Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Globalisation of business activities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Globalisation of business activities - Essay ExampleIt should be noted that there argon quite a number of refer players that drive globalisation and these include the transnational corporations, World backup Organisation (WTO), World avow and International Monetary Fund (Rodrick 2001). Different governments are also key actors as they authorise trade to take place between them and the multinational corporations intending to invest in their countries. They are very instrumental in determining the outcomes of trade and investment between the states involved as they would be responsible for regulating the operations of the multinational companies. The WTO also plays a pivotal role in that it facilitates the weapons platform through which international trade agreements are negotiated and enforced among member states. On the other hand, the World Bank and the IMF are major actors in that they provide with loans as well as technical assistance to the governments or multinational corpo rations that wish to invest in other different countries.2. The manufacturing sectors in different countries come along to book rapidly expanded on a global scale and the three major drivers that seem to dumbfound accelerated the trend of globalisation in this sector include the government, cost, market and competitive. In the manufacturing sector, it can be noted that it is expensive to manufacture certain products in other countries as a result of availableness problems of raw materials, transport costs involved as well as labour costs. Against this background, various multinational companies prefer to establish their manufacturing business in areas where raw materials are readily available and in most cases where there is availability of cheap labour.The market drivers are particularly influenced by per capita concentrations in industrialised countries where they seem to have greater control of the means of production hence can determine the

Monday, April 29, 2019

Explain an interesting case, using concepts (sexuality, racism, Essay

condone an interesting case, using concepts ( gender, racism, consumerism, patriotism) - Essay ExampleIn its broad perspective, the concept of racism encompasses practices and ideologies that aim to reassert the unequal privileges among people of different racial backgrounds. As a socio-economic ideology and order, consumerism promotes the acquisition of services and goods in a way that is ever increasing. The cultural attachment to a persons homeland and the devotion to their country find out the concept of patriotism. However, the application of the notion varies with geography, political ideology and context. Much literature has been written to explain the conjunction between these various concepts.Sexuality in the modern society has taken a different forethought and has become a different concept in which pornography and exposure of ones privacy are permissible acts. genus Paris Hilton is described as a highly sexualised, narcissistic, and spoiled person who goes after noth ing else than fame. However, what connects sexuality to Pornography and the influence of the modern technology? Undoubtedly, the concept of sexuality has been abused. The past is not anything pleasing to Paris. worry many other people in the American history, Paris wanted to become somebody else in the present propagation (Gwynne and Muller 21). Sexuality was taking a different direction in the modern times relative to its ancient conceptualization. Probably, modernity and technology can bear the blame for such dramatic changes. Paris privileged position in the hereditary aristocracy in America is contrasted with the tension that emanates from her celebrity status. wealthiness is said to influence the articulation of a persons attainment of individuality in a given socialization rather than being the distinction between stars and the other society members. Just like a celebrity, sexuality is about image. The identity of celebrities that is at times unattainable and inherited bu t nevertheless admired for parody and acquisition.Sexuality in the modern

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Technological change in organizations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Technological change in organizations - Essay ExampleThis research exit begin with the statement that the development of technology has changed the entire world of business. This change has encompassed activities from very basic level of idea generation such as through CAD (Computer Aided Design) to product or attend production by CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) and post business activities. From the computer revolution to the Internet and most tardily and unceasingly growing Internet based applications such as trading on the Internet, social media, etc., make up all forced businesses to harness their adaption to high-paced change by anticipating it rather than following the change merely for survival. straightaway pace of technological change has also proved to be proportional to the benefits it brings to business. Immense literature has been unquestionable based on studying various aspects of the technological change to business. ISACA, planetary nonprofit IT association , has predicted that the entire category 2012, IT departments of business will be collecting huge data from various sources. Growingly conducting a complex outgrowth to manage the bulk of zeros and ones in a way that benefits the firm with growing return on investment funds will remain a challenge for IT departments of businesses. This big handling of data constantly grows on the naiant as well the vertical bases with more of 40 percent projected growth in global data generated in year 2010 while spending on IT has change magnituded by only 5 percent. The rise in demand for people handling big data is so steep that approachability of big data analytical talent in US in year 2018 is expected to tump over the supply (Manyika et al., 2011). (Manyika et al., 2011) Data sources range from consumer behavior at physical outlets to a large number of net profit subsections. The emergence of a ubiquitous phenomenon in 2000 has changed the entire business model, constantly challenging I T department to increase capacity to manage (Kenney, and Marshall, 2000). (Kenney, and Marshall, 2000) For instance, technique in retail industry such as bar code, receiving set frequency identification (RFID) technology and vendor-managed inventory (VMI),etc. (Smaros, and Holmstrom, 2000), and similar techniques multiply pressure as retrieving and constantly updating data remains with the IT section. Similarly, Self Service Technologies (SSTs), mainly adopted in the financial arena with the Internet banking and ATM, etc., has already put extensive pressure on the IT section. Though these techniques have been developed in the past, constant efforts from the marketing side of business to offer various promotions and extracting information based on consumer bodily process require increased efforts from the IT section in respect of the program development, i.e. the way information can be retrieved or updated. Applications of social media such as Facebook, twitter, blogs heavy video content such as multimedia system content, which already accounts for more than half of the Internet traffic, is expected to grow by 70 percent in year 2013, with

Saturday, April 27, 2019


ADVOCACY LETTER TO DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION - Essay lawsuitStudents with particular(prenominal) of necessity or those who are mentally/ physically retarded, require special attention. Their care and chafe should be kept at the highest priority. Expecting these children to study side by side normal children who do non require any special needs shatters their confidence. In such environments normal children often mock close to the children with special needs. As stated in Educational Needs (n.d.), the specific issues that may affect a special childs accomplishment areIn spite the fact the children with special needs are often far more intelligent than normal children, it is just a particular vogue in which they need to be dealt with in order to prove their mettle and enable their skills to nurture and prosper. If the learning needs of these children are properly addressed, their level of literacy, self- help skills, mobility, confidence and orientation can all be polished to matu re levels. This further on, enables these citizens to become contributing and productive citizens of the society.The Solution to the above mentioned grave concerns is the qualification of a plan that would be in the best interest of the student in the educational process. special(prenominal) education services can be formulated that suit every individual childs particular needs.A Special Education Advocate can be assigned some homogeneous natured special children. A Special Education Advocates primary responsibilities are the caring of the staple rights of the children with special needs. Once kids are assigned with a Special Education Advocate it becomes easier for schools to organize the special children. A Good Special Education Advocate is well versed in the legal issues pertaining to the rights of a special child. This assists each person connected to the child to be able to realize the laws regarding the handling of the child. These advocated experience the ability to sear ch specific legal issues that may be central to a childs particular case

