environment and culture. Their buying behavior is based on the intuitive knowledge that they possess in their personal repository. This knowledge gives them meaning and value. They ascribe these meanings to marketed products, services, images, ideas and experiences and behave on the basis of these meanings (Arnould, Price & Zinkhan 2004). Meaning can be defined as the extent to which a consumer holds something highly regarded and places a high value on it (Hirschman 1991). To have a better understanding of the term consumption meaning let us turn to semiotics, a branch of cultural anthropology focused on study of signs. A sign is anything that stands for something else (Arnould, Price & Zinkhan 2004). The sign can be communicated through a corporate logo or a brand symbol. â€Å"A brand is a sign for the field of meanings consumers integrate into their personal space to enhance, complement or transform themselves and their world† (Oswald 2003). For instance, a logo of â€Å"Nike† or the brand â€Å"Sony† represents as a sign to the consumers. Consumers perceive these products based on their own experience and are brands or products are given different meanings by different consumers. Semiotics is a three part system and it’s also called as semiotic triangle. It involves a sign, object and an interpretant. For example, Toyota a renowned automobile company would be the object, its logo or brand name would be the sign and â₠¬Å"reliable†, â€Å"comfortable† and â€Å"long lasting† will be the interpretation regarding the brand â€Å"Toyota† made by different consumers. Each semiotic triangle exists within a particular cultural context

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Different Kinds of Personality Essay Example for Free

Different Kinds of Personality Essay The Duke and Knight play crucial parts in the scenes and themes of both poems. They have very contrasting personalities to one another. The knight is very gullible and naive- in falling in love with a woman he knows is an evil and unreal person- though he can do nothing to prevent this. In a way, his personality would suit that of the Duchess, as she too is very nai ve. The Duke in that instance though is completely the opposite. He is very wealthy, manipulative and arrogant and is only interested in impressing people. This is shown throughout the whole poem, as he is obviously speaking to someone he feels is important about his wife and her murder. He even ends the poem by boasting about a bronze statue, of Neptune taming a sea horse cast by Claus of Innsbruck who was probably someone famous in those days. The two men are in quite similar situations though; having both just lost a love in failed relationships, though the loss of the Dukes love was deliberate. They are also members of the nobility, being a Duke and Knight. However, there is another difference between them and that is that the knight appreciated natural gifts and wasnt ruled by his status. The language and context of both poems contrast with each other too. La Belle Dame Sans Merci is written as a ballad. It is designed to be read aloud and to be easy on the ear. This particular ballad differs from others because it has been made to sound as if it had been written 200-300 years before John Keats was even born. It is also written in quatrain but in the pattern of ABCB and revolves around a question and answer. This poem is very ambivalent so it makes you think about what the poem means and contains endstopped punctuation to make a bigger impression upon the reader. My Last Duchess is a dramatic monologue written in rhyming couplets although the endings dont always end with rhyming. The poem also contains run on lines with no particular punctuation at intervals, unlike in La Belle Dame. The background sources used by Keats and Browning are very unlike. There is a lot of history used in both poems. At the time Robert Browning wrote My last Duchess there was a large influence in Italy in particular over possessions and status. The story of the Borgias family who paid people to kill those they did not like or were not on friendly terms with, also gave him ideas. John Keats, though, was influenced by the thoughts and beliefs of people in 1795-1821. This was the time in which legends such as monsters and witches were at the centre of everyones minds. It was the idea of witches, which probably gave Keats the name of his poem. In those times, the word for witch was Bedlam which sounds like Belle Dame, so that could be significant. So, altogether there are many similarities and contrasts between La Belle Dame Sans Merci and My Last Duchess and both teach valuable lessons about life but also give insights into the lives and beliefs of some people in those times.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Political Philosophy Of Deception Philosophy Essay

