Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Deception in Hamlet

There’s something rotten in the state of Denmark because deception rules the day! Deception, one of the main themes in Shakespeare’s play; Hamlet, is a major factor or characteristic that many, if not all of the characters portray. Throughout the play, almost none of the characters are true to one another, this causes chaos and drama. Within the play, there are many examples of deception, one being in scene II of act I. In this scene Claudius gives a speech, acting as if he feels sorrow and remorse over the death of his brother, and former king, Hamlet. To deceive the people, and fool them into thinking that he actually feels remorse over his brother’s death, is King Claudius’s goal. The truth however is king Claudius is the source of King Hamlet’s bereavement. In hopes that no one will suspect him of murdering his own brother, Claudius uses the â€Å"fake sympathy charade†. Even if King Claudius truly felt remorse or regret for the death of his brother, he would not have married his dead brothers wife, Queen Gertrude. Scene II of act II includes another example of deception. This scene consists of four characters, all of whom deceive the traumatized and depressed Prince and main character, Hamlet. He is deceived by; his â€Å"love†, Ophelia, his Uncle/Father, King Claudius, Ophelia’s father, Polonius, and most importantly his own Mother, Gertrude. Polonius concocts a plan to prove to King Claudius that Hamlet’s destructive behavior is due to his unreciprocated love for Ophelia. This was to be carried out by Ophelia misleading Hamlet into thinking that they are alone, in the hallway in which Hamlet spends most of his time. Meanwhile Ophelia is well aware that her father, Polonius and King Claudius are hiding nearby eavesdropping on their conversation. Also, In Act I, sc. II, Claudius and Gertrude ask Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Hamlets long time friends to speak with Hamlet and find out why has been so sepulchral . After Hamlet greets them joyfully, he asks them for the reasoning behind their visit. Rosencrantz lies in his response by saying, â€Å"To visit you, my lord, no other occasion†. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are not the only ones involved in this situation, making Gertrude and Claudius unfaithful to Hamlet as well because it is they who brought Hamlets friends, knowing that his friends were most likely the only ones that would be able to get information out of Hamlet. Almost all of the characters in Hamlet are unfaithful/ deceptive. They play tricks, and lie to one another. Most of the characters are â€Å"duplicitous† in the sense that they have two totally different personalities and switch back and forth, or perhaps they are one faced, and wear masks. So one side of their face is who they truly are, and the other (or the mask) is who they deceive people into believing they are.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Anthem for Doomed Youth

Choose a poem in which you feel there is a significant moment which reveals the central idea of the poem; show how the poet achieves this in an effective way. ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth' by Wilfred Owen is a poem in which a significant moment reveals the central idea of the poem. The poet achieves this through many poetic techniques such as depersonalisation and alliteration. The first hint of content of the poem comes in the title, the paradox of ‘Doomed Youth' implies that it will not be a happy poem but the first line is significant as the central idea of the poem is revealed. â€Å"What passing bells for those who die as cattle?† The rhetorical question at the very beginning of the poem draws the reader in making them think fully about the ideas carried on through the rest of the poem. From the very start we are aware that the people who are dying are not considered important as the writer refers to the people as ‘those'. Also the depersonalisation as he calls them ‘cattle' implies that they were thought to be no more than animals. They also lose their own personal identities. ‘Cattle' also implies that the men do not have voices and needs that anyone else – anyone human – can understand. As a reader I feel that opening the poem with a rhetorical question is very effective. However in the second line of the poem Owen personifies the guns – ‘monstrous anger' – showing that the guns are worth more and have a louder voice than the men who are dying, which links to the first line as the men were depersonalised. Also Owen uses the word ‘stuttering' to describe the rifles which could imply that the soldiers are young and nervous referring to ‘youth' in the title. The reader feels sympathetic towards the young soldiers. Again Owen implies that the soldiers are not seen as individuals by the use of ‘Can patter out their hasty orisons'. By using the word ‘their' Owen shows how the soldiers were grouped together. This idea is carried on to the next line with ‘No mockeries for them' as he refers to the men as ‘them.' The idea of ‘mockeries,' ‘prayers', ‘bells' and ‘mourning' all are associated with death and funerals, but the repeated use of ‘No' tells us that no one respected the soldiers enough for a proper burial, it could also imply too many of the soldiers were dying. This also relates to the question at the beginning of the poem. The reader feels angry that the soldiers are not respected in their deaths. Although the second stanza starts the same way as the first stanza – with a rhetorical question – the ideas suggested are different. â€Å"What candle may be held to speed them all?† Unlike the first rhetorical question this implies that there is not anything good or big enough to show respect to all the soldiers who died in the war. This rhetorical question also links the first and second stanzas together as they both start the same way. Also death is portrayed in a more positive light, as the people at home respect the soldiers. This is shown by the ‘holy glimmers of goodbyes' by the use of the word ‘holy' the poet shows the reader that the soldiers were respected greatly. Owen also implies that only in death with the torture of war end which makes the reader feel sympathy for the soldiers and anger for the pointless destruction that war causes. In contrast to the treatment of the soldiers in the first stanza the writer tells the reader that the soldiers will be missed as he says about the women at home: â€Å"the pallor of girls' brows shall be their pall;† This shows that they were worried about their husbands, brothers and sons. This is carried through the next line when Owen tells the reader ‘their flowers the tenderness of patient minds' showing that the war is not only affecting the soldiers but their loved ones who are left behind. This makes the reader sympathetic towards the soldiers and their family and friends. The idea of respect is carried on in the last line as the alliteration of ‘And each slow dusk a drawing down of blinds.' slows down the pace of the words and ‘drawing down of blinds' symbolises the end of another soldiers life as drawing down blinds was a mark of respect when someone died. ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth' by Wilfred Owen is a poem in which a significant moment reveals the central idea of the poem. Through many poetic techniques such as word choice, alliteration and personification the writer effectively creates a moment which the central idea is revealed. Anthem For Doomed Youth Throughout this poem there is a theme of mourning and funeral. In the first stanza it is almost sarcastic with instruments of war conducting a service on the battlefield for their victims. The guns become ‘passing-bells' and shells become ‘demented choirs'. The second stanza takes us back home where the true mourners are. The poet speaks of how ‘the holy glimmers of goodbyes' will shine in the eyes of boys instead of their hands and how ‘the pallor of girls' brows' being the ‘pall' of the dead. The last two lines, for me carry the greatest effect and meaning: ‘Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds, And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds' The first is about the disappointment of people who have worried and waited for a long time and whose pain can only be expressed in small gestures or things such as flowers. The second could be interpreted in many different ways. It could be referring to the custom of drawing down of blinds but it could also be about the end of a life and hope leaving as reality settles. These two lines also delineate the pointlessness of hoping as the dead were ‘doomed' and predestined for slaughter in the way that ‘cattle' are in the first place. ‘Anthem For Doomed Youth' is structured like a sonnet and has a very strong rhyme which never appears to be forced and does not interrupt the meaning of the poetry. Indeed, most things about the structure and choice of language appear to be unforced as they are so well incorporated with one another and only after the second reading does one realise how carefully thought out they are. In the first stanza, there is a large use of onomatopoeia: ‘stuttering', ‘rattle', ‘patter', ‘wailing'. This has the effect of bringing the reader to the battlefield. Wilfred Owen has personified the warfare and made the rifles ‘stutter' and the shells ‘wail'. He has also made them come to life; guns cannot be angry and neither can shells be ‘mourning'. This forms an image in the first stanza that is slightly ‘demented' and disturbing. He often repeats vowel sounds and uses alliteration throughout the poem. In ‘the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle' the ‘a' sound is repeated along with the alliteration of the ‘t's. The words of the poem are cleverly chosen to heighten the expression of the poem in the way it is read. For instance, in the quotation about the rifles above, the alliteration he has chosen to make makes the sound interrupted and quickens the pace. This also reminds of the panic and rushing of war. In the final lines the words are not ones that can be said quickly: ‘flowers', ‘patient', ‘minds', ‘slow', ‘blinds'. This dramatically slows the pace of reading and makes them more expressive because it makes the reader think that the poem also dies with the soldiers or the hopes for the soldiers' lives. What is interesting is that there are no phrases that bind this poem to the First World War. Of course, it was written about it, but if given to a reader who did not know about Wilfred Owen or his works, they could think it was about any or all wars after the invention of the rifle. The poem does not mention trenches or gas. ‘These who die as cattle' are not necessarily British, neither are they necessarily of any side in war; they are the collective dead. ‘The guns' are not our guns or their guns. In the preface for a book of poems he intended to publish, Wilfred Owen wrote ‘My Subject is War, and the pity of War. The Poetry is in the pity.' ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth' is unique in that the pity is not only for the soldiers of the First World War, but also for those who suffered the loss of people they loved. It can be raised to a universal level where it comments on the shame and futility of all wars. In his other poetry, there is often blame involved but in this poem he evokes an air of sadness and waste only. There is genius behind the phrasing of it, but it is almost hidden because of its perfection.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The Act of 1593 against the Puritans and the Act against the Recusants Essay

The Act of 1593 against the Puritans and the Act against the Recusants - Essay Example ceforth I will from time to time obey and perform her majesty's laws and statutes, in repairing to the church and hearing divine service, and do my uttermost endeavour to maintain and defend the same. (Gee & Hardy, 1896) The Church at that time, led by the Queen, forebad all that the Queen did not agree with and would ensure that all laws pertaining to the Church and the Parliament were enforced. Any signals from the citisenry at the time of Queen Elizabeth's reign that did not follow the orthodox Church of England at that time and chose to follow any puritan religious movements was dealt with by the Courts. Historically, the Puritans were members of a group of English Protestants that were looking to reform and possibly separate from the church establishment of the time. From the onset, the Puritans ranted to have the Church replace the popish rituals including the ornaments and rituals that were prevalent in the Church at that time such as vestments, musical organs and genuflection and move toward a more Presbyterian model, otherwise known as a Congregationalist model. As Puritans were commonly referred to during that period of history as Dissenters, it was common for those following the Puritan practice to be barred for any profession that required official religious conformity, which then endeavored new industries to be developed. The Puritan and Recusants Belief System Although both groups equally professed their disdain for the secularism that was found within the Church itself. The Puritans refused to accept the entire Church structure as it was currently showing. The Catholics who were then referred to as Recusants, did not wish to take any part of the church's services and would rather be punished than attend Elizabeth's church. Puritans did not directly challenge Elizabeth's claim to the throne but couldn't be accused of working for a foreign power. The Puritans The central belief system within the Puritanism movement is "God's supreme authority over human affairs, particularly in the church, and especially as expressed in the Bible." (Wikipedia, 2006) The Recusants The Recusants, as defined by Encarta, were " Roman Catholics in the 16th century who refused (Latin recusare, "to refuse") to attend religious services in the Church of England because of their allegiance to the pope. Because Recusants rejected the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Crown and constituted a minority who did not go to the state church, they were penalized with increasingly severe legislation. This culminated in fines of 20 per month. In times of danger from foreign invasion further disabilities were imposed. The issue came to a head with the papal bull of 1570, which absolved all subjects