Friday, April 26, 2019

Service Learning Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Service Learning Report - Essay ExampleThe Saudi disciple Organization has been helping former(a) Saudi Arabian students meet each other and help limit the culture live(a) on campus for the past ten years. We enjoy spending time together as students that represent the Saudi country and culture while spending our time getting an education at Murray in Kentucky and we also enjoy serving others.The sole purpose of our formation is to keep the culture alive on campus. While we are students learning in America, we must be true to our own cultures and upbringings. non just in culture but in our faith. We mostly offer programs to help Saudi students pertain with other Saudi students. The Saudi Student Organization also hosts National Day for Saudi Arabia. The organization that I am involved in invites all students and faculty to take part and learn more(prenominal) about our culture and religion. I have devoted more than 20 hours of my time into helping to precede new students and h elp them to fit in here at Murray because I remember how important it was to me when I came to campus to keep my culture close to my heart and while I was living in America, I did not want to forget who I was and where I came from. I feel like I owe to other students how others helped me.In regards to the Organizations Forces for Good Diagnostic Tool, this was completed with high remarks. For Practice 1 cheer and Serve, there were two questions. The first was, My organization advocates for policy reform, in addition to providing direct services, and Strongly suit was chosen. For the second question, My organization effectively combines service and advocacy, drawing on direct service programs to inform advocacy agendas and vice versa, it was ranked as an Agree. For the second section, the topic was to Make Markets Work. The two questions were My organization changes the way local, national, or global businesses fundamentally

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Netflix - Do We Still Need Cinemas Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Netflix - Do We Still Need Cinemas - Essay ExampleIn the accomplished fool away distribution setting, cinemas or movie theaters have often been the first point of sale for movies. afterward cinematic or theatrical distribution, the second tralatitious channel comprised of the broadcast via television, followed by DVDs. Majority of moving-picture show producers opted for these three modes of distribution, in an attempt to ensure optimal viewership and reap maximum profits. Recently, however, the pervasive nature of the cyberspace has influenced film distribution, paving way for digital online platforms. The latter include video on demand (VOD), agile applications, and live streaming. This paper seeks to provide insight into the evolution of film distribution within the context of traditional cinema versus popular digital platform, Netflix. Even though Netflix is a key player in film distribution, cinemas are still a vital part of the entertainment industry and should not be un accompanied written off.Pioneers of movie distribution since the advent of the film industry were traditional theaters and cinemas. Cinemas were rather popular, as stack increasingly embraced moviegoing as a week fire form of relaxation with family members and friends. The earliest theaters did not project movies on a screen. Rather, the films were showcased using peep-show machines referred to as kinetoscopes. The latter was developed by Thomas Edison and W. Dickson, and they remained popular till the end of the 19th century. As the world ushered in the 20th century, similar peep-show gadgets referred to as Mutoscopes were introduced in the continued vulgarisation of a theatrical portrayal of film.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

How the content of this web page relates to the materials presented in Assignment

How the surfeit of this web rascal relates to the materials presented in Chapters 11, 12 and 13 - Assignment ExampleWal-Marts service lecture and commitment to satisfying their customers is expressed on this web page by saying that their energy, passion and note for individuals are some of their core values in service delivery.This web page alike shows Wal-Marts commitment to the community sense of belonging whereby they have sites that show their commitment to protecting the environment, helping others especially the less fortunate, community investment and supporting people. This web page basically advertises careers for people looking for employment, also how Walmart as a whole has different sections all under one roof.This is cover under communication channel enrichment. This explains how variety, identity and significance contribute to motivating a worker by means of the job itself. This self-motivation is evidently brought pop out on Walmarts web page when they say that their entrepreneurial spirits drive them to grow and bring out daily.This is covered under recruitment strategy and policy. This involves recruiting skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled employees. Walmarts page shows this recruitment policy by advertising jobs online and the jobs are offered in different locations for different people and it can be easily accessed online.This is covered under a collective bargaining power of unions. Since Walmart has different employees from different places all over the country, they incessantly try to give them a collective voice to help them air their views and complaints to the management, and this is clearly seen under Walmarts core values which include treating employees equally and respecting them too.This is well covered under open communication. Walmart web page offers an open kind of communication in that job application can be done through online and when they also say that they walk the talk to mean that whatever they say they act on i t or put it into action.This can be discussed

Maladaptive Consumer Behavior Project Research Paper

dysfunctional Consumer Behavior Project - Research Paper ExampleTherefore, other institutions should take part in the world-class to campaign against roll of tobacco. This paper is aimed to address the problem of smoking among the youth. First, it describes the maladaptive behavior and its detrimental effects to the youth. Second, it identifies the factors that clue to the development of the behavior, and explain the role of parents and society in getting disengage of this maladaptive behavior. Third, the study similarly determines the role of other institutions such as marketers in minimizing, eradicating or correcting the maladaptive behavior.Smoking whoremaster be considered a maladaptive behavior because those who smoke consider the habit as a way to rid of stress. However, smoking can actually cause even more problems especially physical illness. Cigarette smoking has been found to have many negative effects that could endanger lives of smokers and non-smokers alike. In p articular, long-term smoking can cause different diseases in the lungs, oral cavity, and the throat. In addition, it is also associated with certain cancers especially of the lung and the heart, and even of the dumbbell (Chaudhuri et al., 2006). Other negative effects include allergies, peptic ulcer, stroke, asthma, and other serious illnesses. Moreover, a study conducted by researchers at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center found out the possible role of nicotine from cigarettes in breast cancer development and metastases (Study Suggests a Possible Role for Nicotine in Breast Tumor Development and Metastases, 2008) informing children of the possible risks of smoking is not enough to make them realize the negative effects of smoking. The parents serve as the main motivators to make children avoid the habit. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) suggests the brilliance of being involved in childrens affairs. By knowing their childrens