The Political Philosophy Of Deception Philosophy Essay Deception is a part of our everyday lives, it is a part of who we are. What differentiates each and every one of us is the degree of deception that we incorporate in to our lives. Hence, how we look at and interpret deception, and thus, the truth, depends on our perspective, our moral grounding, our exposure and experiences in the wider world- beyond our immediate circle of life. This essay will attempt to find a general definition for deception that will agree with most, and will explore how deception is present in our lives and how that affects the amount of deception involved in politics. It will argue that deception is necessary in politics, and sometimes beneficial (and sometimes not), and this is because we as the general public allows it so. Drawing from the Machiavelli and Strauss schools of thought on how deception is an integral part of politics- and examining this claim through the case studies of the Vietnam and Iraq wars- this essay will conclude that the reason politici ans use deception is because it is sometimes more desirable than the absolute truth and also because it is easier to exploit and appeal towards the human conditions deep inclination towards self-deceit. Lies and deception often used interchangeably however, there is a difference. Citing Mahon (2008), Arico Fallis (2013) states that in order to lie one must say something that they believe is false. Deception engages people in a more deeper extent with the intention overriding the face-worth of a lie; Lies are a form of fabrication, where false information is created and presented as true whereas deception, especially in politics, is more motivated to manipulate, where information which is technically true is being presented out of context in order to create a false implication (Caddell, 2004). According to Caddell (2004) deception depends on two criteria: first, it is intentional; and, second, it is designed to gain an advantage for the practitioner. To understand why and how deception is involved in politics warrants a deeper analysis into the people involved and thus a look into understanding human behaviour and reasoning associated with deception. In the most basic sense, politicians and those who are engaged in the governing processes of our everyday life are only distinguishable from the general public because of the authority we as the general public grant them. Therefore they are also susceptible to the behavioural and cognitive aspects of an ordinary human being. With studies that propose and adopt the notion of self-deceit thus also applies to politicians, so as this essay will argue, will inherently translate into their decisions and actions and thus it is no surprise that politics, as with all other parts of life, would involve deception; therefore, deception is s present and necessary in politics. Self-deception also has many definitions offered its way, and as with the definitions for lies and deception, it will identify with everyone in varying levels- because individuals tend to treat their personal values as a kind of ideal point (Cowen, 2005). He defines it as individual behaviour that disregards, throws out, or reinterprets freely available information; people keep, absorb, and magnify the information that puts their values and affiliations in a favourable light and disregard the rest. Beahrs (1996) adds that deception of others is often accompanied by deception of self and vice versa. This leads to what Williams (1996) calls collective self-deception where the status of politics as represented in the media is ambiguous between entertainment and the transmission of discoverable truth. There are many ways deception is used in politics, and for many reasons. In politics, deception as the term will be used in this essay, could be used as a diversionary tactic, as a means to retain a favourable public relations image, a strategy to handle a difficult and sensitive situation or as the version that is linked to Platonic Noble Lies, used to protect society, a little sacrifice, in order to achieve the greater good (Jacobsen, 2008). Deception in politics and especially foreign affairs, usually involve decisions that are made in the spirit that they are acceptable or excusable because it is done in service of the national interest (Jacobsen, 2008). Therefore according to Beahrs (1996) deceit is probably required for a politician to achieve political success, because we as the people are so engulfed with expectation that it is inevitable and that if it is done in good faith there can be no harsh consequences, so it is easier to handle and deal with. There are many arguments on whether or not deception in politics, in government- essentially as an institution that holds the peoples trust (Williams, 1996) is acceptable. The idealists make a moral and ethical case, where deception, according to an absolute set of standards, is absolutely improper and inappropriate, but according to realists, and dependent on a cost-benefit analysis, the use of deception depends on how good it will achieve and whether it is consistent with protecting national interests and values (Caddell, 2004). Politicians need the people support; and in a liberal democracy one cannot coerce it or expect it as a gift, so they need to put on a persona that is of acceptable standards to others and this leads to deception that builds on (Sofier, 1999). Machiavelli and Strauss: A Look at Modern Day Politics Politicians have less incentive to be absolutely truthful and tend to deceive because they are in office only for a number of years and hence their accountability is limited (Davis Ferrantino, 1996). And politicians know this; according to ex-Australian Senator Graham Richardson, whether one tells the truth is not what really matters, but whether one gets the job done- and in that respect, one simply has to do whatever it takes, and if that involves an element of deceit or misdirection, then so be it (Malpas, 2008). Politicians tend to distract people from the negativity that is involved in everyday political decision making and focus on tunnelling public emotion toward achieving their goals by appealing to their sense of nationalism and personal preferences/group and party loyalty, especially in the event of wars. Deception is politics is almost considered traditional- it is not a recent phenomenon nor is it a fad that peaks every now and then. How politicians conduct themselves have been largely influenced by how politics had been handled in the past and the role deception plays has evolved; it has been more of a learning process, where by using the past political deceptions, politicians have extracted knowledge from what works to what doesnt, and when and how to use it best. Therefore deception in modern politics have become more sophisticated and subtle in its execution. This essay will discuss the schools of thought of two famous political thinkers whose influence has shaped the way deception in politics is carried out. Niccolo Machiavelli, whose most famous work, The Prince, is a handbook that offers effective techniques to retain power- that is still considered relevant today, because it addresses to the primitive, most basic psychological aspect of people. He employs a realist approach to politics, which is still used by many countries in their approach to domestic and international affairs, and adopts the view that politicians need to act dirty and learn how not to be good (Bellamy, 2010). He insists though, that this shouldnt be always the case; there is a right time to apply this to decision making. This is because we live in a world of wolves and traps so one as a politician must be willing to act as lions and employ force to overcome the one and be as cunning as foxes to avoid the second. However, to compensate for their deceitful means poli ticians should use proportionality in their actions, and must appear good; therefore the Machiavellian politician must appear compassionate, generous, reliable, morally upright and honest, yet be prepared to be treacherous, break their promises and use their resources selectively (Bellamy, 2010). But for this to work, nobody must know or want to know- and this is where its success hinges upon; thus the reason deception in politics almost always works because we as the public allows it so, because we ourselves are prone to self-deceit. And especially when it comes to the politicians, as Machiavelli instructed his Prince, force- as it would be used in conflict and wars- might be necessary if the safety and perseveration of community is threatened but one should never to attempt to win by force what can be won by deception; however, he did not instruct carrying out deception because the public cannot handle the truth, it was more out of necessity to ensure national interest are served and power remains intact (Drury, 1996). Leo Strauss on the other hand, did believe that deception was necessary because the public cannot tolerate the truth. He believed that societies should be hierarchical, divided between the elites who rule and the masses who follow, and this was the natural order (Lob, 2007). He states that people need to be told only what is considered the bare minimum and no more and if information is not controlled as such, they would into nihilism or anarchism (Lob, 2007). Religion was seen as the moral grounding that one should lead their lives on, but this only applied to the masses; according to Lob (2007) rulers need not be bound by religion and the ethical codes associated with it because they are required to deceive in order to govern. Strauss believed that humans are wicked and aggressive by nature, and that there needs to be strict governance and this requires unity. But in order to unite the masses the politicians need to find a cause and this could be achieved by referring to an external threat, which could result in wars (Lob, 2007). Following the ideas of these two thinkers, this essay will now look into two wars that have resulted from roots of deception and analyse how political deception works in real life. Fabrication and manipulation have both proved to be useful in the history of warfare and used as a means to vilify opposition, justify violence and to protect national security and other interests. Caddell (2004) states that depending on the intent, militaries at the command of politicians engage in three levels of deception; The U.S. military community traditionally recognizes three levels of deceptionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¢based on the nature of the intent; Strategic Deception intends to disguise basic objectives, intentions, strategies, and capabilities whereas Operational Deception, tries to misguide an adversary regarding a specific operation or action you are preparing to conduct and as seen in the American doctrines, finally, there is Tactical Deception which is intended to mislead others while they are actively involved in competition with you, your interests, or your forces. Caddell (2004) also points out that unless under oath in a court or otherwise bound legally to tell the truth, under domestic law there is no constitutional principle that says that the President of the United States or the Executive Branch must tell the truth. Iraq and Vietnam This essay will now discuss two of the most controversial wars (conducted by the United States of America) that have been marred by the use of identified deception in its operation. The Vietnam War (1964-1975) was initiated based on a lie. The incidents that supposedly initiated the war revolved around a couple of incidents in the Gulf of Tonkin; the USA announced two unprovoked attacks on U.S. destroyers by North Vietnamese boats- one of which did not take place and the other being provoked by the USA due to their proximity (ten miles) of the destroyer to the Vietnamese coast and by a series of CIA-organized raids on the coast (Zinn, 1991). The lies followed and multiplied; there were lies that were told by the then-President Johnson who assured the USA was only engaged in conflict with military targets when thousands of non-combatants were killed, and when President Nixon suppressed information from the public about the 1969-1970 bombings of Cambodia, which was considered unnecessa ry (Zinn, 1991). According to Jacobsen (2008), the deceptions that took place were done with full knowledge of the people involved; as admitted by a US General, the objective at the time was to keep the American public in the dark and as later found out President Nixon wrote to Henry Kissinger that it would be very helpful if a propaganda offensive could be [mounted], consistently reporting what we have done in offering peace in Vietnam in preparation for what we may have to do. Following Machiavelli and Strauss, all this was masked by implanting ideas that those who opposed the war were un-American (Beahrs, 1996) and that this was a war being fought to secure American national interests and as a means to fulfil its world responsibility, in order to gather and maintain support and power. The recent Iraq war (2003-2011) is also under much scrutiny for its reasons for initiation and implementation. The main reasons to go to war were based on the suspicion that the Iraqi government harboured chemical weapons and that its dictator leader, Saddam Hussein, could potentially use them; what the justification for how inhumane this would be left out of the picture was that when weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) were actually used in the 1980s, the US government was supportive of the Saddam regime (Martin, 2003). There was more vocal debate against this war at the time, because its direct correlation with the war on terror did not provide sufficient ground for an invasion of that scale. The crucial political asset of trust which broke the publics opinion and respect for government was still not fully restored since Vietnam-because only one third of the Americans supported George W. Bush decision to go to Iraq (Jacobsen, 2008). Despite the undermining reports of the existence o f WMDs and other contradictory evidence, the need to go to war to protect American interests and defeat terrorism was too strong, and to justify this an agency called the Office of Special Plans was created, distinct from the known and reputable defence services, specifically to find evidence of WMDs and/or links with Al Qaeda, piece it together, and clinch the case for the invasion of Iraq (Lob, 2007). The public outrage over these two wars and the other scandals that have resulted after uncovered deception goes on to show that we still regard truthfulness is still somewhat important (Malpas, 2008). Governments have been overthrown and its officials brought to justice because such deception does much damage to our conviction of credibility and legitimacy of our trust; yet, at the same time, as Malpas (2008) suggests, associated with self-deceit, our commitment to truth in itself is a lie. Although truthfulness is an honourable ideal, the realities of life require a more pragmatic approach, and thus we must accept the necessity of the lie, the half-truth, the obfuscation, and the omission (Malpas, 2008). But what is Truth? In order to fully appreciate deception, we must know what truth is. Malpas (2008) defines truth as a combination of both accuracy, understood in statements and sincerity, understood in actions. According to Arico Fallis (2013) you warrant the truth if you implicitly promise, or offer a guarantee, that what you assert is true. Truth is important, because if there is nothing to distinguish beliefs and our errors, deception and our limits. Truth is the idea of ethics that reach beyond the particularities of our personal and social situatedness that makes possible the engagement with others who may not share in that situatedness (Malpas, 2008). Self-deception thus falls under as a failure of sincerity (Williams, 1996). In government and politics, truth is desirable and it holds itself in virtue, but in line with Machiavelli thought, the responsibilities of government are sufficiently different from those of private individuals to make governmental virtue a rather different matter from t hat of individuals; that is for any government that is charged with the security of its citizens, a responsibility which cannot be discharged without secrecy, deception is a necessity- a government would be considered lucky if it can discharge its duties as such without force and fraud (Williams, 1996). Towards Effective Governance In conclusion, this essay will look at whether we can void deception in politics or whether we should not be fazed by its presence. In essence, only a few actually would prefer absolute truth from their political leaders, given that the deception we would expect would be for our own good. We are often victims of self-deception ourselves, and we accept that deception sometimes is acceptable- we engage in it in every day and every way of our lives. But what should not be confused with this admission is that deception in politics should not reflect politicians individual beliefs and opinions; as long as the deception serves domestic and foreign interests in a manner that would not jeopardize public trust and respect- and if it is done in secrecy than outright lying, it could be held with tolerance. But it should be noted that even benevolent deceptions can acquire their own momentum in unpredictable and undesirable directions (Beahrs, 1996). The way we understand politics could have an impact on how we approach and respond to political deception. The Machiavellians of our time, the advisors, the Generals, the state and defence officers insist that they serve national interests, national security and national defense; these phrases put everyone in the country under one enormous blanket, camouflaging the differences between the interest of those who run the government and the interest of the average citizen which would challenge any reservation we might have raising questions about our identity, our role in the society and our priorities (Zinn, 1991). This, depending on our various levels of understanding, would also stand to the extent deception is possible by a government and how susceptible we will be as the masses. To broaden our capacity to detect deception, we should expand our knowledge base; the more one knows, the harder it will be for someone to manipulate information out of context and the more likely one will be able to detect a fabrication (Caddell, 2004). But we must be careful because typically all deceit carries with it an element of self-deception and almost all deception involves to a greater or lesser degree a willingness on the part of the deceiver to be themselves a party to the deceit-to allow themselves to be deceived (Malpas, 2008). However, deception can only be recognized when we retain a sense of truth, so it is crucial that we keep our commitment to our sense of truth, because otherwise according to Malpas (2008), we lose our engagement with ourselves, others, and the world, and we lose, not only our sense of ethics, but we lose a sense of ourselves, of others, of the world. We need to appreciate that even after accepting the general basis for deception and truth in politics, when it really matters our opinions and acceptance vary; that is to say that ones sense of what deception and truth is and how much we will tolerate it comes from, as used in the premise to this essay, how we understand ourselves, our society and our world. In the political arena, the tragedy is that we cannot have perfect freedom or virtue at the same time (Drury, 1996). But what we can strive towards would be a world where deception would not be a means to justify the end and where truth will remain an honourable ideal and politics is not synonymous with deception but with the genuine intention for effective governance. general definition for deception explore how deception is present in our lives and how that affects the amount of deception involved in politics. deception is necessary in politics, and sometimes beneficial (and sometimes not), and this is because we as the general public allows it so. Drawing from the Machiavelli and Strauss schools of thought on how deception is an integral part of politics- and examining this claim through the case studies of the Vietnam and Iraq wars- the reason politicians use deception is because it is sometimes more desirable than the absolute truth and thus it is easier to exploit and appeal towards the human conditions deep inclination towards self-deceit.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The Perverse in the Short Stories of Edgar Allan Poe Essay -- Edgar Al