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Chemistry of hazardous materials Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chemistry of hazardous materials - Essay Example High Explosives Accident, 2004). The chemicals involved in this particular explosive accident include TNT or trinitrotoluene in the first room where the initial explosion took place and where the workers were dealing with boosters, which were in fact made up of TNT. The other chemical was PETN or pentaerythritol tetranitrate, which was present in the neighboring rooms and was actually the main chemical component of the drying explosives (Sierra Chemical Co. High Explosives Accident, 2004). The interaction of chemicals involved mainly the solidification of the base material for boosters – namely TNT and other high explosives, and their ensuing explosion that caused the explosion of the PETN in the neighboring room. Based on the reconstruction of evidence conducted by the U. S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, apparently one worker left in the booster room around 50 to 100 pounds of base material made up of TNT and other high explosives in a pot. As no other worker or operator utilized the base material, it solidified due to the extremely low temperature on the outside. The next day, while assuming that the base material in the pot had been used, he may have turned on the motor to the agitator blades right away without checking whether the pot was empty or not. This triggered the first explosion. The reason for this is that â€Å"the heavy mixer blade had probably become embedded in the hardened explosive† (Sierra Chemical Co. High Explosives Accident, 2004). The ensuing explosion must then have caused heavy debris to rain down on the PETN drying explosives which was 220 feet away from the building, thus causing the secondary explosion (Sierra Chemical Co. High Explosives Accident, 2004). Before the incident, the U. S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration or OSHA had required that certain safety systems for hazardous chemical operations should be

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Strategic Management Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 5

Strategic Management Accounting - Essay Example rocuring cheaper resources can enable a company to keep product costs low, thereby helping either in generating higher profit margins, or lowering selling prices and increase the company’s competitive edge in the market (Lister, 2014; Caplan, 2014). Some of the types of product costing methods are: Standard costing is the conventional method of costing used by most of the companies today. In this method, a company computes the product cost by forecasting the prospective expenditures that the company is going to incur based on expenditures in the previous fiscal; and derives the final price of its products after forecasting future demand of its products. In short, it is a retrospective process that tries to create benchmarks for future costs of production based on its past costs of production. There are 3 components of standard costing: cost of raw materials, cost of labour and overhead expenditures. These three costs are combined and using the targeted value of production, the company determines the cost of each unit of the product. Standard cost can be defined as the budgeted cost of a unit of output The prime benefit of standard costing method is the simplicity of this method. It helps in setting a target cost of production by benchmarking the costs of each factor of production. Creating cost benchmarks using this process is beneficial to the overall cost budgeting of the company. Also, it enables a company to create target revenue levels that it should derive from the sale of each unit of its products. However, standard costing method does not provide the platform for a company to analyse the individual cost factors in details. Also, actual costs incurred by a company for producing its goods during a particular fiscal year may be significantly more than the standard costs of production estimated, due to various real-time factors such as inflation, availability of raw materials and price increments by suppliers. Due to this, the standard costing method is

Friday, July 26, 2019

The challanges of adopting a multi-channel retail approach Essay

The challanges of adopting a multi-channel retail approach - Essay Example It is evident that the digital era fuelled novel business opportunities and the continuous evolution of online business channels have made multi-channel retailing a reality, with the customer now placed at the forefront of retail strategy (Jain, 2008). In turn, this has reshaped business distribution and marketing models. To this end, it is submitted as a central proposition in this paper that consumers increasingly dictate retail strategy and therefore CRM is vital as part of an integrated retail strategy to ensure that an organization keeps pace with the multi-channel retail model. Moreover, the central consideration should be given to the movement away from the conventional economics based approach to consider the benefit of integrating effective CRM into retail strategy. For example, Weinberg at al’s 2007 report into changing consumer behaviour highlights that approximately 65-70% of consumers fall within the category of â€Å"multichannel shoppers† and they increas ingly have the highest purchasing power. (Weinberg et al, 2007). As a result, Weinberg et al posit that it is â€Å"critical that organisations effectively employ a multichannel marketing approach, as consumers in B2C contexts now expect it† (Weinberg et al, 2007, p.385). The impact of multi-channel retailing has continued to grow and Retail Solutions Online highlight that industry research indicates that approximately 40% of sales will be attributable to the multi-channel model by 2012 (2009). Additionally, the Retail Solutions’ Online research indicates that the proliferation of the multi-channel retail model will continue to grow and as a result, retail business have to embrace the model as part of integrated retail strategy to compete in the marketplace (2009). Moreover, Vollmer and Precourt argue that the underlying basis for marketing is rooted in economic principles of exchanging goods for value (2008). It is precisely this concept of â€Å"value† that ha s been at the heart of marketing strategy in persuading consumers to exchange value for goods in conventional business strategy. However, as the business models continue to evolve in line with changing consumer habits and retail channels, Vargo and Lusch point to the fact that economical basis for traditional marketing strategy has been forced to adapt to remain relevant (2004). Additionally, Vargo and Lusch further refer to the arguments of Achrol and Kotler that the: â€Å"very nature of network organisation†¦..and the potential impact on the organisation of consumption all suggest that a paradigm shift for marketing may not be far over the horizon†

Analysis of Campbell v Mirror Group Newspapers judgment Essay

Analysis of Campbell v Mirror Group Newspapers judgment - Essay Example In the final judgment the House of Lords noted the words of Lord Wolf in A v B and C when he said, ‘for our part we would observe that the fact that an individual has achieved prominence on the public stage does not mean that his private life can be laid bare by the media. We do not see why it should necessarily be in the public interest that an individual who has been adopted as a role model, without seeking this distinction, should be demonstrated to have feet of clay.’1 The facts of the case are necessary for an appreciable understanding of this pronouncement. Following the publication of articles with accompanying photographs showcasing model Naomi Campbell’s therapy and attendance at Narcotic’s Anonymous meetings, Campbell filed a complaint in the High Court for damages for invasion of privacy. The High Court found in her favor. On appeal to the Court of Appeal the High Court’s judgment was reversed and the Court of Appeal found that on the facts, ‘that since Ms Campbell had courted publicity and gone out of her way to promote a drug-free media image, the Mirror was entitled to put the record straight, irrespective of the methods it used to uncover the story. The Appeal Court judges decided that "therapy" did not qualify for legal protection in the same way as treatment by a doctor, and that publication of the details of Ms Campbells therapy was necessary to lend the story credibility.’2 On appeal to the House of Lords, the Court of Appeal’s findings were rejected and the High Court’s ruling was upheld. The House substantiated its findings by striking a balance between privacy and freedom of expression as contained in Articles 8 and 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. 3 Lord Hope, in delivering his opinion for the House of Lords said of the Court of Appeal’s findings, ‘they

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Company Law, Essay questoin Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Company Law, questoin - Essay Example they could legally carry out their operations and stating the duties and responsibilities of all the components of the corporations: be they shareholders or directors. In UK, the Company Act contains all these rules and regulations for companies established in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland. However, two versions of the Company Act, namely Company Act 1985 and Company Act 2006 offer varied rights and obligations for shareholders as explained below. Minority shareholders (those whose shareholding is 50% or less), in particular, are given some forms of protection from majority shareholders. ‘A member of a company may apply to the court†¦ for an order under this Part on the ground that the company’s affairs are being or have been conducted in a manner which is unfairly prejudicial to the interests of its members generally or of some part of its members†¦Ã¢â‚¬  [Emphatically a â€Å"member† means a shareholder]1 Instituting a legal suit: Shareholders could start a legal proceeding against the directors and the companies in case unexpected unfair practices are discovered. This empowers shareholders to boldly challenge the directors or other management members whenever they abused their positions and undermine the integrity of the company’s constitution2. Some of the abuses include but not limited to the misuse of company’s asset, exaggerated self-aggrandisement and absolute breach of company’s rules to satisfy personal interests. So, minority shareholders, for instance, could only use the power of law here to seek redress against the majority shareholders, managers and directors. For the fact that bad management on the part of the directors could destroy the company’s operations and plunge everyone into insolvency, the opposing action by the shareholders would help return sanity to the company’s activities. A typical instance of when shareholders kicked against the selfish desires of directors who tried to break the company’s rules in pursuit

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Gender Stratification and Women in Developing Nations Essay