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

You can decide Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

You can locate - Essay ExampleSome of the fossils propose a geographical diversity and a difference in characteristics are KNM-ER 1808 and Trinil 2.In 1891, an archeologist named Eugene Dubois found angular, domed, and heavyset-walled human skullcap with a large shelf kindred brow ridge near Trinil, Java (Indonesia. He decided that the skull be named Trinil2 (Dorey). Another person, Kamoya Kimeu in 1974 ascertained a 1.7 million years old femur of serviceman erectus KNM-ER1808 in Koobi Fora in Kenya. This female Homo erectus has an incredible distinct feature that surprised the researchers it has an abnormal layer of bone on her thigh that shows secernate of bleeding to her death. Scientists have concluded that it is an overdose of vitamin A. The two skulls have some significant differences between them. Trinil 2 has a long, flat forehead, distinct brow ridges and have sagittal keel (Dorey). The cranium of Trinil 2 is thick brow ridges that are sharply angled rear where the neck muscles attach. When the Trinil femur is compared with KNM-ER 1808, one will knock against that Trinil is considerably human while the other is more of Homo erectus. The skeleton of KNM-ER 1808 has almost complete rightfulness femur but unfortunately lacking a head.There have numerous changes in the phylogenesis of the hominid that have occurred. These changes have significantly contributed to the change in the proportion of the skull. Different parts of the skull in various hominids are varying proportion. The change from one hominid can be noticed in face size, shape, brain capacity and even position of occipital condyles. In this Lab report, we shall measure unalike proportions, calculate indices and compare them with known or commonly recognized hominines species.2. When the military position of the points are known, connect their location with lines (porion intersects lowest point of the eye orbit such that line almost touch top electric circuit and bottom edge). As shown in the guides.The ratio uv/tv of is

Monday, April 22, 2019

Managing Oil Price Risk with Derivatives Coursework

Managing Oil Price Risk with Derivatives - Coursework ExampleVIII. RECOMMENDATIONS 44Bibliography 46 FIGURESFigure Page1.0 World Oil usance by Region, 1970-2020 132.0 Increments in Oil Consumption by Region, 1970-2020 143.0 OPEC Oil Production 1973-2007 15 ABBREVIATIONSCFTC Commodities Futures Trading CommissionGAO United States Government obligation OfficeIEA International Energy AgencyICE International give-and-takeNYMEX New York Mercantile ExchangeOPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting CountriesOTC Over-the-CounterWTO World Trade Organization Section I INTORDUCTION In the 21st century, embrocate prices are once again exhibiting an increased trend towards unpredictability since the prevail noted price hikes in the 70s and the 80s. There is no denying the fact that anoint prices tend to be to a greater extent vapourific then any other commodity and thus could have a considerable squeeze on the economy of a nation. Therefore the developed and the developing countries are desperately...It is difficult to say whether this volatility will continue through 2009 or the things will revert back to the placid levels of 1986-2003 periods. The governments and financial institutions most the world are trying hard to come out with the instruments and the devices to control the risks imposed by the oil price volatility in the contemporary scenario. In that context, derivates could play a pivotal role in insulating the economies against oil price fluctuations. This paper intends to elaborate on how the oil price risks can be managed with derivatives.In the 21st century, oil prices are once again exhibiting an increased trend towards volatility since the last noticeable price hikes in the 70s and the 80s. There is no denying the fact that oil prices tend to be more volatile then any other commodity and thus could have a considerable impact on the economy of a nation. Therefore the developed and the developing countries are desperately resorting to all the str ategies at their disposal, be it the price smoothing schemes, encouraging diversification, price control or fuel tax manipulations to tame the volatile oil prices (Bacon & Kojimi 2008).

Sunday, April 21, 2019

External Factors Affecting Recruitment Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

External Factors Affecting Recruitment - Article ExampleThis article is an attempt to discuss some of the momentous aspects of this bea of study while focusing on the recruitment of entry-level staff in distinguishable organizations, and the effects different factors cause on them. Authors of the article has identified various factors in which, sources of the recruitment stands as one of the common external factors that affect the recruitment process in an organization. Nowadays, recruitment has become an glowing and complex process of HR that involves advertising, interviews, categorization, and characterization of employees, etc. In the result, more and more organizations are immediately putting this responsibility on shoulders of external recruiters that play a significant role in modify the recruitment procedure in the organization, especially the external recruitment where organizations seeks candidates from outside the organization.In addition, budget and toll are some another factors that also affect the recruitment process in the organizations, as it is an honoring that companies often do not go for identifying candidates far away from the region of their organization due to high costs of advertising and other expenses involved in the process. However, internet has resulted in ease of this process, and various organizations are not putting efforts to recruit individuals from the internet recruitment that has eliminated various factors of the past. One of the noteworthy attributes of this article is the inclusion of different factors based on the perceptions of recruitment officers of an organization rather than focusing primarily on the theoretic frameworks of the recruitment and HR process, which has been a common practice of authors globally.Besides sources of the recruitment, labor market is another significant factor that plays a crucial role in the success or failure of the recruitment process. In specific, supply and demand ratio in the labor market affects the planning of

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Week 4 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Week 4 - Assignment ExampleThe trait speculation examines various face-to-face attributes that a person has, and provides a deeper look into how they act, look, think, feel and function in varied circumstances and settings. The theory is used by governments all over the world to help understand their employees better in their pursuance to utilize their creativity and specialties. The trait theory expounds the ability that a leader has across several industries. Nardellis leadership style was a bit interesting. In some manner, he is considered a mastermind because he raised the companys profits, and reformed the organizational structure. However, the problem arose when his leadership style started to rub shareholders, employees, and customers the awry(p) way. With his authoritative and militaristic leadership style, employees were non confortable at general meetings. Shareholders were even upset at the way he conducted himself. While he was a CEO at Home Depot, Nardelli embarke d on a battleful plan to centralize control in the organization. He often neglected the sense of humility, enthusiasm of his subordinates, as well as care of the shareholders. Nardelli was maniacal about objectives and goals, and ignored the autonomy of others. This was unethical since he did not respect the autonomy of other people. Instead, he treated them as subjects by heavily investing in technology as a way of monitoring everything the top managers were doing (Baack, 2012).All leaders have a room to grow their leadership styles, and should be compassionate towards their employees, but when they refute to adapt to change, and remove salespersons that provided customers with a sense of security while shopping, a problem arises. In terms of performing his duties to help the organization grow, Nardelli did that, but at the expense of reducing the probability of future sales, by reducing the quality of wait on to its customers. According to the theory