Edgar Allan Poe is perhaps the best-known American Romantic who worked in the Gothic mode. His stories explore the darker side of the Romantic imagination, dealing with the grotesque, the supernatural, and the horrifying. He defined the form of the American short story. As one might expect, Poe himself eschewed conventional morality, which he believed stems from man's attempts to dictate the purposes of God. Poe saw God more as process than purpose. He believed that moralists derive their beliefs, and thus, the resultant behavioral patterns, from a priori knowledge. In Eureka, we find that Poe shunned such artifices of mind, systems which, he professed, have no basis in reality. Yet Poe employed in his writing the diction of the moral tome, which causes confusion for readers immersed in this tradition. Daniel Hoffman reiterates Allan Tate's position that, aside from his atavistic employment of moral terminology, Poe writes as though "Christianity had never been invented." (Hoffman 171) Poe did offer to posterity one tale with a moral. Written in 1841 at the dawn of Poe's most creative period, Poe delivers to his readers a satirical spoof, a literary Bronx cheer to writers of moralistic fiction, and to critics who expressed disapprobation at finding no discernible moral in his works. The tale "Never Bet the Devil Your Head: A Tale with a Moral" presents Poe's "way of staying execution" (Poe 487) for his transgressions against the didactics. The story's main character is Toby Dammit, who from infanthood, had been flogged left-handed, which since the world revolves right to left, causes evil propensities to be driven home rather than driven out. The narrator relates that by the age of seven months, Toby was chasing down and ki... ...act, we can also perceive the Reverend's desperation. He was bright enough to see what Poe undertook, and was scared silly. So what is being undertaken here is a psychical study of man, an examination of the seasons of intellect, body and spirit, through which we all cycle. Also attempted is a portrayal of Poe's creative spirit. Though hyper-aware of his own tendency to perversity, what creative impetus must have been requisite for Edgar Poe to have penned poems and stories which so closely mirror the psychic patterns of his own mind! WORKS CITED Hoffman, Daniel. Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. 1972. Reprint, Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State UP, 1998. Poe, Edgar Allan. Complete Tales & Poems. New York: Vintage Books, 1975. Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-Ending Remembrance. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991. The Perverse in the Short Stories of Edgar Allan Poe Essay -- Edgar Al Edgar Allan Poe is perhaps the best-known American Romantic who worked in the Gothic mode. His stories explore the darker side of the Romantic imagination, dealing with the grotesque, the supernatural, and the horrifying. He defined the form of the American short story. As one might expect, Poe himself eschewed conventional morality, which he believed stems from man's attempts to dictate the purposes of God. Poe saw God more as process than purpose. He believed that moralists derive their beliefs, and thus, the resultant behavioral patterns, from a priori knowledge. In Eureka, we find that Poe shunned such artifices of mind, systems which, he professed, have no basis in reality. Yet Poe employed in his writing the diction of the moral tome, which causes confusion for readers immersed in this tradition. Daniel Hoffman reiterates Allan Tate's position that, aside from his atavistic employment of moral terminology, Poe writes as though "Christianity had never been invented." (Hoffman 171) Poe did offer to posterity one tale with a moral. Written in 1841 at the dawn of Poe's most creative period, Poe delivers to his readers a satirical spoof, a literary Bronx cheer to writers of moralistic fiction, and to critics who expressed disapprobation at finding no discernible moral in his works. The tale "Never Bet the Devil Your Head: A Tale with a Moral" presents Poe's "way of staying execution" (Poe 487) for his transgressions against the didactics. The story's main character is Toby Dammit, who from infanthood, had been flogged left-handed, which since the world revolves right to left, causes evil propensities to be driven home rather than driven out. The narrator relates that by the age of seven months, Toby was chasing down and ki... ...act, we can also perceive the Reverend's desperation. He was bright enough to see what Poe undertook, and was scared silly. So what is being undertaken here is a psychical study of man, an examination of the seasons of intellect, body and spirit, through which we all cycle. Also attempted is a portrayal of Poe's creative spirit. Though hyper-aware of his own tendency to perversity, what creative impetus must have been requisite for Edgar Poe to have penned poems and stories which so closely mirror the psychic patterns of his own mind! WORKS CITED Hoffman, Daniel. Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. 1972. Reprint, Baton Rouge and London: Louisiana State UP, 1998. Poe, Edgar Allan. Complete Tales & Poems. New York: Vintage Books, 1975. Silverman, Kenneth. Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-Ending Remembrance. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1991.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Speech on Legalization of Marijuana in Brazil -- Illegal Drugs Legal