Gender Stratification and Women in Developing Nations - Essay Example The most intense riots broke out in the aftermath of president Habyalimana’s assassination, a mad Hutus tried to wipe off a complete Tutsi tribe. Not only women and young females were killed, raped and mutilated, the moderate males also faced mass killings establishing these killings as genocidal and gendercidal. Rwanda’s demographic disparity today is due to the killing of approximately 70% Tutsi males by the hands of radical Hutus, about which the socialist say that, it will continue to exist. An intense impact is a tilt in power towards females in all walks of life. This paper researches this very fact and will also investigate the effects of demographic disparity in the wake of the genocide Rwanda. Additionally, it will throw light on the role of women in Rwanda at present in its economical, social and political development, especially after the 1994 genocide in this African country. To realize the positive effect on empowered women in the present Rwandan setup; fac tors that played an important role in the 1994 massacre have to be understood. The Rwandan population composes of 85 % Hutu, 14 % Tutsi and 1% Twa tribe. The Twa are native of Rwanda and are different from the influential Hutu and Tutsi. three tribes are racially the same; Twa finding economics from forestry; although, deforestation and indifferent behavior from other tribes have isolated them. They were placed in the lowest cast in the Rwandan culture after the involvement of Hutu/Tutsi tribe and the German/Belgium colonization. By tradition, the main fields of Hutu and Tutsi were agriculture and cattle herding respectively. Both tribes have different features and share the same race. People of the Hutu tribe are bulky, short and with round faces whereas, people from Tutsi tribe are taller, with a lighter skin-tone and elliptical faces. The physical features of Tutsis match the old Ethiopians (History, 2010). Men have, historically, been powerful positions than women in Rwanda. Even though, the work has been shared by both in the agriculture sector; sharing the field clearing and daily work load between men and women respectively. The care of livestock was done by men, along with younger men in the society. Although women seek business in the market, males oversee the outside-home activities, leaving the women to handle house chores and the children upbringing. Marriage is the basic building block of society and the raising of children in Rwanda is considered to be a sign of affluence and influence. Therefo re, these women are under increasing pressure to marry and bear children. Women enjoy a fair share of socio-political power, which is an astonishing fact, keeping in mind the status of men and women in the Rwandan society. Saying all this, men still have the major share of power and public offices. The role of women in politics was minimized by the colonies (History, 2010) The Twa tribe was suppressed by both the Hutu and the Tutsis. Both these tribes did not permit intermarriages with the Twa people; even when allowing them among themselves. Because of these intermarriages the divide, that there was, between the Hutu and the Tutsis was eliminated to a minimum extent. Post colonization, social status was of more essence than that of the race itself (History, 2010). Even still, the Belgium and Germans under the colonial time-period functioned on the principle of ruling

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Summary on India Country Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Summary on India Country Report - Essay Example The financial year for India is April to March, and during the first quarter of the current financial year (2007-08), real GDP growth was 9.3%, estimated growth rate for the full year being 8.4%. This is on the back of an average annual growth rate of 8.83% in the past four years since 2003 – 04. The above 8% GDP growth performance is not likely to be sustained in the coming two years, forecasts being still healthy at 7.9 % and 7.4% successively. The overall GDP is estimated to cross one trillion US dollars land mark during the current year itself, by a good margin. Sector-wise, industrial and services sectors continue to outperform while the agricultural sector growth will be anemic, as in the past few years. During 2006-07, industry and services sectors accounted for 27.9% and 54.6% of the GDP respectively, the balance 17.5% being for the primary sector in which more than 700 million people are engaged in India. Thus, the bleak outlook for the rural economy stares in the face of Trade in goods and services, with continued political support for liberalization, is showing good performance. Imports are rising due to strong domestic demand for industrial and consumer goods. However, exports which averaged 26.5% growth in the past three years are expected to slow down to 17.2% in the current year, the main culprit being the weakening of the US dollar vis-Ã  -vis the Rupee. Rupee appreciated by over 12.5% in the past 12 months and the export oriented segments of the economy like software services, textiles, leather goods etc are hit by the Rupee appreciation. Rising cost of increased imports and crude oil are balanced somewhat by the rising exports of services along with remittances from non-residents, thus keeping the current account deficit under control, estimated at less than 2% of the GDP for 2008-09. The policy laid emphasis on increased spending on primary

Monday, July 22, 2019

The Art of Japanese Management Essay Example for Free

The Art of Japanese Management Essay The art of Japanese management talks about the differences of the Eastern and Western management, and clarifies this differences by citing transnational companies and the ways they did or do solve social and cultural problems that the main management has nowadays. The book starts by sitting on the history of great western organizations like government, military and the church. Its divided in 8 chapters, but its mainly divided in 3 subjects: The 7 S framework, the japanese reflection and The American way. The first leadership concept that shows is the line of command. Contrasting with China and Japan, the occidental society evolves separately with separate influence spheres: The church was always taking care of the faith and the spiritual life of the men meanwhile the government and the commercial institutions had the role of providing the to the human beings to take care of the existence. The corporation started to growth acting as a dominant organization inside a society in this century. The western world was starting to leader the rest of the world, there was no surprise that we all know as modern management was a western invention. The new professionals have the same challenges as before in time: How to efficiently administrate the organization, how to delegate responsibilities, and how to gratify and motivate the employees. The main difference between Western and Eastern organizations is that the last ones use the organizational structure and formal systems to attack these issues. In general, comparing with Western organizations, Eastern organization pays more attention on social and spiritual subjects. The ideology takes persons to achieve organizational goals, but mainly and invariably, these are based on sanctions. Today, the most important tasks like the significance of punctuality, sense of belonging, sanctions against thievery, the importance of performance at work, and the ways to solve conflicts and issues are taking by society before their members take part of a company’s task force. Most of the times eastern societies are representatively big, and most of the time matters like public, private and spiritual are so integrated that the companies take control of these type of tasks as a whole in human being. Company takes another role rater to just being transactions between work and capital. The book gives us the advice to take the best practices of the Japanese administration and to adopt it to our environment, questioning some western â€Å"truths† and some management abilities. To explain the 7 S Framework, the book describes the actions of Konosuke Matsushita, founder of Panasonic, over the management of National and other companies. To start describing the Strategy, Matsushita broke all the existing rules about convention of company names, by naming his company National instead of Matsushita. He changed the way of product commercialization by selling it directly to the stores, without intermediaries, lowering costs. Matsushita gave importance to market shares, high volumes of production generates saving on production cost allowing the company to transmit this reduced prices to their customers. The third element of the strategy was the followership, in which Matsushita didn’t create or invent products, instead, the company’s research and development imitates it but the big difference was that the company offered the same product with an attractive improvement. His best concept of research and development was to take the product, imitate it to the maximum detail and to find a better and more attractive way to offer it to the competitor. Describing organizational structure, he fixed the goal of maintain the thing small and entrepreneurial. To start growing, he organized the company into divisions. When he saw that the manager’s skill were improving, he figured out that they were preparing to be general administrators of a growing company, but the issue were that all the managers were making this progress in their abilities independent and separately. For this, he centralizes the controllership’s functions, the personnel functions, he institutionalize a central bank and the centralized all the training. Regarding Systems, Matsushita was the pioneer of the effective financial systems, and he copied the planning system from Phillips, the Dutch electronics manufacturer. The planning system consisted on that every 6 months, the managers of each division had to deliver 3 plans: The first one was a plan to 5 years, in which he stipulates all the changes that the organization or division will suffer regarding on alterations of new technologies and the environment. The second plan was a plan of to 2 years, in which stipulates how the division will translate the long term strategy in the new plant’s capacity and the new products. The third plan was the â€Å"Program for the Next Sixth Months operation period†. In this plan, the division explained month to month the sales projections, productions, incomes, inventories, accounts receivable, personnel requirements, quality control targets and capital investments. In questions of style, Matsushita was distinguee for his â€Å"hands on† approach. Matsushita understands that a manager has to effectively communicate to people down the line, telling them what he cares about. His key success has been the ability to get to the employees seven levels down and motivate him to energically pursue the organization’s objective. Another future of Matsushita‘s style was the pragmatic approach to a conflict. As in real life, there will be adjustments and its means to pull together rather to push apart. About spiritual values, Matsushita philosophy provided a basis of meaning beyond production. Matsushita was the first company in Japan to have a song and a code of values. This song was singed every day at 8:00 am al across Japan. For Matsushita, It was unthinkable that work, which occupies at least half of the day, should deny its powerful role. The firm has a inescapable responsibilities to help their employee’s themselves. The basic business principles were: â€Å"To recognize our responsibilities as industrialists, to foster progress, to promote general welfare of society, and to devote ourselves to the further development of world culture† The employee’s creed was: â€Å"Progress and development can be realized only through the combined effort and cooperation of each member of Our Company. Each of us, therefore, shall keep this idea constantly in mind as we devote ourselves to the c continuous improvement of our company†. The seven â€Å"spiritual† values were: 1. National Service Through Industry 2. Fairness 3. Harmony and Cooperation 4. Struggle for Betterment 5. Courtesy and Humility 6. Adjustment and assimilation 7. Gratitude. This values foster consistent expectations among employees in a work force continent to continent spread. Regarding Staff, Matsushita experience started with the basics of business. Every employee, whether they were engineers, accountants, or salesman, began with spending 6 months selling or working directly in a retail outlet. Also, each spends time performing routine tasks on a assembly line. The distinctiveness of the firm is that everyone that stays come to be a part of a culture with common understandings and shared values that helped to facilitate the business needs. Employees weren’t view as participating in management, but their opinions are sought. About skills, it is difficult in a Japanese organization to separate the people from the company. The most salient skills of the founder were the versatility; sometimes he was intensely hands on and sometimes distant. Matsushita seems to combine the gifts of many men. The firm’s skills emerged from the consistent ways in which the parts of the organization all join together. Its organizational structure is reinforced by its system; these gain significant support from the Matsushita style, spiritual values, and staffing policies. Human values were promoted with efficiency. Following this and through extraordinary inter consistency between strategy and skills, it is able to replicate the Matsushita model. The American way is reflected in a chapter that resembles all the managerial methods of Harold S. Geneen, which was president of International Telephone and Telegraph for over two decades. At first sight, the managerial methods implemented are good, but they were created to work only in an environment with the same variables. The comparison between Matsushita and ITT wasn’t perfect but gives us a clear perspective of how things can be done perfectly as Japans in our cultural way. Geneen’s behavior and tension he created produced and intense competitive pressures which drove the executives persistently. His method of management was traditional. There were important and interrelated elements in Geneen’s management approach where he played a central role in his management design. The unshakeable facts, which are something hard and indisputable; at minimum it is the firsthand opinion of an expert, based on the most current information. The second part revolved around a design of checks and balances using staff as parallel and independent source of information from the line and permitting overlapping delegations of authority among and between line and staff functions. The third part of Geneen’s approach was the use of large structured meetings as the focal point of his decision-making process. The fourth part was to impose of a variety of rewards and pressures to ensure his total command. Geneen created tensions between line and staff. In contrast with Matsushita, division managers were seen to lead a challenging and precarious existence, while line staff half of the time exaggerated problems to make they look good under the boss eyes. One product manager traced the source of the problem between line and staff to the bonus system, because it represented 30% or more of the salary. The problem was that putting staff on individual performance bonuses resulted in the justification of their existence. They were always trying to prove what they had done in order to look good in the reports. This created an adversary relationship with people on the line. The reward system drove that kind of behavior. Geneen meetings were interrogatory, even adversarial,. The general manager’s report had already been written and everyone assumed to have studied it, but the meetings were held to identify new problems. Part of what made Geneen’s system to work was the fear. Fear of being caught uninformed and being humiliated in meetings and of being punished. It it’s often said that positive motivations are more powerful than negative ones. Geneens personal style can also be described as attentive, committed, determined, pragmatic, and forceful and disciplined. His managerial approach had powerful effects on others, and the labels they used to characterize these patterns in his behaviors, and thus his values and beliefs, were often charged with emotion. Seven elements were used to understand better both Matsushita and ITT. Strategy belongs to a firm’s plan of action that causes it to allocate it scarce resources over time to get from where it it’s to where it wants to go. Structure refers to the way a firm is organized, whether it’s decentralized or centralized, whether it emphasizes line or staff. Structure refers on how boxes are arranged. System refers to how information moves around within the organization. Staff belongs not to staff in the line/staff senses, but to demographic characteristics of the people who live in an organization. Skills are those things which the organization and its key personnel do particularly well. Style refers to the patterns of behavior of the top executive and senior management team. Super ordinate Goals or shared values include spiritual and significant meanings and shared values of the people within an organization and refers to the overarching purposes to which an organization and its members dedicate themselves.