Friday, April 19, 2019

What are the most significant factors affecting Foreign Direct Essay

What are the closely monumental component parts affecting Foreign Direct Investment in china - Essay ExampleChina has been a major FDI getion since it experimented in 1980 and opened up to foreign investment is a fewer coastal cities and specialized industry parks and economic zones. Since the initial admittance of the first foreign attempt into China in the azoic 1980s, the accumulated FDI inflows have reached and outstanding $ 1160.11Billion as of December 2011 . In the early 1992 when Deng was touring in the southern region of china, the quantity of FDI inflows made China become the worlds largest recipient role of FDI among the developing nations and the second largest world(a) with the United States taking the lead although China was the leading recipient of FDI worldwide in the year 2002. This move has increased Chinas overall economic reforms thus making China more integrated into the world economy which continues to promote the confidence of more foreign investors t o attract even more FDI inflows towards China.As the reforms and changes of Chinas economic structure have been induced by the large amounts of FDI inflows the evidence is exhibited by the significant changes of comparative advantage in it trade which is continuously increase in terms of technology intensive, labour intensive and capital intensive productions. As a result, the factor bequest of China has even much stronger complementariness with the world meaning that even more factors influencing FDI in china are increasingly immerging and growing stronger over time (Sheng-xian and Hua 2012).Chinas rise into its menses position was mainly driven by the foreign direct investors who flocked into the country when it adopted the openness form _or_ system of government to allow FDI inflows into the country and has continued to grow due to its efforts in promoting FDI inflows (Sheng-xian and Hua 2012). This paper covers the most significant factors influencing FDI inflows into China wh ile answering the questions why

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Motivation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Motivation - Essay ExampleHis vision is geared to improve the existing working dynamics inwardly his physical composition as well as to properly scrutinize the effects of productivity as per the domains of the organization. Rewarding employees for the sake of motivation could work wonders for them since these employees are mostly dependent on fiscal and frugal upheavals within their lives. If the entrepreneurial firm understands these concerns, it would not be wrong to suggest that growth and development within such reins would happen in a very quick way. The employees impart understand the fact that the organization is sincere towards their working basis and hence it makes all the more reason for them to remain loyal and consecrated as per the cause of the entrepreneurial firm itself. This leave behind thus form a symbiotic kind where each of the stakeholders within the organization itself will look to provide benefit to the other party (Brewer, 2000).An entrepreneurial firm must be proactive in its approach towards motivating its own employees as this will manifest its attachment with the work processes, business realms and so on. If this firm does not pay proper take heed towards the concerns of the employees and has no interest in motivating them on a consistent basis, it is a given that the employees will either start taking their work for granted or would leave their respective jobs and pursue their careers elsewhere. An entrepreneurial firm stick outnot afford such inactions and needs to devise policies and mechanisms through which growth levels could be further boosted (Wright, 2001). This can however exponentially increase and in a dramatic way if motivation comes about in full circle. If the rewards are in monetary terms, the employees appreciate the concern shown by the organization itself. Also at times, promotions and other incentives like bonuses, added privileges, etc are given to the employees who in essence get

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Politics and the Media, News Coverage Analysis Assignment Research Paper

Politics and the Media, overbolds reporting Analysis Assignment - Research Paper ExampleThe significant aspect of in-migration is fundamentally depict as the transfer of individuals or people from one particular country to other in rate to make permanent settlements. In this similar context, several political figures and intellectuals of the United States referred to the country as the country of immigrants. This is owing to the reason that in excess of 23 million immigrants particularly from the European nations had get down immutable residents of the US between the years 1880 and 1920 (Jimenez, Introduction). It has been apparently observed that the immigration policies of the US have become a widespread political debate for last few decades. It is in this context that the present chairperson of the US i.e. Barack Obama has been recognized to take speedy action towards providing the opportunity for legal residency relating to the significant tutelage of the US immigration policy. Moreover, it has also been viewed that ratings or poll have been conducted for the approval or the disapproval of the freshly immigration policy that is especially designed for the illegal immigrants in the US. In this similar context, the ratings or the polls have eventually acquired the attention of the Americans and raised the political image of President Obama (The New York Times Company, Obama Urges hurry on Immigration Plan, but Exposes Conflicts). The New York Times is regarded as one of the renowned American ground daily newspapers, which was founded in the year 1851 in New York City. It has been viewed that the newspaper published one similar grade of article relating to the US immigration policies entitled Immigration and Emigration in recent days that was of preferably narrative type (The New York Times Company, Immigration and Emigration). Conversely, The Washington Post is the other American based daily newspaper that was established in the year 1877 in Was hington D.C. The newspaper has been place to publish several articles linked with the US immigration policies in recent days that are of quite a narrative type (The Washington Post Company, Company Profile). Thesis Statement This paper intends to revaluation the news coverage concerning Obamas initiatives towards making immigration comeback and speedily working upon the US immigration plan. 1. How Does The News Story Conform To Prevailing Standards Of Newsworthiness? What Criteria Are Present In The Story? How Do These Criteria Appear To Be Driving This Story? The news story that was published by the newspaper The New York Times, conforms to prevailing standards of newsworthiness by depicting Obamas one of the significant initiatives towards facilitating a large outcome of unlawful immigrants residing in the US on a clear pathway to nationality or residency. There

Characteristics Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Characteristics - Term Paper pillow slipThis is the micro perspective which is embedded in its psychological genesis and emphasizes the fact that there are undivided variations in attributes which impact individual responses (Klein & Kozlowski). Neither perspective is enough alone (Michalski & Tecuci, 1994, p.381). Aggregate perspective tends to reduce individual differences that make a person behave the way he does. A mere instruction on aggregate characteristics poses risk of showiness and worthlessness in the organizational culture. Contrarily, when only individual take attributes are considered, this tends to ignore contextual aspects that lead to collective responses. Thus, aggregate perspectives lead to misspecifications because there is no inductive reasoning of lower levels which makes it impossible to formulate a meaningful policy. Also, individual-level perspectives lead to problems formulating human resource management policies. Hence, a combined approach is required that integrates both the perspectives (Cameron, Sutton & Whetten, 1988). References Cameron, K.S., Sutton, R.I., Whetten, D.A. (1988). Readings in Organizational Decline Frameworks, Research, and Prescriptions.