Speech on Legalization of Marijuana in Brazil Good morning class mates. Today I am going to discuss the legalization of marijuana in Brazil. I strongly believe marijuana should be legalized. I am not here to encourage anyone to use or not use marijuana. Yet I do believe that many current problems may and can be solved by its legalization. Marijuana is the most popular drug in Brazil after tobacco and alcohol. Discrimination is the reason why marijuana has still not been legalized. It is already proved by famous scientists that marijuana is not addictive and no one ever died only because of marijuana, yet tobacco is addictive and causes more than five million deaths per year. But due to discrimination tobacco is accepted and marijuana is not. Marijuana, if legalized, could be used as a source for medicines and other beneficial substances. Indeed in countries like England marijuana has been legalized for medical purposes, it is used as a sedative. The results are very pleasing. †Hemp†- the plant that marijuana originates from has lots of other uses. Very efficient medicines can be made from this plant. Moreover it is very cost efficient to be used to produce other by products such as shirts, trousers, coats, cosmetics, paper among others. As we can see, legalization could even help a lot the Brazilian economy. Everyone is conscious that marijuana, even not being legal, is used and produced everywhere. It has become a permanent part of contemporary society. Do people really think that the use of marijuana is going to stop because it is illegal? If it was legalized, even the government could benefit by making marijuana ... ...of drugs, educated by families and schools, not with statements such as â€Å" don’t do drugs† or â€Å"drugs are bad for you† because these are very inefficient. I think campaigns should be done by giving options and showing both sides like â€Å"drugs are easy to reach, and they can cause immense pleasure but there are prices to pay such as overdose, suicide, depressions and even death, there are some people that handle this and don’t suffer these causes, but some do suffer a lot, the choice is all yours†. As you can see, there are many relevant points to support the legalization of marijuana. Violence, economy, conflicts, abuse and many other problems would be solved and improve. The lives of all Brazilians would be less worrying and more pleasurable. My last question, if all of this could get better, why not legalize marijuana?

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Explaining a controversy :: essays research papers

Why is sex education such a controversy in this world? Well, some people think that sex education should not even be taught in school because they think it is the parent’s issue to deal with and not the schools. Some of the same people think that when schools have sex education courses that teach about sex and hand out condoms to protect kids, that the schools are telling kids it is okay to have sex. Some schools are now even putting sex programs in their schools so kids will have somewhere else to go about problems dealing with sex. One of the main controversies of sex education is abstinence. Some writers like Rush Limbaugh, and Tony Snow say abstinence is the only way to go. In â€Å" Condoms: The New Diploma† Limbaugh says, â€Å" condom distribution sanctions, even encourages, sexual activity, which in teen years tends to be promiscuous and relegates to secondary status the most important lesson to be taught: abstinence.† He thinks the only way to prevent getting a disease or not getting pregnant is by abstinence. Ubell also agrees with abstinence and thinks that waiting until marriage is a wise thing to do in, â€Å"Sex- Education Programs That Work- And Some That Don’t†. He also talks about how acknowledging that teens are sexually active and using behavior to prevent this can also help with pregnancy and transmitting diseases. Lastly, Snow also thinks that abstinence is the safest way to prevent pregnancy and diseases. Snow mentions that programs that schools are teaching are l ike cults and they are just drawing the kids in and weakening them. They are not teaching abstinence but fun ways to have sex and to â€Å" increase spontaneity†. In the end, all these authors promote abstinence and nothing else.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Another part of the sex education controversy is contraceptions. Adam Weisman thinks that condoms should be distributed in school and can help prevent young teen pregnancies and STD’s. Weisman also thinks that birth control clinics should be put in schools. He thinks this approach works and may prevent some births (Birth Control in the Schools). So Weisman is all for handing out condoms in school and programs that in the school’s that will hand out the condoms. Snow, on the other hand, thinks that handing out condoms in the schools and programs in the schools promote sex. Snow says, â€Å" The Programs That Work establish an elaborate system of idiocies, the first of which is that high-schoolers, beginning at age 13, spend an inordinate amount of time fondling condoms.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Living longer now Essay

These days, people in all over the world have a higher level of standard in their lives. Food preparation has become easier and they do not consume just local food. Education gives people to learn more about their world and also themselves. Now they know what is better and how they can get it. A very important matter that has reached a better situation with respect to those days is health. This is obvious that people live longer than before because there are different statistics which show this fact. I think the development of science that results the technological progress and also the improvement of the health system in all societies are two important reasons for a longer life. Man has a lot of progress in scientific areas. He has discovered unknown rules, achieved new theories, and invented different tools and instruments. All of these give him the ability to increase his knowledge and consequently find more and more. Developing new instruments is medical science is one the most important things that helps people to have a better opportunity for a healthier life. For example, different diseases can be cured by new method operations that have not existed before and these operations would not be possible without hi-tech tools. Governments realized that a country with healthy people can be more successful and the only way they can achieve this aim is improving the public health system. Water should not be contaminated. There must be an inspection system that supervise food standards. Sufficient number of hospitals and doctors in different regions are curtail. People should be acknowledged to avoid what is not good for their health. For example, having a lot of fat in dairy diet will affect them by increasing blood cholesterol and other chemicals that may increase the death toll. As a result, I think in a world that has a fast pace and when every one must try hard to get a better life, health problems are the most important problems that education and health system in each society are two different factors that decrease the death rate and help people to have a longer living.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Comparing Gotma to Siddhartha Essay