Diseases Affecting the Geriatric Population: Bibliography

Diseases Affecting the Geriatric Population: Bibliography Literature review : Lourdu jafrin , Venkata Naveen Kumar .P, Udaya laxmi .T Jayapriya. B performed a 2 months cross-sectional, Unicentric observational study titled â€Å"drug utilization pattern of geriatric patients in the medical department of tertiary care hospital† and it was published in international journal of pharmacy and life sciences in 2013. This research has shown the chronic nature of diseases affecting the geriatric population most commonly the respiratory diseases and rightly increasing the trend of deriphyllin drug utilization. Vandana A badar, Sanjay Kumar. B navale performed a prospective study for a period of 6 months from may 2010 – dec 2010 titled â€Å"study of prescribing pattern of anti microbial agents in medicine ICU of a teaching hospital in central India† and was published in JAPI , April 2012.the main objective of the study is to evaluate the utilization of anti- microbials. They found that infection was the major reason for the usage of anti – microbial therapy .Author revealed that the drug cefotaxime was most commonly used in MICU by about 32% followed by metronidazole 24% , ampicillin 17- 29%. Study also showed the rationality of drug usage by about 30% which was evaluated by analysing the prescriptions. From this study authors concluded that the medical fraternity needs to understand the importance of antibiotics. An international programme may be a useful initiative to reduce antibiotic use. Prakash katakam , Abdul baset A. Elfituri, Zaidoon H. Ramadoan , Osama g. Abadi performed a cross- sectional retrospective study for a period of 15 months in Libya titled â€Å" A retrospective study on antibiotic use in different clinical departments of a teaching hospital in zawiya , Libya† and it was published in Ibnosina journal of medicine and biomedical sciences in 2012. An interesting observation was that increase in the antibiotic consumption which was expressed as DDD/ 10000 inhabitants / day especially AMOX (Amoxicillin+ Clavulanicacid) had been observed from 2008-2009 when compared to other antibiotics rightly for the indication of respiratory diseases. Study reveals that out of 100 subjects only 6 have undergone microbial culture investigations. From this study authors conclude that before initiation of the treatment, a vital need for microbial investigation is essential. Jeevangi. SR, Patil. RB, Manjunath et al. performed a 15 months prospective cross-sectional study in Gulbarga titled â€Å" drug utilization study in a trauma care unit of a tertiary care hospital â€Å" and it was published in journal of clinical and diagnostic research in 2010. In his study the author used the who drug use indicator i.e.., prescribing indicator which can be known by calculating the average number of drugs per encounter and observed that newer anti- microbial and proton pump inhibitors are prescribed more. The study reveals that poly pharmacy was found to be high and the generic is low. An increase in the number of drugs per prescription in the TCU was gradually increased from the day of admission when compared to previous records. The study concluded that usage of drugs in TCU were in accordance with standard treatment guidelines. Hence the authors reveals that by the results of the study there is a considerable scope for improving the prescribing habits accordin g to rational drug use. Sahar I, Al. Niemat, Diana T.bloukh, Manal D. Al. Harasis performed a retrospective study for a period of 3 months from May 2007- July 2007 in 5 hospital centres in KHMC titled† drug use evaluation of antibiotics prescribed in a Jordanian hospital out- patient and emergency clinics using who prescribing indicators† and it was published in Saudi med J 2008. The authors used the who prescribing indicators for the evaluation of prescriptions taken from the out patients settings. The study reveals that the share of antibiotics was more when compared with the total number of encounters surveyed. Also states that the antibiotic categories rightly penicillins( especially amoxicillin) and quinolones ( especially ciprofloxacil, norfloxacin) were prescribed. He authors conclude that the prescribing pattern of antibiotics was very high . so requirement of continuing medical education programme may be needed. Hillary o. Odo, Sunday o.Olotu , Imafidon o.Agbonile, Peter o.esan , Bawa o. James performed a retrospective descriptive study from a review of out- patient prescriptions between sept 2007and Aug 2012 in a regional psychiatric hospital, Nigeria† and it was published in Archives of pharmacy practice in 2013. DDD/ 1000 inhabitants/day was calculated to evaluate the pattern of drug utilization. The results of the study showed that the drug Halopridol accounted the highest drug utilization with a DDD /100inhabitants / day of 5 followed by amitriptylline, benhexol , trifluperazine. The authors concluded that the prescribing pattern of antibiotics were not in accordance with the who guidelines and observation of polypharmacy either haloperidol accounts more often. Praveen KG, Arun K performed a prospective study for a period of 6 months in a tertiary care hospital titled â€Å" drug utilization and evaluation of HMG- co A reductase inhibitors in tertiary care hospital â€Å" and it was published in Indian journal of pharmacy practice in 2013. The study used the methodology of DDD/12 bed days to evaluate the drug utilization of statins. Present study shown that statins are more prescribed for various indications like primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The authors from the study concluded that dosage units for atorvastatin were nearer to the who recommended dose where as variation is observed in case of simvastatin and rosuvastatin. Sutharson L, Hariharan R.S, Vamsadhara C performed a 4 months prospective cross- sectional study in a tertiary hospital , Chennai titled â€Å" drug utilization study in a diabetalogy out –patient setting of a tertiary hospital† and it was published in Indian journal of pharmacology in 2003. Who drug use indicators and DDD were used in the methodology to evaluate the drug utilization. The study reveals that more utilization of sulfonyl ureas was observed when compared to biguanides. The authors concluded that the total number of drugs prescribed in generic is high and incidence of polypharmacy is low. Hence some of the interventional measures may be vital in promoting the patient education and knowledge . James M Hutchinson, David M Patrick , Fawziah Marra et al . presented a paper titled â€Å" measurement of antibiotic consumption: A Practical guide to the use of the ATC and DDD system methodology in Canada â€Å" and it was published in Can J Infect Dis in 2004. The presented paper provides a practical advice on the use of ATC and DDD classification system for evaluating the prescribing pattern of antibiotics. The authors concluded that initiation of drug utilization documentation procedure may stimulate interest in measurement and display of antibiotic consumption. Hamdi Sozen, Ibak gonen, Ayse Sozen et al. Performed a point prevalence study on july 19 , 2011 in a general hospital , turkey titled â€Å" Application of ATC and DDD methodology to evaluate antibiotic use in a general hospital in turkey â€Å" and it was published in Annals of clinical microbiology and anti microbials in 2013. The results of the study showed that the rational use of antibiotics were identified with appropriate indication for prophylaxis and treatment. The authors concluded that the hospitals should implement their own principles of antibiotic use to decrease the microbial resistance and economic consequences too. Mahendra K Patel , Manish J Barvaliya , Tejas K patel , CB Tripathi performed a retrospective study between 2008 and dec2010 in takhtsinhji general hospital , Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India titled â€Å" drug utilization pattern in critical care unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in india† and it was published in International Journal of critical illness and injury science in 2013. The case papers were analyzed for demographic variables, indications, duration of critical care unit stay and usage of anti – microbials were evaluated based on culture report. In the study DDD/100 bed days were calculated to evaluate the drug utilization and also cost of the drugs from Indian drug review (2010). The study results showed DDD/100 bed days was more in case of total drug utilization in the anti- microbials which were prescribed without culture report , more economic burden is seen in expired patients and incidence of polypharmacy is a major problem in ccu. Shankar PR, upadhyay DK, Subish P, Bhandari RB, Das B performed an observational study from a period of June2005-May 2006 in a teaching hospital in western Nepal titled â€Å" Drug utilization among older patients in a teaching hospital in western hospital† and it was published in Singapore Med J in 2010. The author uses the drug use indicator DDD/ 100 bed days. For the evaluation of drug use in the hospital. In the present study basic demographic information of older patients , microbial report, drug utilization pattern and cost of the drugs were included. The study reveals that average number of drugs consumed by each patient was tends to be high i.e.., (7.73). The authors concluded that incidence of parenteral formulations arises a common problem. Authors also suggested that there must be an initiation of guidelines for the usage of drugs in elderly patients. Khavane.K, Addepalli.V, Bhusare.K,Payghan S.A, Patweakar.S,Kate.V performed a 6 months prospective study at the saifee hospital , charni road , Mumbai titled â€Å" prescribing patterns of antibiotics and sensitivity patterns of micro –organisms towards different antibiotics in multi disciplinary health care hospital â€Å" and it was published in International Journal of pharmaceutical and biological archives in 2010. The study was carried over by collecting the patient demographic details, antibiotic information, microbial culture sensitivity test .The present study showed the process of interpretation of results. The authors concluded that there must be requirement of formulation of a policy for antibiotic use, obtaining the culture and sensitivity reports must be quickened, avoidance of continued or over usage of antibiotic for a longer period of time. Patil P.H, Kuchake V.G, KumarAjay, Dighore Pitambar,Surana S.J performed a 5 months prospective study in inpatient department of tertiary care hospital titled â€Å" evaluation of drug utilization especially anti- microbial agents in inpatient department of tertiary care hospital â€Å" and it was published in International Journal of community pharmacy in 2009.In the present study patient demographic information, antibiotic consumption for empirical and surgical prophylaxis , microbial culture reports were included and the data were analyzed in a simple percentage manner. Based on the results authors concluded that more number of prescriptions containing antibiotics were observed and there are no gold standard methods for the usage of antibiotics. Authors also suggested that an antibiotic order form must be prepared and implemented for achieving the rational use of drug . Ulla-Maija Rautakorpi, Soija Huikko, Pekka Honkanen performed a 5 year follow up study titled â€Å" The anti- microbial treatment strategies (MIKSTRA) program: A 5yr follow up of infection – specific antibiotic use in primary health care and the effect of implantation of treatment guidelines †and it published in clinical infectious diseases in 2006. In the present study data were collected from various health care centres and the national guidelines were published during the study period. Initiation of interventional programmes were done by the local trainers. Based on the results concluded that because of multifaceted intervention, a qualitative improvement in the drug use is observed.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The History of Electromagnetic Suspension System