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

The “tanorexics” Essay Example for Free

The tanorexics raiseTheyre desperate for a sun fix. They spend hours incarcerated in advanced coffins. Cayte Williams meets the tanorexicsYoure lying in a big plastic cocoon. Weird blue light beats down at you through hi-tech glass and in that respects a strange humming noise. Youre naked and sweating profusely. Have you been abducted by aliens for experimental tests? No, youre lying on a sunbed and if youre doing it more than once a week then you could be seriously addicted. The Imperial Cancer Research Fund (ICRF) recently released a fact sheet outlining the hard effects of indoor whipping. There is extreme concern for tanorexics, says Christine Suggars, a spokesperson for the ICRF. Especially hoi polloi who grant a dangerous desire for a permanent tan and use sunbeds more than once a week. So who argon these walking raisins, and why do they need a regular sunbed fix?ofttimes tanorexics prefer to buy a sunbed rather than visit a suntanning salon. And lets face it, anyon e whos prep ard to fork out 1,600 on the initial machinery must have one hell of a habit. I bought a sunbed 10 years ago, recalls Jane Horwood, a 37-year- disused interior designer. I used it once a week at first, but this gradually became once a night. I used to go on it religiously after work and hated it when I couldnt go underneath. Its like smoking. even up though I knew I shouldnt be under there, I couldnt stop myself, she confesses. I valued to look healthy and was really upset that when I got pregnant my doctor told me I couldnt go on the sunbed. Its an obsitting with self image and self esteem, like anorexia.If youre browneder, you think youre going to have a nicer lifestyle, be more attractive. If I hadnt got pregnant I would neer have stopped. Over use of sunbeds can lead to all kinds of nasty side-effects. Apart from premature unclothe ageing, people who use sunbeds for more than 20 sessions of 30 minutes per year run the risk of underdeveloped scratch fragility, says Doctor Julia Newton Bishop, consultant dermatologist at St James University Hospital in Leeds. The pelt becomes very thin with a transparent texture and it bruises and blisters easily. Normally I would only expect to elate this problem in the elderly but I have seen some young patients suffering fromthis who over-use tanning equipment.An average 30 minutes on a sunbed gives you the same dose of UVA rays as a daytime at the beach, says Christine Suggars. UVB rays have been linked to skin cancer for many years, but its only straightaway that the concern is growing over the effects of UVA rays. UVB rays affect the top layer of the skin, the epidermis, and also the melanocyte cells, to produce brown pigment, she explains. UVA rays penetrate the skin more deeply, damaging the elastin (which keeps the skin supple) and collagen (which maintains the skins thickness) in the skins middle layer, causing sagging skin and wrinkles. This is not good news for the suntanning industry The T anning crap opened its first branch in the UK in 1992 and now has over 150 branches around the country. The association advocates controlled tanning and specialised programmes can cost up to 399 a year.People arent happy just to knock down into a booth anymore, explains marketing co-ordinator Rachel ODonnell. They want us to tell them what to do. Customers are warned about the dangers of over-tanning and are given a consultation before their first sunbed session. They can only ever have a session every second day and fair-skinned people are allowed six minutes a session which might go on to 10 minutes eventually. Customers are more fussy about what they get, says ODonnell. The Tanning Shops black vertical tanning booths look unnervingly like upright coffins, but tanorexics will not be put off. I go two to three times a week, says 27-year-old accountant, Victoria Williams. It makes me receive healthier, just like when you come back from holiday. Victoria started using sunbeds to clear up a skin complaint, but now shes hooked.I did worry about addiction, she says, so I didnt go on the sunbed for a month, but I started to get miserable when I got pasty. I wanted that heat and lovingness on my body. Is she worried about the latest sunbed scare? You have BSE, listeria, salmonella, she says defiantly I think there is some scare every week and its over-hyped. I would only stop using sunbeds if they were banned. A favourite haunt of the shameless tanorexic is Electric Beach in Londons Covent Garden. Here models and media people pop in for a top-up on a regular basis. On Saturday, the last celebs seen crossing its portats were Luke and savourless Goss, formerly of Bros. Who says tanning isnt trendy? We are looking to cater for those people wholive a London life, says managing director Philip Hodgeson. People go in and they come out tanned. We use bulbs as contrasted to tubes with a potassium filter, which filters out 99.9 per cent of the UVB rays.While women open ly admit to tanning addiction, men are much more secretive. Last year Paddy Ashdown suffered great embarrassment when a beautician let slip that hed checked in for a session on a sunbed. It seemed his humiliated outdoor tan was of the indoor variety and the Lib Dem office put the habit down to his doctors advice for soothing a minor skin complaint. John Stevens (not his real name), a 28 year old lawyer, identifies with Paddys blushes over his ruddy complexion. When youre tanned you look healthy, fit and well travelled, he says, and in business its good, because it makes you look wealthier, like you can afford regular holidays. But theres this unspoken idea that a real man should get his tan doing something rugged and adventurous. I would never want my mates to know that I use a sunbed. And, of course, theres Essex Man with his undying tandoori tan. Theres one who comes in every night, says Shauney Taylor of Tanning Trends in Barking. Hes in his 30s, hes working out, and wants the tan to go with it. You know what men are like, she muses. They want to be Peter Andre.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Maureen Frye Essay Example for Free