Siddhartha and Govinda both begin their journeys searching after the same goal, to find themselves and attain nirvana. They travel many of the same paths but each thinks differently in their situations. But while Siddhartha eventually reaches Nirvana, Govinda does not because he never learns to absorb what is around him and learn from life like Siddhartha does but mistakenly tries to find peace through other peoples lives. Even from the beginning you can see distinct differences in the mind set between Siddhartha and Gotma, one as a thinker and one as a follower. Siddhartha had grown uneasy in his state as a Brahman’s son. The riches of his lifestyle babied him too much and blocked him from the real world. He wanted to go off on his own and experience and find himself. Siddhartha is a Scientific thinker, his brain is always wanting and explanation and continues to ask questions and at this point his maturing mind is starting to doubt the Brahman and Hindu ways. The repetitious ways of the daily prayers and rituals seemed an unreal way to finding nirvana. Something that never changes cannot lead higher, it always stays at the same level. So when a group of samanas passes through town he joined their lead, wanting to experience their lives and to learn from them. Everyone was shocked at his decision; Govinda knew not what to say, and Siddhartha’s father became enraged at first thought, but later admits something very important to Siddhartha. â€Å"You will go to the forest and be a samana. If you find salvation in the forest, come and teach me salvation. If you find disappointment, then come back and let us once more sacrifice to the gods together.† His father has never reached the goal he has sought after his whole life, even now as an old man, and he understands that Siddhartha must leave for himself. The next morning Siddhartha leaves early and finds his friend, Govinda, waiting to go with him. This is the first true sign of Govinda’s misconception of how to find himself. Govinda only goes because his friend thinks it will be good. He did not think over in his mind and decide if it was truly right for him. So they wandered and learned from the samanas. Siddhartha had learned self-denial and meditation but started to doubt if they were progressing anywhere in their search for salvation. The Samana teachings were nothing more than trickery, magic and self- control all of which can be taught. None of these qualities would lead even a step towards salvation because you are never learning something new; it is purely a way to keep your mind occupied and content. He even compares drunkenness to the samana teachings. It is just another escape, a way to leave yourself and forget all life’s pains. Even their samsara leader had never attained nirvana so how would they ever get there either following him. Word comes of a great man, Gotma, who had reached nirvana. Surprising to Siddhartha, Govinda decides to seek out the illustrious one. Although Siddhartha has his doubts he is curious and travels with Govinda to listen to the Buddha. After hearing the teachings of the Buddha the simple and accepting Gotma immediately joins as his disciple. But Siddhartha comes to a realization here. He knows that the Buddha has reached nirvana but sees the difference between teaching and experience. The teachings of the Buddha were not for him, they were for the suffering, the weak, a comfort zone which numbs people from the harsh realities and allows them to live in a false contentment. Even the Buddha himself knows this; he is just trying to help the masses that are not as clever as Siddhartha. Siddhartha now sees that experience is the only way to gain knowledge and goes out into the world to try it all. For many years of his life after he tries many new lives. From Kamala, a young courtesan, he learns about Physical love. He learns to become a merchant and indulge in the pleasures of a wealthy life. He lived on many years like this and grows old and worn but finds it is all a false happiness. After everything he obtained he is still discontent. The women, clothes, wine; all do nothing for the mind. He abandons it all and runs away into the forest and falls asleep beside the river, wishing to die. Here he meets Govinda again for the first time since he had joined the Buddha. And Siddhartha saw that Govinda had not changed. Govinda was still blindly following in Buddha’s steps, doing the rituals and living under his ways. Vasuedeva the ferryman is very important to developing Siddhartha. He never tries to teach Siddhartha but hints at where to look. Vasudeva says that it seems as though the river has spoken to him and suggests that he stay with him beside the water. It is through Vasudeva that he realizes the symbolism of the river to life. Life is always flowing, changing but always there and continuing on. Even later on when Siddhartha gains and loses his son he again sees the cycle of life in the river. In grief for his loss he cries into the river and catches a glimpse of his reflection. In it he sees himself, his father, and his young son. Siddhartha sees the pain that his father must have felt when he left as a boy is the same as when his own son ran away. Although he tried otherwise, the same trials and pains he left behind are recurring again and again. He finally sees the true cycle of life. Siddhartha comes to realize that the whole world, everything, is one. We are born of our mothers, live our lives and eventually die, then decompose in the dirt. Trees grow up from the dirt and produce fruit, which is eaten by man and animals alike. The air we breathe is recycled and breathed back in by plants. Everything is made of the same particles that have been around since the beginning of time. The world is constantly changing: destroying, creating, and reforming every molecule into something new. So we are a part of that, apart of everything. Rebirth is made within yourself and what you choose to change. Siddhartha experienced many lifestyles all of which he learned from and his decisions to move forward and change was his renewal. And in the end he comes to see that you must let go of your self and your needs completely and love and appreciate everything because it is all one. Govinda appears once more when he asks the ferryman, now Siddhartha, to take him across the river. Once Govinda realizes it is Siddhartha he presses him to know too how to Nirvana. Siddhartha tries to explain that you cannot search for nirvana it must come to you. Nirvana is not one thing but everything you experience in life and if you are trying only to find nirvana everything around you will be missed and wisdom and understanding cannot be found. But even after Siddhartha’s speech Govinda did not understand, he still could not comprehend what Siddhartha was trying to convey. Nirvana cannot be reached only through writings and other teachings. These things can lead you down the path but it can bring you only so far because it is all feelings and discoveries that others have achieved through their own life. Writings can only convey part of the message because you cannot produce in words your experience and have another understand every aspect of the way you felt. That is how your mind dealt and reacted to that situation. Can you tell someone exactly how good jamoca almond fudge ice cream is? They can tell you how it tasted to them, but can they interpret the exact sense it will have on your tongue? Can you truly understand how much you would like it unless you have tasted some yourself? Some may think it’s too strong, some may not like almonds, some might like vanilla better, and everyone will have their own opinion and slight difference. Life is the same way. Govinda never reached his goal because his whole life he was searching in others lives. First he followed Siddhartha with the Samanas then leaves the samanas by his own choice, only to follow another. And in the end he comes back to Siddhartha with one last desperate plea to try and understand. He never learned anything about himself because he was blinded by the belief that someone else could show him how. Everyone must decide for himself or herself what they do with their life, for following only leads you down another minds path away from your own awakening.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Bottling Company