The History of Electromagnetic Suspension System As the knees are the important part of the human body because of which he can walk, run, sit and jump properly, the suspension system is a knee of a vehicle, with which the vehicle can give us a comfortable ride. The automobile frame and body are mounted on the front and rear axle not directly but through some form of springs and shock absorbers. This is done to damp to road shocks transmitted to the frame by the wheels as they roll over the road. All these parts which perform this function are together called as a suspension system. Thus the suspension system includes springs, shock absorber and there mountings. The suspension system of a motor vehicle divided into the rear end suspension front end suspension. 1.1 Need of suspension system: To avoid the road shocks which are pass on to the vehicle frame. To preserve the steadiness of a car in pitching or rolling, when in motion. To safeguard the occupant from road shocks. To provide good road holding while driving, cornering and braking. To maintain proper steering geometry. 1.2 Types of suspension systems: The following are the suspension systems which rare used in the modern vehicles, Dry friction or Leaf spring Coil spring Air bag Rubber spring Electromagnetic suspension system 1.3 History of suspension system: Rolls Royce (1913) illustrates that how the different situations was in the early years where rear dampers stopped to use. Dry snubbers were used in between 1910-1925. However, the period 1925-1980 was very extensive by simple hydraulics, primarily simply constant force blow off, then proportional characteristics, then adjustable, leading to mature product. In the period of 1980 to 1985, there was an enthusiasm about the possibilities for the different types of active suspension, and they had the ability to get rid of the ordinary dampers. Then after some period in 1985, the fast auto-adjusting dampers, turn out to be more and more obvious, because they found a good deal profit of active suspension much more cheaply, and from that period the damper unexpectedly became an interesting, developing component again (Dixon John, 2010). In 1966 for high-speed transportation Danby and Powell introduced an EDS system using super conducting magnets with a null flux suspension. After some period some more designs proposed using continues sheet guide ways. Then some from U.S., Japan, Germany, UK and Canada have developed further innovations (such as ladder type guide way for increased lift efficiency), but there are still a number of technical problems that needed resolution. (T. Thompson, Richard D. Thornton and Anthony Kondoleon, 2010) 1.4 Current Details Of Electromagnetic Suspension (Maglev): There are three primary types of Maglev technologies: superconducting magnets ( electrodynamic suspension) feedback controlled electromagnets ( electromagnetic suspension) A new but very cheaper permanent magnet system Inductrack. The several approaches and designs have been produced by Japan and Germany. These two countries are very active in maglev research. The design used for trains in which the train levitate by the repulsive force of the same poles of the magnets. A linear motor is used to propel the train or on the locomotive or both. In this system massive electrical induction coils produce the magnetic field and the need of this magnetic field which is placed along the track is to propel the train, leading some to speculate that the cost of constructing such tracks would be enormous. ( Heller Arnie 2010). Earnshaws theorem states that a collection of point charges cannot be maintained in a stable stationary equilibrium configuration solely by the electrostatic interaction of the charges. As Earnshaws theorem says Magnetic bearings are unstable; the conventional maglev systems stabilized with the help of the electromagnets which have electronic stabilization. In actual to levitate the train that is to keep the train up in the air with the help of an magnetic field it needs very strong magnetic field which only can generate by a large electromagnet but large electromagnet is also a big issue for the design, so instead of using the large magnets, superconductor for an capable electromagnet. Inductrack is a cheap in cost compare to other systems. The system relies on the current induced in the passive electromagnetic array generated by permanent magnets, so that it provides the better load carrying capacity related to the speed. In the model, the permanent magnets are placed on both sides of the model; the function of these magnets is to provide horizontal lift and vertical stability. There is collection of wire loops in the track which is also called as array. There is no power supply in magnets and the model, apart from the speed of the model. The basic concept behind this system is to store the power by developing the inductrack as a motor and flywheel bearing. With only slight design changes, the bearings were unrolled into a linear track. William Post is the father of such a great innovation like inductrack. He had done this experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. (Heller Arnie 2010). Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Principle of Suspension System: The suspension system of an automobile has input force and output as shown in above fig. Fig: 2.1 (Dr. Erping Zhou, 2010) where, M1 is the body mass of the vehicle M2 is the mass of the suspension system K1 is the spring constant for suspension system K is the constant for the tyre (spring). C is the damper constant Y is the input force form the road to the suspension system. Y1 is the input force from suspension system to the body of vehicle. X is the output displacement. So the mathematical diagram of the vehicle is given as: M2 K1(Y1- X)+ C. d(Y1- X)/ dt K2(Y-Y1) Therefore now we can have, K1(Y1- X)+ C. d(Y1- X)/ dt = M1 d2x/dt2(1) And K1(Y1- X)+ C. d(Y1- X)/ dt K2(Y-Y1) = M2 d2Y1/dt2(2) By lapalce theorem, consider d/ dt = S K1(Y1- X)+ C. S(Y1- X) = M1 S2X..(3) K1(Y1- X)+ C. S(Y1- X) K2(Y-Y1) = M2 S2Y1(4) So by solving equation (3) we get the input, K1Y1 K1X + CSY1 CSX = M1S2X X/Y1 = K1 + CS/ (M1S2 + CS + K1) Y1 (INPUT) = X (M1S2 + CS + K1) / K1 + CS (Dr. Erping Zhou, 2010) 2.2 Basic Concept: Take a cylindrical hollow shock absorber frame placing two magnets inside it. In this cylinder the arrangement of the magnets is in such a way, place one magnet at the top of the cylinder with any polarity let us consider south polarity on down side. Then place another magnet at the bottom of the cylinder having south polarity upside so that they can be parallel each other. Then due to the same polarity of both the magnets the repulsive force generates which gives the movement to the shaft to avoid any unwanted shocks and the fixed hydraulic damper absorbs the vibrations and instability. 2.3 Theory of Vibration: Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or oscillation. The best examples for vibration are pendulum and a plucked string. The theory of vibration explains the study of oscillatory motions. Free vibration without damping To begin with the study of the mass-spring-damper, lets consider the damping is insignificant and the mass is free from any type of force that is called free vibration. Where, k is the constant of stiffness x is the length of stretched spring m is the mass of body So the force is given by, Fs = kx By Newtons second law of motion the generated force is proportional to the acceleration of the mass E F = ma = m.d2x / dt2 Then the sum of the forces on the mass is equals to zero: ma + kx = 0 If the system starts to vibrate by stretching the spring by the distance of A, we get the following equation. x(t) = A cos(2à Ã¢â€š ¬ fnt) The above explanation state that the system oscillates with the simple harmonic motion with an amplitude A , frequency fn. The number fn is called as the undamped frequency which is defined as: fn = To simplify the equation the angular frequency à Ã¢â‚¬ ° (à Ã¢â‚¬ ° = 2à Ã¢â€š ¬f) which has a unit radians per second. If the mass is heavy and inflexibility of the system is known, then the frequency concludes when the force is applied to the system, it will vibrate. When the system once disturbed it vibrates because it has one or more frequencies. The above formula shows the complexity in the real complex designs. (Tustin Wayne 2010) The causes of vibration in the system (conservation of energy) Conservation of energy explains the vibrational motion. In the above example the value of the spring is x and therefore it has stored some potential energy (kx2). Once the spring became free it tries to gain its original shape which has minimum potential energy and in the process accelerates the mass. As the spring reached at its original state that is in unstreched position all the potential energy then converted in to the kinetic energy (mv2). The system then starts to deaccelerate because of the compression of the spring and in this process it transfers kinetic energy into original potential energy. Thus oscillation of the spring transfers the kinetic energy into potential energy. In the above given simple system the mass remains oscillate at the same magnitude, but this doesnt happened in the real system because of the damper which disperse the energy and therefore the system finally bringing it to rest. (Tustin Wayne 2010) Free vibration with damping Now in this system a viscous damper is added to the system which generates an opposive force against the motion of the body which is relative to the velocity of the mass. Where c is the proportionality constant and has units of Force over velocity (N s/m). x m k c Fig: 2.3 (Tustin Wayne 2010) Fd = cv = -c. dx/dt By summing the forces on the mass we get the following ordinary differential equation: ma + cv + kx = 0 The result of the above equation relies on the amount of damping. For the small damping effect the system vibrates but after some time it slows down and finally stops vibrating. This case is called underdamping this case is of most interest in vibration analysis. If the damping effect increases until the last point of the oscillation of the system, the system then goes in to the critical damping. Cc = 2 Is the final critical damping point calue for the mass spring damper model. A damping ration is used to differentiate the amount of damping in a system. The differentiation of the damping is defined as to get a critical point the actual damping divided by the amount of damping. The damping ratio (ÃŽÂ ¶) given as: ÃŽÂ ¶ = c / The values of damping factors for airplane fuselage, engine crankshaft are less than 0.05 and for an automotive suspensions the range of 0.2-0.3. The key for the underdamped system for the mass spring damper model is : x(t) = Xe-ÃŽÂ ¶Ãƒ Ã¢â‚¬ °t cos ( à Ã¢â‚¬ ° = 2à Ã¢â€š ¬f The value of X, the initial magnitude, and à Ã¢â‚¬  , the phase shift, are determined by the amount the spring is stretched. (Tustin Wayne 2010) Analyzation of Damped and undamped natural frequencies The exponential term and the cosine function are the two main points which are noted from the solution. The meaning of exponential term is how quickly the system damps down. The damping effect is low when the damping ration is more. The cosine function explains the oscillations in the system, but the frequency of the oscillations is different from the undamped case. For this case the frequency is called damped natural frequency, fd, and there is a relation between the damped frequency and undamped frequency as follows: Fd = fn Generally, the undamped natural frequency is more than the damped natural frequency, but in realistic the difference between the damped and undamped frequencies is irrelevant because of the damping ratio which is moderately small. Therefore at the starting phase of natural frequency the damped and undamped description are frequently dropped.for example- when the damping ratio is 0.1, the damped natural frequency is only 1% less than the undamped. The two damping ratios 0.1 and 0.3 for the design of side shows how they affect the system and also they show how the system takes time to be stable. Also they show, most frequently what happened practically, is to calculate the free vibrations by doing some experiments after an impact on the system and then the system oscillates so by measuring the rate of oscillations conclude the natural frequency of the system as well as the ratio of damping with the help of rate of decay. Natural frequency and the damping ratio are the important factors in free vibrations but to understand and differentiate the behaviour of the system in different vibrations generated by force is also important. (Tustin Wayne 2010) 2.4 Principle of EMSS: The basic principle is to build up a contact less spring; the electromagnetic actuators can absorb the instability. The basics in electromagnetic suspension are the opposite polarity of the magnets facing each other absorbs all the bumps. The major difficulty is making the magnets physically powerful when running off a cars electrical system. 2.5 Halbach Arrays: Halbach cylinders are well-suited to magnetic levitation of gyroscope, motor and generator spindles. In these cylinders only permanent magnets and unpowered conductors are used to provide levitation. Rotational motion provides the energy of suspension entirely, efficiency is good, and there is no need of extremely low temperature suspension magnets or electronics. But there is a limit for the linear speed at the bearing race which must be above a meter per second to levitate. The inductrack maglev train system uses this principle as well, which avoids the problems inherent in actively supported systems. Halbach Cylinder: K = 1 K = 2 K = 3 K = 4A magnetized cylinder which is made up of a ferromagnetic material producing a magnetic field restricted completely inside the cylinder and doesnt produce any fields outside is called Halbach Cylinder. The Halbach Cylinders can also generate the magnetic field completely outside of the cylinder and then again it doesnt produce any fields inside the cylinder. Some magnetization distributions are shown below: Fig: 2.4 magnetization distributions( K. Halbach, J.C. Mallinson, Raich, H., Blà ¼mler 2010) The direction of magnetization within the ferromagnetic material is given by M = Mr { sin (kà Ã¢â‚¬ ¢)à °Ã‚ Ã‚ Ã¢â‚¬   cos (kà Ã¢â‚¬ ¢) à Ã¢â‚¬ ¢} Where, Mr is the magnetic remanance (T/m). +k is an internal magnetic field and -k is an external magnetic field. Preferably, the structures of these types of cylinders would be formed by an unlimited length cylinder of magnetic material which has the direction of magnetization constantly changing. These types of ideal designed cylinder produce the magnetic flux which is perfectly uniform and entirely confined to the bore of the cylinder. But in real case the infinite length of the cylinders cannot be used and in practice the limited length of the cylinders creates end effects which show the non-uniformities in the field within the bore. The complexity of developed a cylinder with a constantly changing magnetization also frequently directs to the design being broken into sections. ( K. Halbach, J.C. Mallinson, Raich, H., Blà ¼mler 2010) 2.6 Magnetic Material: Magnets have the basic property of attraction towards, or repulsion by other materials. A material with high permeability attracted strongly towards a magnet. There are two main examples of materials with very high permeability those are Iron and steel which powerfully attracted to magnets. Liquefied O2 is in fact slightly repelled by magnetic fields because it has very low permeability. People, gases and the vacuum of outer space has quantifiable permeability. The SI unit of magnetic field strength is the tesla, SI unit of total magnetic flux is the Weber. 