Maureen Frye EssayMarureen Frye made numerous mistakes in trying to implement her plan, a plan that was going to directly affect the gross revenuepeople of Quaker Steel Company as well as the District Sales Managers (DSMs), among opposite departments in the company. Her major mistake was sending a short-descriptive memo to the sales represendatives. Why was this a major mistake? For one, Frye is trying to change the way the sales people deal their time between big and small accounts, and yet she has not spend enough time in the scene of action and with these salespeople. Although her simulations to optimize sales efforts might be correct, they be based on cold total and computations, sitting behind a computer, without taking into account the human factor that goes into those sales efforts. She does not defy a feel for how they operate, where does their current success come from, what do they think and feel about how they argon doing their job, and above what do they think i t can be improved.Not wholly did Frye ignore the salespeople but she did not make good use of the relationship she thought she had with the DSMs. In fact, she had discussed her project with the Chicago DSM and he had seems to comparable to supposition, with indicates that if more effort was put to introducing her plan to the other DSMs, using her good relationships with them, they could possibly perceive the idea well too idea of using the middle man. If she had no time to spend on the field and get to know the salespeople better, she made the mistake of not taking advantage of the relationship between the DSMs and the salespeople. repayable to the hierarchical level of the DSMs, she is probably closer to them. As it is mentioned in the article, the DSMs leave a lot of put down space to the salespeople which means that they are apply to making their own decisions. This fact shows that the DSMs and the Salespeople shake up a limited communication to understating each-other and to get the work done well. Thus, if a new project needs to be implemented, the DSMs are the most probable people to get through the salespeople and having them on board about this project is importantly important. This powerful link should have been taken advantage by Frye.Not having considered the above-mentioned steps, thus work in person with the salespeople or/and lobbying with the DSMs, Frye should have at least apply the power of her superiors, Israel and Bethancourt, not only byapproving it but also as means of enforcement. For example, have them sign the memo she sent or give a direct order to the DSMs for its application. However, needs to be emphasized that this solution used on its own, is a last resort one just because she didnt make use of the other options. This option would definitely be interpreted as a scare tactic, however it might have worked. As a manager or as the leader of her project, Frye first needs to find the warrant from within and then also use the p ower given to her from her bosses. This option could be best used in collaboration with the previous options.

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Music and Literature Essay Example for Free

unison and Literature Es declare melody and literature have played an important role in our community and society since not only(prenominal) humans only if the earth was born. Its still a great mystery as to who invented or made music first. But first of all we shouldnt focus as to when was music made but should see that what actually music is? How to define music has long been the subject of debate philosophers, musicians, and, more recently, versatile social and natural scientists have argued about what constitutes music. The definition has varied done history, in different regions, and in spite of appearance societies. Definitions vary as music, like art, is a subjectively perceived phenomenon. Its definition has been tackled by philosophers of art, lexicographers, composers, music critics, musicians, linguists, sociologists, and neurologists. harmony may be defined according to various criteria including organization, pleasantness, intent, social construction, perceptu al processes and engagement, universal aspects or family resemblances, and through contrast or negative definition.Music is sometime said to be a branch of literature. today the question stands that what is literature? Literature is the body of all written works the collected creative authorship of a nation, people, group, or culture all the papers, treatises, etc. published in academic journals on a particular subject. its particularly hard to understand but in simple words literature fashion a piece of work written deeply form the or whatever your experiences and brain say and to put that experience and the work of brain into a piece of writing.Literature comes from the Latin word literra significance a piece of writing. Literature has many branches like narrative stories, novels, poems and etc.Music is also a famous branch of literature. There are many music lovers found all over the world. Music is further separated into many other branches e.g. jazz, pop and etc. Music has been with us since the start of our dishy earth. Music is just an inch away from us always its in the rustling of leafs, the choke of waves hitting the shore, the quite sound that trees make when they sway in the air.

Saturday, April 13, 2019

Spies Essay Example for Free

Spies EssayMichael Frayn uses a unique style of writing in the saucy Spies, doubled storey. So in this essay there will be an investigation into this characteristic style of writing that magnetises the audience, as it makes the audience feel part of the explanation. Stephen and Stefan versions of accounts vary, this appeals to the audience as it leaves you guessing besides many unanswered questions during the plot. Dual narration has many positives to contri notwithstandinge to the novel, for example numerous independent viewpoints. barely during this novel not entirely independent view points, as the narrators remain the equal indivi bivalent in two separate time periods. The older character Stefan has the benefit of hindsight whilst remember the in timets of that summer in the 1940s. Whilst Stephen as the enthusiasm of a typical young lad. The two accounts vary as memories are forgotten or Stefan hasnt remembered the events in the correct chronological order. (Frayn, S pies, p. 32) So this essay will look into the effect that dual narration has upon on the lector throughout the novel.Michael Frayn is unresolved of using dual narration to such an brilliant extent during Spies because he as an author is able to connect with the character Stephen and Stefan. The reason as to why these connections can be made is because Michael Frayn would have grown up as a child during the same time period as we see Stephen growing up in the novel, World War 2. (literature. britishcouncil. org/michael-frayn). This overly indicates that Frayn would have same ability to remember certain events and recall the memories in the same manner as what Stefan does.The nature of the dual narration in this novel can become frustrating for the reader. (Hudson, everything is as it was, but everything has changed) The slow progression through the story generates complacency, as the reader wants to advance to the significant events, before the story arrives at them. As you seem to progress quicker than Stephen is able to, because of the hints and clues Stefan has informed you off prior to Stephens narrating. Even when Stephen finally describes the event, many of the questions you find yourself asking do not get answered.However the latent hostility and anxiety that Frayn is capable of creating whilst leaving many questions opened and unanswered can entice the reader get along into the depth of the novel. (Holtsberry, 2004). This effect gets the readers mind thinking about the possibilities and directions the story could precede and conclude in. Nevertheless you do find yourself bemused when the story continues in an opposite direction as to the one you had expected it to follow. During Spies dual narration is capable of portraying how an individuals outlook can change over a period time.The memories can be forgotten, they can be missed interpreted, or the memories Stefan possesses may not even be his memories, instead they maybe what he wanted to happen instead. (Frayn, Spies, P. 233) This specific passage of the text indicates that Stefan is capable of remembering and realising how significant certain childhood memories are, even though he did not realise the immenseness or even consider the possible outcomes at the time as a childs memory is an innocent one.Its only with hind sight that Stefan is capable of understand the importance of Stephens memories. (Lancaster, the impudent York Book Review). The reader is allowed to accept and believe in Stephenss memories and recollection of events only for Stefan to later on correct the series of events. This can also get extremely confusing for the reader, because Stefan and Stephen at various points with in the Novel have a conflict or memories. The way in which Michael Frayn has used the dual narration technique to write Spies has made the novel one of mystery and suspense.It engages the reader into the depth of the Novel. This leaves many readers having to start up certain chapters , or even rereading the entire novel to obtain and figure out the answers to the questions Frayn has cleverly go away opened. The way in which in the novel flows from past to present also engulfs the reader, as you are everlastingly trying to figure out Stephens next move through the narrative of Stefan. As a reader this absorbs you into the novel as you feel as though youre a character in the novel alongside Stephen in his childhood.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Be Able to Contribute to Planning Learning Activities Essay Example for Free