BOTTLING COMPANY History of coca cola bottles: CocaCola’s history has got a lot of bottle – more than 115 years’ worth, in fact. The world’s favourite soft drink started life as a soda fountain beverage, selling for five cents a glass, but it was only when a strong bottling system developed that CocaCola became the world-famous brand it is today. 1894 – A modest start for a bold idea Mississippi shop owner Joseph A. Biedenharn began bottling CocaCola after he was impressed by its sales.He sold the drink to his customers in a common glass bottle called a Hutchinson. At the time Biedenharn sent a case to Asa Griggs Candler, who owned the Company. Candler thanked him but took no action. One of his nephews already had urged that CocaCola be bottled, but Candler focused on fountain sales. 1916 – Birth of the contour bottle Bottlers worried that a straight-sided bottle wasn’t distinctive enough and that CocaCola was becoming easily confused with ‘copycat’ brands. Glass manufacturers were approached to come up with a unique bottle design for CocaCola.The Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana, designed with the famous contour shape, which won enthusiastic approval from CocaCola in 1915 and was introduced in 1916. * The contour bottle design was inspired by the curves and grooves of a cocoa bean. * Today, it's one of the most recognised icons in the world – even in the dark. * Blues players have been known to use necks from CocaCola's contour bottles to play slide guitar, coining the term ‘bottleneck slide'. 1923 – Six packs Six pack carriers of CocaCola bottles were introduced to encourage people to take their drinks home – and were a huge hit. 928 – Bottle overtakes fountain For the first time, the volume of CocaCola sold in bottles exceeded the amount sold through soda fountains. 1950 – Media moments The CocaCola contour bottle was the first commercial product to appear on the cover of TIME magazine, establishing CocaCola as a truly international brand. Also this year, the first television advert featuring CocaCola's contour bottle appeared during CBS' The Edgar Bergen-Charlie McCarthy Show. 1955 – Packaging innovations For the first time, people could buy different sized bottles of CocaCola. As well as the traditional 6. ounce contour bottle, shops also started selling larger 10, 12 and 26 ounce versions. 1960 – Trademark no. 1 The contour bottle with the word ‘CocaCola’ written on it received its first trademark from the US Patent and Trademark Office. 1977 – Trademark no. 2 The CocaCola contour bottle was granted a second trademark for the contour shape itself, with no words written on it. 1978 – Recyclable bottles CocaCola introduced the world to the two litre PET plastic bottle. It became popular for a lot of reasons: it doesn’t break; it’s re-sealable, lightweight and recyclable . 2000 – Reducing wasteCocaCola introduced the ultra-glass contour bottle designed for improved impact resistance, reduced weight and cost. These bottles are 40 per cent stronger and 20 per cent lighter than the original CocaCola contour bottle – saving approximately 52,000 metric tons of glass in 2006. 2005 – Aluminium bottles CocaCola joined forces with design firms from five continents to launch a new aluminium contour bottle called the ‘M5’ (Magnificent 5). 2009 – Green bottles CocaCola launched the innovative  PlantBottle  in the US, a completely recyclable PET container made with 30 per cent plant materials, including sugar cane extracts. 011 – Going green globally PlantBottle packaging is available in nine countries with launches planned for many additional markets in 2011 and beyond. MISSION PET In this context, what was the appropriate response by CCBPI? The environmental predicament was clear-cut and the decisions and dir ections were defining moments of the company management’s assessment of the situation. It was amidst this situation, the program Mission PET was born in the last quarter of Year 2000. PET stands for Pinoy Environment Team to underscore the indigenous Filipino endeavor. Its objectives are: . To promote recognition of CCBPI’s one-way containers as recyclables and to encourage collection and recovery of these post consumer beverage containers; 2. To encourage among strategic stakeholders the environmental responsibility through education and information dissemination; 3. To marshal the youth to undertake collection and recovery of the one-way PET containers and to guide them in linking up with environmentally minded organizations; 4. To mirror management’s active response to a critical social problem. Mission PET target audience is a wide spectrum of stakeholders.People of all ages and walks of life consume Coca-Cola products; obviously, they are also garbage gener ators. Recycling of PET Containers There is now a PET Recycling Technology present in Metro Manila area. Forever Fiber Corporation in Pulang Lupa, Valenzuela City, has registered with the Board of Investments and obtained Income Tax Holiday for six years from April 2002 for the annual production of 1,583,733 kilograms of polyester staple fiber, necessary for the production of yarn for industrial garments and fibers. In Year 1, Forever Fiber will use 1,456 tons of used PET bottles, and by Year 5, it would be needing 2,043 tons of used PET.Multipet Corporation in Malinta, Valenzuela City produces strapping materials, commonly called â€Å"plehe†, from recycled PET wastes. Such materials are used locally and abroad for strapping boxes or cargoes, such as for mangoes, suha or durian. Out of its annual output of 460 tons per year, Multipet channels approximately 5% of its output to low-income communities in Malabon and Navotas where enterprising families weave market baskets (bayo ng), knapsacks and folding beds, for livelihood. A thriving market exists for 15 large consolidators known as Metro Recycling Association who xport every month about 400 tons of PET flakes as feedstock for the enormous non-woven fiber factories in China and Korea to produce polyester. Polyester is a part of such â€Å"sosyal† items as Patagonia bags, Nike shoes, skiers’ windbreakers, jackets, carpets and comforters. Think about this for a moment: If your outerwear or innerwear trademark says: â€Å"Polyester, or Polyester with cotton, or Polyester with rayon† -in all possibility, you are wearing recycled Coca-Cola PET bottles! Recycling of Aluminum Cans Reynolds Recycling Corporation’s two (2) furnaces in Dasmarinas, Cavite, are, for the moment, silent, shutdown.But further West in Barangay Osorio, in Trece Martires City, there is Cavite Aluminum Recycling Corp. producing aluminum ingots for the Philippine market and the aluminum alloy requirements of ind ustries in Japan. In addition, there are dozens of registered – – and unregistered – – converters producing aluminum sheets for cooking woks and claddings – – mostly from recycled aluminum beverage containers. Today, Metro Manila Linis Ganda’s members and other junk shops – – there are at least 1,200 registered in Metro Manila – – earn handsomely from the collection of PET and UBCs. So do their eco-aides.Just look at the tons of collected by the Linis Ganda coops in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001. Unseen by the public eye are the big warehouses compacting UBCs into 20-kilo blocks for export via container ship to Japan, China, Malaysia, and U. S. Aluminum, by the way, is perpetually recyclable! And aluminum scrap price is a reference for trading at the London Metal Exchange. Look at the growth of aluminum scrap exports: Collection by Mission PET Recovery Centers For the past 21 months, the Centers have redeem ed 4,200,000 (million) and 3,000,000 (million) pieces of aluminum and PET containers, respectively.That’s what we have directly scooped out of the waste stream. In 2001, Philippines exported 23,053 tons of aluminum scrap with a value of US$416,145,305. For PET, the country recovered about 5,040 metric tons in 2001 from the 24,000 metric tons that we generated in the form of resin, pre-form and bottle container. That is a recovery rate of 21 percent! PET or polyethylene terephthalate is the familiar soft plastic popularly used in myriad consumer and household products because of its lightweight, clarity and shatter-resistance.It is a polymer, a kind of plastic. Among the seven classifications of plastic, PET is coded â€Å"1† in the international recycling logo. (See Appendix C. ) The marking, made by the U. S. Society of Plastic Industry, is found at the bottom of the container to facilitate its segregation and recycling. The Seven Types of Plastics commonly used in th e Philippines 1. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Common uses: soft drink bottles, cooking oil bottles, peanut butter jugs, water bottles 2. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)Common uses: detergent bottles, milk jugs, grocery bags 3. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Common uses: plastic pipes, outdoor furniture 4. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Common uses: produce bags, food storage containers 5. Polypropylene (PP) Common uses: aerosol caps, drinking straws 6. Polystyrene (PS) Common uses: packaging pellets, cups, meat trays 7. Others Common uses: certain kind of food containers Report in N. S. E: Bottling Company REpOrTeRs: Cacayorin, Sarah Jane Mabini, Sherwin John Submitted to: Ms. Mercedes Mascarina