1 Weber = 1 tesla following through 1 square meter, and is a very large amount of magnetic flux. Neodymium magnet: A neodymium magnet or NIB magnet which is also called as a rare earth magnet which is a good strength of attraction and repulsion, made of a combination of neodymium, iron and boron -Nd2Fe14B. Neodymium magnet on a bracket from a hard drive (PengCheng magnets Ltd., 2010) NIB magnets are comparatively very strong to their mass, they are mechanically brittle and the most powerful results to lose their magnetism at temperatures above 176 degrees fahrenheit or 80 degrees Celsius. In some cases they there strength is slightly more than samarium-cobalt like high-temperature grades will operate at up to 200 and even 230  °C. The neodymium magnet industry is constantly working to push the maximum energy product (strength) closer to the theoretical maximum of 64MGOe. A neodymium magnet has a capability to lift 1300 times more than its own mass. The small magnet have some remarkable properties it exhibits magnetic braking when moved near a non-magnetic metal due to induced eddy currents. (, 2010) 2.7 Summery: The system mainly based on the repulsion of the two similar polarities of the two different magnets. The two damped and undamped systems gives the different vibration frequencies. The analyzation shows a major difference between damped and undamped system. The Halbach array stabilize the repulsive effect is to use field that move in space rather than just time. This effect can demonstrate with a rotating conductive disc and a permanent magnet, which will repel each other. A neodymium magnet or NIB is a powerfull magnet made up of a combination of neodymium, iron and boron- Nd2Fe14B is used in EMSS. Chapter 3 MAGLEV DESIGN 3.1 Electromagnetic Suspension System: (Concept) The design of the electromagnetic suspension system can be done with two types: 1) By using a Hydraulic Damper or 2) By using Linear Motor as a Damper. The concept is to design the magnetic suspension system on the front shock absorber of the motor bike to have a better performance with ease of handling and comfort ride. There are two cylinders installed on two separate arms of the front shock absorbing rods. The cylinder contains the pair of the cylindrical magnets having same pole facing each other to create the required repulsive force to have required levitation effect. The two cylindrical magnets having S (South Pole) on the outer surface concentric with the inner circle having N (North Pole) as shown in following figure:- 1) Working for the Hydraulic Damper: The two magnets are in a cylinder on a shaft, as seen in above figure comprise our required magnet for a motor bike front suspension system. In the fig. it shows the magnets are placed such as they are facing each other but with the same polarity, hence they repel each other according to the properties of magnets generate an air gap between them. The repulsive force restores displacement towards each other, and displacement away is restored by gravity. A hydraulic damper is fixed on the top of the cylinder and connected with the upper magnet with a shaft. The set of shocks used with magnets inside them that are used as the fork setup. In this cylinder the arrangement of the magnets is in such a way, place one magnet at the top of the cylinder with any polarity let us consider south polarity on down side. Then place another magnet at the bottom of the cylinder having south polarity upside so that they can be parallel each other. Then due to the same polarity of both the magnets the r epulsive force generates which gives the movement to the shaft to avoid any unwanted shocks and the fixed hydraulic damper absorbs the vibrations and instability. The shaft controlled the radial instability, the repelling force and the gravity force. The spring has a property to contract and extend but it cannot be stable, so the shaft is use to stabilize the spring. If the magnets are placed in two orthogonal axes, they repel each other but not in any one direction, so they are also instable. A thrust bearing can use to avoid the instability in which the magnets can be placed, and even if the instability take place the movable magnet will not fly has the advantage in that if instability does occur, the unstable magnet will not fly unpredictably away from the fixed magnet. The vibrations and the instability will be absorbed by the hydraulic damper. It is stated for completeness that the magnet has two poles North South. They will be attract each other if they are facing each other with different polarity, but they will repel each other if they are facing each other with same polarity.That these forces occur is very well known, but the mechanisms that create these forces are beyond the scope of this document. There are several materials of which permanent magnets may be made. 2) Working of Linear Motor as a Damper: A linear electromagnetic motor works in the straight line instead of work in rotary motion. The movement effect of this motor is very quick. L.E.M. can be used at each wheel in a vehicle which has a conventional shock and spring setup. The L.E.M. can extend as it faces any distraction like pothole and retract as it faces any bump just in milliseconds which is much greater speed than a hydraulic damper. These type of quicker retract and extract movement provides the steering stability by controlling the wheels with respect to the body of the vehicle. The L.E.M. made up of magnets and coils of wires. When current is passed through the coils, the motor retracts and extends so fastly, control unwanted movements. The speed is the major key benefit of the electromagnet. (Bose Elecromagnetic Suspension System, 2010) Fig: 3.2 (Bose Elecromagnetic Suspension System, 2010) The L.E.M. is designed in such a way so that it can give the quick respond to absorb the effects of bumps and pothols and also provides a relaxed ride. Moreover, the motor is designed such as it can supply the maximum power in a small package, which allows it to supply sufficient force to avoid the car from rolling and pitching during bad driving. At the time of acceleration, braking and cornering the L.E.M. neutralize the body motion of a car, which gives the driver a kind of driving idea and passengers comfort ride. For the smooth ride purpose, the wheel dampers are place in each wheel hub to smooth out small road imperfectionst. To generate more power an amplifier is provided which supplies the a great power to the L.E.M.s. The amplifier is a regenerative design that uses the compression force to send power back through the amplifier. (Bose Elecromagnetic Suspension System, 2010) 3.2 Goals of the magnetic design The design of the magnetic spring has the following requirements: 1. Freedom instability by one degree: In freedom instability by on degree generally the stability performance which is forecast by the non linear study is according to the formly build up linearized study. The study of freedom instability by on degree shows the relation between magnitude and velocity. As the velocity increases the magnitude increases which is increased by the stable limit cycle amplitude of vibration. Actuators are essential for stability control of every unbalanced axis. Hence the amount of unstable degrees of freedom needs to reduce. In addition to it for well organized passive vertical load bearing the direction of the unstable direction must be horizontal. 2. Ability to support large loads: Permanent magnets must be maintained on the entire weight of table plus equipment. This weight which is hold up by the electromagnets utilizes considerable amount of power which is unwanted for cost and heat reasons. 3. Effective electromagnet actuator placing: The forces which are applied asymmetrically by the actuators who apply a moment on the levitating table which would be unwanted. For rejecting vertical disturbances the electromagnet actuators must be used for the stabilizing of unstable axis. (S. J. Price and N. R. Valerio) Chapter 4 TECHNOLOGY There are three primary types of MAGLEV Technologies: One that relies on feedback controlled electromagnets (Electromagnetic Suspension or EMS). Ex.: Transrapid The another one relies on the superconducting magnets (Electrodynamic Suspension or EDS) Ex.: JR-Maglev And the last one and newer , potentially more economical system that uses premagnets i.e. Inductrack 4.1 Inductrack: A newer, perhaps less expensive system is called Inductrack. The technique used in inductrack has a load carrying capacity which is related to the speed of the vehicle, because the permanent magnets induce current in the passive electromagnetic array In the model, the permanent magnets are placed on both sides of the model; the function of these magnets is to provide horizontal lift and vertical stability. There is collection of wire loops in the track which is also called as array. There is no power supply in magnets and the model, apart from the speed of the model. The basic concept behind this system is to store the power by developing the inductrack as a motor and flywheel bearing. With only slight design changes, the bearings were unrolled into a linear track. William Post is the father of such a great innovation like inductrack. He had done this experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Inductrack uses Halbach arrays for stabilization. Halbach arrays are the system in which there are some arrangements of permanent magnets which stabilize moving loops of wires without electronic stabilization. Halbach arrays were initially developed for beam guidance of particle accelerators. They also have a magnetic field on the track side only, thus reducing any potential effects on the passengers. 4.2 Lift and Propulsion: In the whole world Japan and Germany are the most active in Maglev research; they have produced several difference approaches and designs. The technique used such as the train can be levitated by the repulsive of like poles or the attractive force of opposite poles of magnets. A linear motor propelled the train which is on the track or on the train, or both. In order togenerate the magnetic field which is necessary to propel the train there are massive electrical induction coils are placed along the track.(C.A. Guderjahn S.L. Wipf,2010) 4.3 Stability: Earnshaws theorem states that a collection of point charges cannot be maintained in a stable stationary equilibrium configuration solely by the electrostatic interaction of the charges. In the system the static magnetic bearing which uses only electromagnets and premagnets are unstable because of Earnshaws theorem; but the diamagnetic and superconducting magnets can support a Maglev steadily. Some conventional Maglev systems the electromagnets having electronic stability are used for stabilization. This works by constantly measuring the bearing distance and adjusting the electromagnets accordingly. 4.4 Magnet Weight The weight of large electromagnet is a major design issue. A very strong magnetic field is required to levitate the massive train, so conventional Maglev research is using superconductor research for an efficient electromagnet. Chapter 5 ANALYSIS 5.1 Dynamics of the magnetic suspension system: The basic principle of a simple electromagnetic suspension system is shown in Fig.1. the current I which is passes through the electromagnet generates the magnetic force Fm which acts opposite to the gravity and cause a steel ball to levitated position. The force relies on the current I, electromagnet properties and the air gap between the steel ball and the electromagnet.The motion of the steel ball in the magnetic field is expressed as G Fm = m d2X / dt2..(1) Where, m = the mass of the suspended steel ball, G = mg, the gravity force, X = the air gap between the steel ball and the electromagnet. The magnetic force Fm is a nonlinear function of the current I and the air gap X. The linearization of the static characteristic near the set point (F0 , X0 ,I0) is given as F = F0 + [I0 (X X0) + ]X0 (I I0).(2) The voltage equation of the electromagnetic coil is expressed as U = RI + L dI / dt.(3) Where, U = the voltage, R = the coil resistance, and L = the inductance. Inductance L=f (X, t) is a function of the air gap, the coil, the core, and the steel ball. The magnetic force which is generated by the electromagnet maintained the steady state air gap between the ball and the electromagnet is manipulated to balance the gravitational force of the ball. The small differences from the operating point are normalized over operating spaces (G, D, Imax , Umax) and they are defined as follows: f = , x= , i = , u = (4) Where, f i= the normalized resultant force, x = the normalized air gap, i = the ormalized current, and u = the normalized voltage. X^ , I^ , and U^ = the steady-state values. Substituting Eq. 4 into Eqs. 1, 2, and 3 the dynamics of the system can be presented as follows: f = -m d2x / dt2 = -m d2x / dt2 = d2x / dt2..(5) f = ]I0 x + ]X0 i , (6) u = i + (7) Let the set gains and time constants be Ke = ]X0 , Km = ]I0 , Te = , Tm = .(8) Therefore Eqs. 5, 6, and 7 can be rewritten as f = T2m d2x / dt2 ..(9) f = Kmx + Kei (10) u = i + Te .. (11) (M. Golob Boris Tovornik, 2010) The block diagram of the linearized model of the electromagnetic suspension system is shown in Fig. 5.2. The linear system described in the block diagram in Fig. 5.2 is unstable and controllable. As per the theory of vibration, there are two types of analysis, 1) The analysis of the Instability and the Vibration without damper and 2) The analysis of the Instability and Vibration with damper. These analyses were made in the electronic lab with help of the METLAB Software. For these two setups the two types of simulations were made in METLAB Software. The data used for the analysis is as follows: Table 3:Nominal System Parameters: Mass of the steel ball (m) 0.147 kg Maximum air gap (D) 0.025 m Number of coils (n) 1200 Coil re