Be Able to Contribute to Planning Learning Activities EssayHello Harry I met you at the Hyatt Hotel in Birmingham and I spoke to your assistant manager astir(predicate) my trip to Malawi. I Hope you are ok Below is a picture of me and you at villa part in 2010 WOW I had the most horrendous opportunity to volunteer in Ghana for 6 weeks in July, its quiet unbelievable to be given over another opportunity to help make people happy again BUT Every volunteer MUST raise 800. ALL Money raised goes to projects whilst we are out there etc. I shall be functional with Orphans and also teaching mothers how to educate their child. Im finding it extremely sticky to raise my fundraising target and I have 635 to go until lively minds (company im going with) are happy with my fundraising, Its tout ensemble stressing me out as I have to pay for my own flights too Which is an additional 700 and coming from a single parent family on a council estate is hard, I just want to make myself knigh tly and have a good life This is the only thing that makes me happy, Lifes pretty dull to be fairish . But when Im making others happy and putting smiles on the faces of children who truly have slide fastener to live for, but keep going and keep fighting their everyday life makes me happy about myself. When I spoke to you before the game you said you woul help me irritate my fundraising target. I truly take to that is still possible so i can then the company can lay sullen my back and I concentrate on raising my flight costs. It would mean the world if you could help me on this quest. To be able to relax and know i am going to Ghana and not telling people Maybe depending on if i achieve my fundraising target would be HARRYmazing Haha.. Bad joke i know Thankyou for your kindness and ill thoroughly appreciate anything you are able to do to help me reach my target goal Thank you so much All the best take care Jordan Goodridge occupy check my just giving page www.justgiving.co.u k/childrenofghana Twitter emailprotectedThese pictures were when i volunteered in Malawi in July September 2012 working with orphans who had HIV/AIDS. I hope you are able to help me reach my target Thankyou

Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Development of the US economy over the Past 3 Years Essay Example for Free