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Jamba Juice Essay

Jamba Juice The Brief Jamba Juice is a specialist vendor of healthy blended beverages, juices and snacks, with over 600 franchised and company retail outlets in California and over 20 other states. The company wished to carry out a classic promotion: to drive visitors to its stores over the course of a two week campaign with a â€Å"BOGO† (Buy one get one free) beverage offer. The Approach Guided by digital advertising agency Xylem CCI’s media agent, JL 360, Jamba Juice decided to conduct a pure online campaign. This campaign was targeted primarily at women, who predominate among Jamba Juice’s customers. 24/7 Real Media was chosen by Xylem CCI and JL 360 to be the digital advertising partner. The resulting campaign included multiple creative variants in different banner formats. All of these creatives invited the viewer to click through to a Web page where they could print out a coupon—unique to this campaign—with which to claim their BOGO. The campaign began on June 19, 2007. A target of 100,000 coupon redemptions over a 14-day period was set, with coupons expiring at the end of the campaign. The resulting ads were served on a run of network (RON) basis across the 24/7 Global Web Alliance network of over 950 Web sites. They were targeted geographically, aiming mainly towards California as well as the other regional markets where Jamba Juice operates. As women were a main target market, Jamba Juice could reach these potential female customers through 24/7 Real Media’s Women’s Interest vertical channel. People who visited Jamba Juice’s own site at one point and then later browsed the Internet were then also served additional â€Å"retargeted† ads when they visited any of the Web sites on the Web Alliance. As well as regular inpage banners, page load ads were used, in which a full page ad pops up while the user’s requested page is loading. The campaign was also supported with a limited outreach of 62,000 branded outbound emails to untested subscribers within Jamba Juice’s database. These subscribers received the same offer as was extended in the banner campaign. The Results Because the online coupons were unique to this campaign, progress was easily tracked. â€Å"We have experienced incredible success with our campaign utilizing various types of targeting on the Global Web Alliance. The digital marketing plan that 24/7 Real Media put in place for our client, and then executed, produced results far beyond anything we had expected. † -Sean Black, President JL 360 Target achieved half way through campaign, at half the budgeted spend By the end of campaign day 8, visitors had downloaded all of the coupons that Jamba Juice had allocated to the full 14 days of the campaign, on a spend of approximately 50% of the budget. The Meaning of the Results Retargeted ads—those delivered to people browsing the Internet who had previously visited Jamba Juice’s Web site—yielded the highest response levels of all ads served. JL 360 can secure the right channel for clients’ marketing/messaging and ensure delivery of results that meet specific measurements of success. Services include Media Strategy, Media Execution (Buying), and Media Accountability. About Xylem CCI: Xylem CCI is a leading independent digital advertising agency, meaning they design, execute, and manage digital advertising campaigns that include large-scale Web sites, Flash microsites, eMarketing strategies and viral advertising campaigns. Xylem CCI believes in fresh, innovative thinking, just the way you expect if from a hungry independent creative agency. They have been in the digital space as long as anyone in the business, are 70 plus strong, hyper-creative, overly zealous and have tons of extreme vigor. The agency understands that consumers are constantly driving and demanding new and innovative delivery methods, and therefore focuses on creating cutting-edge solutions guaranteed not to disappoint. Every single day, they are evolving the business to stay on the forefront of popular culture and the convergence of informational mediums in an increasingly fragmented and multidimensional world. About Jamba Juice: An extraordinary health experience unlike any you’ve ever tasted, Jamba Juice serves up delicious, nutritious, energizing smoothies and juices. Each one is filled with refreshing fruit flavor and provides 3-6 servings of fruit to get you on your way to 5-a-day! Also, boosted with vitamins and minerals and always served in a fun and uplifting environment. You’ll find Jamba Juice provides everything you need to live an active, healthy and happy life! Jamba Juice is the leading outlet for blended fruit drinks with about 600 smoothie stands in over 20 states. Its menu includes more than 30 varieties of custom smoothies and Jamba Boosts, along with other fruit juices and baked goods. Jamba Juice locations include freestanding units as well as on-site kiosks in high traffic areas, such as college campuses, gyms, and airports. â€Å"Our ability to produce â€Å"Once we’d fully digital advertising implemented Open success stories for AdStream, we found our clients like working that we were Jamba Juice is dependent on with an integrated the expertwas far tool that and reliable partnerships that we more powerful share with JL360, and than the simple 24/7 Real Media.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Business research methods Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Business research methods - Essay Example Trends were detected through the tabulation of related figures and the preparation of bar graphs and pie charts that served to clearly illustrate the movement, direction or trend from one year to the next. The researcher proceeded to focus on the construction industry in UK. Primary data were generated by way of conducting interviews and giving out questionnaires for both selected industry major players and for randomly selected representatives of the industry market. Research is basically done to gather data in a systematic manner and to interpret such data in the same systematic manner; throughout the process, the purpose of discovering relevant truths should be clearly imprinted in the mind of the researcher (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007: 5). The procedures to gather primary data were done to document the sentiments and views of the people in the industry in their various post. Both similarities and differences amongst the answers they provided to uniform questions were recor ded and analysed to further analyse the impact of the prevailing industry condition on the individual characters making up the industry group. The data gathered were not limited to the construction industry. ... This report can be revised to suit any particular group of users. After all, a research paper can only be useful to the extent that it addresses the concerns and needs of its reader. This truth applies to all written works, including industry profiles and management research papers. Researchers must be mindful of and responsive to the concerns and interests of practitioners - the users of the finished reports - for their research output to serve a purpose and become valuable (Bryman & Bell, 2007: 5). To serve the needs of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), it can be made to cover more useful details including the needs and demands of the country’s construction industry that can, in turn, be catered to by the SMEs. These needs and demands of the industry can be analysed using supply value chains that would efficiently demonstrate how the needs of the industry as a whole can actually be addressed by properly organising SMEs to produce the required volumes and quantities of the necessary products or to provide the required services. To serve the needs of Multinational Enterprises (MNEs), more data on the investment opportunities and incentives that are offered by the UK government should be incorporated in the report. The comparative advantages of UK, as well, as the next expansion site of MNEs in the construction industry should be drummed up. Tax holidays and other corporate benefits offered by the country to MNEs should be covered in detail. Meanwhile, independent investors who might wish to buy shares of construction companies that are listed in the bourse would want to see the individual financial performance indicators of the industry leaders and to have

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Components of Qualitative Approach Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Components of Qualitative Approach - Assignment Example The three topics all involve the use of qualitative information. To investigate the political opinions of citizens of a country A, a researcher has to set interviews that will convert qualitative attributes to quantitative measures. For example, an interview can set a question like â€Å"Do the contestants you intend to vote for know your economic challenges†. The responses can be assigned numeric indices to measure their strengths for example: Interviews usually have challenges during data collection because it deals with personal opinions and often touches on sensitive issues which many respondents may not be willing to provide information on. There is always a risk of collecting inaccurate data due to confidentiality. Secondly, respondents do not realize the importance of the data being collected. They thus do not present exact information. They either exaggerate and fabricate information or conceal real truth. Thirdly, language barrier may prevent the interviewer and the respondents from communicating. Involving an interpreter may be irritating to the respondents and they may not take part in the exercise. There are ways of dealing with the challenges in order to improve the quality of data collected. For the sake of accuracy, it is ideal to express friendliness to the respondents in order to win their confidence. This will encourage them to be honest with their information. The issue of language barrier can only be solved using an interpreter. It means the researcher has the responsibility to acquire an interpreter. Qualitative interviews according to the perspectives of Singh (2007) are essential for research works first, because the information regarding social and political subjects is usually of qualitative nature. Secondly, it is easier to interpret qualitative information into measurable quantities that people can easily understand. Qualitative