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Personality and Personal Growth Essay -- Psychology Research Papers

Personality and Personal Growth â€Å"An integral being knows without going, sees without looking and accomplishes without doing† – Lao Tzu The text book definition of Personality is an individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that persist over time and across situations. I agree with this idea that a personality is what makes all of us who we are. I believe that a personality is a combination of innate characteristics that everyone is born with and the sum of total life experiences. I believe that a personality is a portrayal of an individual’s reality. The way that an individual walks, talks, speaks and even the career path that they choose to go on is all a reflection of their personality. I believe that each individual is put on this earth to influence every person that they come in contact with; it is the responsibility of every individual to learn as well as teach each other. I strongly believe that you are born with a unique, distinct personality. I remember when both my nieces and my nephew were born each one of them had a specific personality that has transformed and made them each as they are today. My oldest niece, since the young age has always had this older wisdom about her like she was a reincarnated older spirit. This wisdom always comes out in her personality; she is continuously teaching us (older folk) and making us look at life in a different manner than what we would originally look at something. She has made us look out o...

Friday, July 19, 2019

American Legion Report :: essays research papers

American Legion Post 108 Oxford, MI   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The American Legion was chartered on November 11, 1919. It was formed with the purpose of helping out retired war veterans and the communities surrounding their posts. All members, or former members, of the U.S. Armed Forces are eligible to become members of their local American Legion. They are eligible as long as they were honorably discharged after serving on active duty during basically any major war in our history. Presently there are 325 legion members in Oxford, and nearly 3 million members’ nation wide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Oxford American Legion is a sponsor of many clubs and groups within our community. Some of the sponsored groups are: Boy Scout Troop 108 Cub Scout Pack 44 and Little League baseball teams Along with sponsoring clubs and groups, the American Legion also hosts regular events in the Oxford community such as: St. Patrick’s day dinner Memorial Day Parade Strawberry Festival Parade Softball Pool Tournaments Halloween Party Christmas Parade and New Years Party The Oxford Post is also the only post in the the state of Michigan that has a â€Å"Military History Museum.† It is a collection of uniforms, weapons, books, and other artifacts spanning over two hundred years of our American history. The museum is open to the public every Friday evening from 5-9 p.m. American Legion Post 108 Oxford, MI   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The American Legion was chartered on November 11, 1919. It was formed with the purpose of helping out retired war veterans and the communities surrounding their posts. All members, or former members, of the U.S. Armed Forces are eligible to become members of their local American Legion. They are eligible as long as they were honorably discharged after serving on active duty during basically any major war in our history. Presently there are 325 legion members in Oxford, and nearly 3 million members’ nation wide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Oxford American Legion is a sponsor of many clubs and groups within our community. Some of the sponsored groups are: Boy Scout Troop 108 Cub Scout Pack 44 and Little League baseball teams Along with sponsoring clubs and groups, the American Legion also hosts regular events in the Oxford community such as:

William Shakespeare :: essays research papers

William Shakespeare Born on April 23, 1564 in Stratford-Upon-Avon, England. His father John Shakespeare and his mother Mary Arden. W.S. was able to attend grammer school and learned Greek and Latin classics (this is comparable to college education today). At age 14 his father lost the family fortune and remained poor until his death At 18 he married Anne Hathaway in 1582. She was 26 years old. They had three children Suzanne(1583) and the twins Hamnet and Judith(1585). In his mid-twenties he left Stratford(supposedly because of poaching on the Queen's land) for London. His first job with Richard Burbage's men was as an osler; next an actor. No one knows what he was doing during 1585-1592. By 1592 he had become known in London as an actor and playwright; his rise was rapid. Queen Elizabeth 1 supported the arts and the theater. In 1592 a plague closed the theaters(Shakespeare wrote poetry during this time to support himself). In 1593 a brief reopening of the theater happened. In 1594 theaters reopened. The troupe became the Lord Chamberlain's Men set up on a servant co-op structure. Requirements for actors: 1. loud voice 2. sing and play instruments 3. good swordsman 4. good memories During this time he wrote many comedies: Comedy of Errors first of any status. Histories were written in support of the gov't. This is where they were receiving much of the financial support so they wanted to keep the gov't (Queen) happy. W.S. was a major stockholder in the theater. 1597-bought New Place in Stratford(2nd largest house) 1599-Lord Chamberlain's Men bought land and built the Globe Theater in Southwark(South Bank of the Thames River). W.S. owned 1/10th 1603-Queen Elizabeth died. King James took reign of England. He loved the arts more than the queen. The name was changed from Lord Chamberlain's Men to the King's Men. 1608-Added to the Globe Theater by buying the Black Friars Theater and giving performances there also. W.S. owned 1/7th 1613-Fire at the Globe during a performance of Henry 8th; rebuilt within a year. Left comedies and histories to write tragedies soon after the Globe reopened. Sonnets-published in 1610 but circulated earlier. First Tragedy: The Tragedy of Hamlet