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

The switching roles of moms and dads Research Proposal

The switching roles of moms and dads - Research Proposal Example Ebony (1999) makes this clear: ‘a generation of new millennium parents – mostly middle-class professionals – is blurring the traditional lines and writing new rules for child-rearing’. In summary, due to fundamental changes in the past half century, the economic and social roles of mothers and fathers have become interchangeable and flexible. Over the past half century or so, women have taken on a much more prominent role in the labor market, which has presumably meant a more equitable sharing of caregiving tasks between mothers and fathers, in those households where both parents are in residence. Amato (1994) was correct in proposing that ‘the massive movement of married women into the paid labor force disrupted the traditional division of labor within the nuclear family’ (p.1031). Indeed, he found that 67% of married mothers with children under 18 were in paid work, so that ‘mothers now share the breadwinning role with their husbands’ (Amato, 1994, p.1031). With the ready availability of effective contraceptives since the 1960s, women have been able to take full control of their reproductive lives, with many choosing to delay childbirth and starting a family until they feel that they have established a secure and successful career in their chosen sector. Additionally, the availability of widespread and affordable childcare allows many mothers to return to the workplace, sometimes soon after the birth of a child. The changing economic role of mothers is fully borne out in the figures. From 1948-2001, the percentage of working age women either in employment or looking for paid work rose from under 33% to over 60% (APA, 2010). In many families, the mother is at least as powerful an economic actor as the father, and often more so. For many, traditionally-prescribed gender roles and responsibilities have been dissolved, with decisions on the divisions of roles now

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Reading and Researching Social Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Reading and Researching Social Science - Essay Example This overturns assumptions that refugees get into UK for economic purposes. In previous times, principle refugee applicants were male but recently females are also assuming the roles the males had. UK does not have a standard induction programme for immigrants. The Zimbabweans asylums do not have to have knowledge of living and working in UK. The accessible services vary with the regions that they live in. The asylum seekers receive support from the UK Border Agency (BIA) which provides accommodation for the asylum seekers. Zimbabwe has been having volatile elections which have been stained by violence, intimidation, rigging and buying of votes by use of food (Home Office: 2009b).in the 2000’s drought, food shortages and land seizures continued to destroy Zimbabwe (Reuters Alertnet: 2009). 2005 saw the formulation of the Operation Restore Order. The political as well as economic instability caused inflation in that country when money got printed to meet the budget deficit. The International community criticized Mugabe for the tarnished human rights record. The political unrest and worsening of the economy in Zimbabwe took place at a time UK was reforming its asylum system (Scott, 2010). The bequest of this is a not straight forward patchwork of Zimbabweans refugees. In accordance with the 2001 census, the number of Zimbabweans living in the UK is 49,303. This indicated a 130% increase from 1991 when there were only 21,427 Zimbabweans in the UK. This increase is attributed to the opening out of the NHS which had many Zimbabweans attracted and also political turmoil Zimbabwe. In a recent study which researched among the Zimbabweans living in UK revealed that political unrest is the major reason for immigration to the UK. London and its environments commuter towns have the highest concentration of Zimbabweans. However, they still remain scattered around the

Relationships between individuals were profoundly altered by the Term Paper

Relationships between individuals were profoundly altered by the experience of terror and genocide. Using Lydia Chukovskaya's - Term Paper Example Inhumane living conditions made people doubt about the future of humanity. For instance, those who managed to survive in Auschwitz admitted that people there were not humans. They were creatures who longed to survive. Some may say that distorted relationships between individuals in concentration camps should be regarded as the most horrible example of taking humanness away from humans. However, the relationships between individuals during the Great Purge in Soviet Union are the case of unprecedented eradication of basic human traits: compassion, empathy and readiness to help. Altered interpersonal relationships in Auschwitz This statement can be easily proved when comparing the two cases. In the first place, it is possible to consider the peculiarities of relationships between individuals who had to live through the horrors of concentration camps. Notably, many inmates understood that the majority of people would die in the camps and â€Å"[o]nly a minority of ingenuous and deluded souls continued to hope† (Levi 14). At the same time one of the basic biological rules can hardly be evaded. Therefore, though people in Auschwitz knew that prisoners were dying there, everyone tried to survive. From the very first seconds inmates witnessed things that could not be understood or accepted by moral or at least reasonable people. Wretched prisoners were beaten, humiliated, tortured and eventually killed. Starving and frightened to death people saw terrible scenes which could make anyone crazy, so their ideas about the world or rather perception of the world were distorted. The new world, nightmare-like reality which absorbed millions of innocent people deadened the best feeling and best human traits. Young, strong, intelligent people were turned into â€Å"squalid human specimens† who lost their strength to resist (Levi 92). Of course, many inmates tried to help each other when no one was watching as the helper could become one more victim. However, there were prisoners who could easily set up their comrades for a scrap of bread or for being left alone (without tortures). Primo Levi who survived in one of those horrible camps claimed that it was impossible to call those who lived their humans (Levi 10). Interpersonal relationships in Soviet Union during the Great Purge This was the life in prison. Prisoners had to survive and sometimes did â€Å"indecent† things. On the other hand, Soviet people who lived in late 1930s were free people (at least the leaders of the country proclaimed principles of freedom in their speeches). Nonetheless, they were not safe and they lived in constant fear. There was quite enough food and people had their homes. However, every minute something horrible could happen. For instance, Lydia Chukovskaya depicted a story of a woman (herself) who lost her son because of some uncertain accusations. The young man was a Komsomol activist, who admired the Party, but someone testified against him and he simpl y vanished. All Soviet people knew of the vanishing and were afraid to do something wrong. As far as wrongful acts are concerned it could be anything: a wrong (too bold) word, relationships with suspicious people, or even a misprint. For example, a skilled and professional typist, Natasha, was fired because she typed Ret Army, instead of Red Army (Chukovskaya 63). The meeting, where the case of Natasha was discussed, is really illustrative and it can justify that

Monday, September 9, 2019

Epistemology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Epistemology - Essay Example By being â€Å"in the head†, do we mean, for instance, that what we call the â€Å"mind† is actually just the brain and consequently that what we call â€Å"mental states† are nothing but the physical states of the brain? If this is the case, we should then in principle be able to tell a person’s thoughts simply by examining the physical states of his or her brain, but this is, if not utterly improbable, a possibility that in the immediate future is least likely to materialize. Or perhaps we mean that the mind is something other than the brain but in some special way is related to the brain, like that it is through the brain that the mind affects our behaviors. But what kind of entity is the mind, if at all it is an entity, if it is not the brain? There are two general kinds of existence under which any conception of how the mind exists can be classified; namely, physical existence and metaphysical existence. By â€Å"physical existence† we mean the kind of existence that lends itself to empirical observation and quantitative measurements while by â€Å"metaphysical existence,† we mean the kind of existence that does not. ... For my purpose, I shall focus on the materialist views of the mind, for it is here where we can differentiate the mind from the brain. As we shall see later, there are variations of this view, for there are different ways in which the mind can be said to exist physically. Thus, I shall examine the basic claims and arguments under the materialist view of the mind upon addressing the main issue of this paper, i.e. is the mind nothing but the brain? The Materialist View The materialist views are divided into non-realist physicalism and realist physicalism. The issue between these two types of materialism concerns the reality of mental states in relation to the reality of the physical states of the brain or of the body: whether there really are no mental states and hence there are only these physical states or there really are mental states in addition to these physical states. Accordingly, non-realist physicalism rejects the existence of mental states and claims that there exist only th e physical states of the brain or of the body; while realist physicalism affirms the reality of mental states in addition to the reality of the physical states of the brain. For non-realist physicalism, I shall examine the views of behaviorism and identity theory. And for realist physicalism, I shall examine the views of functionalism and computationalism. Afterwards, I shall present my own argument as to which among the said arguments best prove the nature of the mind’s existence. Behaviorism Behaviorism is generally regarded as the view that reduces mental states to the physical states of the body or, more precisely, to the body’s behaviors (Kim 1998, p. 24-46). This view is also often expressed as the view that claims that mental states are nothing but