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Blood Disorder

Blood Disorders Carl Jones HCA/240 November 20, 2011 Lily, a 4-year-old Caucasian female, has she been complaining of being tired all the time. She is pale and is a picky eater. Her mother is a single mom with a small budget to feed a large family. Lily eats only pasta, breads, and hot dogs, and she drinks only artificial fruit punch. Lily has iron deficiency anemia. In this first scenario I think that Lily has Pernicious Anemia or else identified as Vitamin B12 anemia. Several of the signs that Lily is encountering are similar to anemia which are Fatigue, pale appearance, and weakness. Pernicious anemia is usually initiated by poor eating regimen. B12 vitamin is necessary in the making of red blood cells; a Red blood cell holds oxygen throughout the body. The analysis pernicious anemia is reasonably straightforward. The physician does a bodily examination as well as blood test to decide the quantity of B12 and Folic Acid in the body. A lot of the warning signs of pernicious mimic that of an individual with a folic acid anemia also. An individual that is analyzed with pernicious anemia would need to request that their doctor speak to them concerning being monitored for abdominal cancer, the cause for this is pernicious anemia positions the individual at higher jeopardy for abdominal cancer. This remedy of pernicious anemia is fairly easy as well. A B12 enhancement may be all that is required to re-establish the appropriate amounts of B12 in the body. This enhancement is taken as an injection into the muscles or in a capsule structure. To make sure the B12 is being immersed into the body your physician possibly will do blood work every a month. If the amount of B12 is not improving to satisfactory amounts a blood transfusions may be necessary. Davon is a 5-year-old African American male who has just moved to Chicago, and he is visiting his new pediatrician for a kindergarten physical. His mother tells the nurse that she carries the sickle cell trait and wants Davon screened for it. Davon may have the sickle cell trait. In this second scenario I think that Davon has sickle cell anemia. The blood disorder that Davon has is a familiar hereditary trait amongst African American people. Sickle Cell anemia begins as soon as the red blood cells are not shaped in their normal circular form but relatively a semi-circular form. This semi-circular form initiates blood to proceed up which is extremely agonizing. Sickle cell hurts bones, organs and muscles. Regular Blood examinations are given to make sure if the individual has sickle cell anemia or if they are merely a carrier for it. If you are a carrier that does not signify that you contained sickle cell, however it can be passed on to your offspring. Great deals of hospitals examine infants prior to them going to the house as soon as being born. Medications amongst kid’s age two months to five years old are required of antibiotics to avoid illnesses, plus pain management is extremely essential among the healing of sickle cell. At present there is no way to tell for sure that a blood transfusion will be able to assist the patient dealing with the agony of rigorous sickle cell. At hand there is no way to stop sickle cell from happening; there is presently pain management to relieve the aching break outs of sickle cell. Spencer has noted over the past several weeks that he is having more bruises, or ecchymosis, all over his body. After coughing this morning, he noticed tiny red marks all around his eyes. Spencer has thrombocytopenia. In this last scenario I believe that Spencer musts see his physician to be looked at for potential leukemia. Spencer has been bruising incredibly effortlessly recently and that is a few of the signs of pre-leukemia. There are items that Spencer may have come into connection with such as radiation. Radiation is not the single thing that can bring about leukemia it can as well be genetic. In order to identify leukemia your physician will arrange to do chest x-rays, CT scans, blood work and potential lumbar puncture to discover if leukemia is the identification and what type of leukemia it is so that appropriate action can be in progress. The customary management of leukemia is chemotherapy. Even though chemo is helping, the growth can resume spreading and stem cell transplant possibly will be required. Various forms of leukemia cannot be stopped however other forms can be prevented by not smoking, and keeping away from benzene and radiation. Reference Health Central (2005-2011) Retrieved on November 20, 2011 from http://www. healthcentral. com/encyclopedia/408/622. html Kids Health (2005-2011) Retrieved on November 20, 2011 from http://kidshealth. org/teen/diseases_conditions/blood/sickle_cell_anemia. html

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Should Companies Have the Right to Monitor Employees’ E-Mails and Phone Conversations?

Should Companies Have The Right To Monitor Employees e-mails And squ wholly Conversations? Employees watch out when using communication, whether email or c whole, at dress, you never book sex who may be listening. Should companies find the responsibility hand to supervise employees netmails and name conversation? or so studies believe that they, employers, do have the near to observe the e-mail and predict conversations of their employees, as long as they argon nonified of the accompaniment. in that location is a tremendous amount of literary productions on this issue nevertheless it any seems to lean towards the counterbalance of the employers.The most noteworthy law enacted law that allows employee monitoring deviceing was in 1986. It was the 1986 Electronic Communications Privacy flake (it. ojp. gov). Although the actual service providers be not allowed to monitor communications it does allow employees to monitor communications. Most cases brought to c ourt by employees have a tendency to be unyielding with the employer, reiterating the employers right to monitor communications. at that place was a federal bill in 1993 to 1995 that would have made it il legal for employers to monitor employee communication without first notifying them ( concealingrights. rg). scarcely, it failed it didnt withal have enough weight to watch over up for a vote. In the exploitation tide of worker sexual curse cases via e-mail, and incompatible subject matter universe exchanged via e-mail, between employees, employers have to a greater extent than than issues than ever that they need to protect themselves from litigation for. In a case involving the e-mail monitoring of an employee (Smith vs. Pillsbury Co. ), the employee was actually dismissed, due to the fact that he send an e-mail to another(prenominal) worker stating that kill the backstabbing bastards referring to members of sales (Perritt).E-mail and profit monitoring of employees is stated to be increasing more every(prenominal) year. At the time that the law allowing it was enacted, 1986, approximately cardinal percent of employees were monitoring e-mail and Internet of employees. It is estimated now that more than half of all employers monitor their employees e-mail and Internet communication. In essence, these electronic pieces of equipment belong to the employers and the employees are only when using them for the express purpose of the work being done.Misuse of e-mails or hitherto mesh seek, reflects poorly upon the connection and its productivity and leaves the company open to litigation. Take into esteem the numerous charges in the intelligence of natural law that have been dismissed for pornography pitch upon their com amazeers. This is a very graphic character of misuse of electronic equipment. Not to get up the potential for this same inappropriate stuff being sent to other employees via e-mail. It is believed that more than two-third s of employers in 2007 were monitoring e-mails and web browsing.That exit was predicted to increase every year and it is believed that more than half of all employers do so now, or have software that does it for them. conceive of for instance the employee that spends hours on the strait chatting with buddies kinda of doing the required work. This translates to profit lost finished this inappropriate time spent on the phone. It is not necessarily lawful for the employer to monitor individualized phone calls (Watkins vs. L. M. Berry & Co), but they are allowed to, even though there are restrictions upon employers monitoring personal phone calls (Manning, Rita C).In the issue of employers monitoring employee phone callsthat are not customer callsfederal law allows for employers to do this, unannounced, with the exception of personal phone calls. just in the cranial orbit of personal calls they do have options that execute it lawful, especially if they warn against personal c alls beforehand. Although, when they are monitoring calls of employees with clients they are required to chance upon that they are to the clients, they must state that they are possibly monitoring this phone call.some(a) would argue that the monitoring of e-mail sent from work, especially personal e-mails, is inappropriate. The same passel would argue against monitoring of web browsing of employees. They believe that just because someone becomes your employee doesnt mean they give up all their privacy rights. In one instance, it was argued that if an employee wrote a note to a friend with a work pencil and paper would this grass it applicable to monitoring by the employer, as it was written with their pencil and paper.This is what employers are controversy when they state that they an employee is using their electronics, so consequently monitoring is applicable. Still others would argue that privacy in the workplace is a righteous matter (Michael J. Meyer, SCU Professor). they are entitled to respect, which requires precaution to their privacy. If a boss were to monitor every conversation or move, most of us would think of such an environment as more like a prison house then a humane workplace. save in the case of phone calls or e-mails some would believe that (William Parent, Privacy and righteousness and the Law) here should be put in place criteria for determining which impact of privacy is justifiable. William Parent proposes that the employer should apply half a dozen questions to review whether their act of monitoring is allowable or not and that this would offer guidance. But most would book that darn it is legal for employers to monitor, it does not make it right. Realistically, most workers are at work sometimes more than forty hours per week. So if they take the time to make a personal phone call during that huge length of time, should they sincerely expose themselves to realizable dismissal? therefore there are those employers that a re unassailable to state that they are against losing their employee self-assurance by means of monitoring. Scott Paddock, manager of PC Brokers stated, if I spent time monitoring their web usage, I would be just as guilty of wasting time as my behavior implies they are. (Everyday Surveillance Vigilance and visibleness in Postmodern Life). Numerous reports of trust are noted in reports that have debated the issue of employers rights to monitor phone conversations. Rita C.Manning of Journal of Business Ethics was quoted as saying, What is missing in these communities is trust. But trust notwithstanding, due to the recent and hale publicized news on inappropriate communication practices in the workplace through and through viewing of pornography, sending pornography via e-mail, and admit of pornography, monitoring is showing itself to be a needed commodity for employers. Should employees have the right to monitor employees phone and e-mail? Yes, they should, unfortunately.The c onjecture of misuseevident from recent news reportsgives them the right to protect themselves from any possible future litigation. There are validated arguments for and against the workplace monitoring of employee e-mails and phone calls. Those that are for it, tend to feel that because workers are on company time and using company property, they should be subject to monitoring while using these resources. Those that dont agree with this view believe that a persons right to privacy does not end at the workplace. They believe that wherever a person is, they have the right to privacy.