instruction of the US economy oer the Past 3 Years EssayThe American g all overnment has been productive in running its economy for the geezerhood 2005, 2006 and 2007 as shown in continuing productivity harvest-tide, the low train of ostentatiousness as well low hobby rate. This paper in that locationfore attempts to discuss or dramatize the success of the American Government been in running its Economy over the blend three years. Since both success will return to be explained on what actions the American government has, this paper will and then describe and evaluate the main macro frugal policies hired by the American government, if there is any, over the survive three years.How successful is the American government in running its Economy over the last three years? The American government performed well in terms of GDP and former(a) growth touchstones for the last three years starting from 2005 up to the third pull of 2007. GPD growth was recorded to conduct an mediocre of 3 ? % from 2005 up to first can of 2006. This slowed down a little starting from indorsement ass of 2006 (2 ? %) to first and guerrilla quarter of 2007 , but the third quarter of 2007 appeared to started showing higher outgrowths at 3. 9%. In describing the state of the US economy, Poole said The U.S. economy is highly productive, profit-making opportunities abound, interest rates and inflation are both relatively low and stable. The economy is however not without any take exceptions to face. Said challenge is not the trading cycle but how the US economy will adjust on many a(prenominal) fronts to the baby boom generation retirement but Poole believes that the U. S. laws and institutions will enable the country to face these challenges with a better deal of buoyancy than in some another(prenominal) countries that is facing or will be facing the demographic challenge sooner.Poole expressed an assurance that the U. S. economy is fundamentally sound. He cited the fact that surveys of business economists over the past few years regularly pointed to key sources of strength of US economy and these hold a dynamic and flexible labour market and a financial organisation that rewards innovation and risk-taking by channelling capital to its highest rates of return. He explained that the US market-based economy will allow companies the ability and the incentive to enclose and to adapt quickly to changes in relative asks for goods and services. thence he observes that present managements responding promptly to various desecrates that shock the economy and according to him this is a growing dynamism of the U. S. economy which be believes is satisfactorily illustrated by the near in the economys rate of productivity growth that has began as early as 1995 and there is still no sign of let up even at present. One way to impairment economic performance is the level of inflation. Poole said, that inflation as mensurable by the all-items cost-of -living index called headline CPI inflation slowed from 3. 4 pct in 2005 to 2. portion in 2006, while the inflation rate measured by the PCE (core inflation, which excludes food and energy prices) price index rose slowed from 2. 9 percent to 2. 3 percent over the same period.The decline of inflation in 2006 could only indicate remarkable effect of the pecuniary policy. Poole explained that the restraint of headline inflation is undeniably an indication of the sharp decline in energy prices over the second half of 2006. He added that most economists believe that core inflation is a better measure of inflation pressures. He also explained that that slight step-up in the core PCE price index from 2. percent in 2005 to 2. 2 percent in 2006, and the core CPI index increase more, from 2. 2 to 2. 6 percent was negative indication.However, the core price pressures grant been easing out lately which was an indication of a momentum that is headed to a favourable direction. What are the economic policies used by the American Government in managing the economy? The main macro economic policies used by the American government over the last three years include the use of its monetary policies. The use of monetary policy is evident in federal strikeicial Reserve Bank having raised its target for the federal funds rate from 1 percent in 2004 to 5? ercent in June of 2006 and is still maintained at present.It was the US monetary policy actions that have kept inflation largely, although not perfectly in check. Monetary policies involved the actions done by the Federal Reserve Bank to control money supply for purposing of managing inflation and necessarily GDP growth. gum olibanum Poole believes that such(prenominal) monetary policy likely had something to do with the quantify of slower GDP growth. He emphasized that the timing of slower GDP growth was the inevitable result of transcending margin of underutilized resources.He admits however of other factors that is caus ing the slowdown starting in second quarter of 2006 which he felt as self-sufficient of monetary policy. One was the sharp increase energy prices, which showed improvement in the middle of 2006 while the other was considerable weakness in housing markets, which Poole believed may just now be giving off very tentative signal of the need to stop as has reached the bottom . In relation to the use of monetary policy to the US economy, Poole suggested three remarkable facts that deserve attention.He identified the first by saying that the real GDP growth, though sluggish in prior years has become iron starting in 2003, which may now have contributed a present low unemployment rate of 4. 6 percent. Another is that fact long-term inflation expectations were strainingly shifted, while the third is the fact of quarterly fair yield on 10-year nominal Treasury securities that was actually slightly lower than it was in mid 2002.Thus Poole is justifying that, the economy has performed well d espite a near tripling of crude oil prices since December 2001. He also pointed about the issue of present energy price increase. The first one is of course attributing, the increase in price a consequence of a booming world economy, which raised energy demand rather than a supply shock while the second one is attributing to monetary policies in the US and in most other countries have their jobs well of securing inflation expectations. Despite a decline in growth in 2006 as compared to 2005, Poole found still further proof to the latest data on stable performance of the US economy.Poole, said, Particularly noteworthy was the larger-than-expected increase in real GDP during the 4th quarter of 2006. Following relatively anaemic rates of growth in the second and third quarter of 2006, growth of real GDP during the fourth quarter picked up nicely, rising to a 3. 5 percent annual rate. Will the decline in the some of the measurable variable prove a nonstarter of the monetary policy of the company? Poole cited two other aspects of the GDP report which were less favourable than the general report. First, there was recorded slight decline in the business stubborn coronation during the fourth quarter of 2006.He interpreted that that the decline was nothing more than normal variation, as may be peradventure a consequence on the part of firms that were waiting for release of the new Vista operating system from Microsoft. To support his position, he explained that over the four quarters of 2006, a 6. 8 percent in non-residential fixed investiture rose was recorded and one could readily appreciate that a healthy and expected increase given that the economy has continued to absorb excess capacity. This he even believe on the affirmatory figures forecast for the economy that will perhaps produce better than expected results.He however warned that the appendage of the fourth quarter weakness in business capital outlays going forward certainly would be a cause for concern. The second noticeable aspect of the GDP report that was the nearly twenty percent rate of decline in residential fixed investment. He narrated that the decline began in the second quarter and was followed by a greater decline in each of the subsequent quarter. Thus he explained that as a normal result, the sharp decline in private housing starts and sales must have cause a significant pull on real GDP growth in 2006.Thus the second half of 2006, showed the contribution to real GDP growth from real residential fixed investment to have averaged about negative percentage points. This would prompt then the explanation for the fall down in 2006 on why monetary policy was not applied to address the problem. Poole, explained that the Year 2006 was a hard situation for homebuilders as compared to 2005. He explained that following a record-setting rate of 1. 7 million units that have started in 2005, he noted that single-family started to fall to 1. 5 million units in 2006.He exp lained that the this average showed a relatively large number of starts during the first half of the year which was followed by a much lower level of starts during the second half of 2006. This he noted December 2006- single-family starts which were approximately 16. 5 percent below annual average. In comparison, Poole cited the consensus of the Blue Chip forecasters made in December 2005 that real residential fixed investment would decrease by only about 1. 4 percent in 2006, using annual average data, but the actual the decline was about 4 percent.The rate fourth quarter as of 2006 is therefore obviously steeper, than the fourth quarter of 2005 to the fourth quarter of 2006. It may thus be observed that the slowing down of growth starting in the second quarter of 2006 may be attributed to the continued fall on sale of housing although presently there are already signs of recovery. But since the third quarter of 2007 has even exceeded even the average of growth rate prior to sligh t decline in second quarter of 2006, it may be argued that the problem of housing has eased out already.It may be cogitate that the American government has been successful in running its Economy over the last three years in terms of GDP and controlled level of inflation and the lower interest rate. The main macro economic policies used by the American government over the last three years include principally the use of its monetary policies through the Federal Reserve Bank of the US by raising interest rate a little in order to control inflation. Since it was able to do its part in controlling prices via inflationary measures the US Government through the Federal Reserve has done well it pass of managing the economy.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Learning Notes Essay Example for Free

study Notes EssaySTAGE 1 CONTENT STANDARD The learner understand the different types and forms of drama, the features ,elements and conventions which pit them from narratives thereby leading him/her to produced a reaction composition. PERFORMANCE STANDARD The learner writes a pregnant reaction paper on a drama presentation. ESSENTIAL UNDERSTANDING The learner exhibits understanding and appreciation of drama by making sense of and reacting to the different issues presented in it.. ESSENTIAL QUESTION How does one show appreciation of Filipino gambling? Learners lead know Types of period of play Forms of drama Drama conventions Expressions showing agreement and disagreement Learners will be able to Explain types of drama Distinguish conglomerate forms of drama. Apply various graphic organizers to garnish key concepts in a drama. Perform an array of reading techniques to concretize and unlock drama concept. react in various ways to expect understanding of drama. Relate how drama mirrors real life. Deduce authoritative experiences that can be incorporated in a drama. Analyze descriptions, dialogs and actions to discover, articulate, and justify characters in a drama. happen insights on main and sub issues presented in a drama. STAGE 2 Product Performance lying-in A meaningful reaction paper on a drama presentation. Evidence at the direct of understanding The learners should be able to demonstrate understanding by covering the six (6) facets of understanding. Explanation-Explain how the playwright justifies the actions, feelings, and attitudes of the character. follow characters, and situation to show how drama reflects culture. Interpretation- interpret the series of connected events in a drama plot. utilise events line Application-Apply role playing strategies in delivering dialogs between the protagonist and antagonist in the play Perspective- damp perspective by evaluating a drama presentation. Empathy-assum e role in Critiquing a drama presentation. Self-cognition- self-assess ones strengths and weaknesses in presenting judgement of a drama presentation. Evidence at the level of performance Performance assessment of an original extended dialog for drama presentation based on the following criteria 1.Focus/ fore 2. Accuracy 3. Language 4. Unity 5. Coherence 6. Style STAGE 3 TEACHING breeding term A. EXPLORE- At this stage, the teacher should be able to do the following Make the learners aware of the desired leave behind that is, for him/her to demonstrate understanding of understanding of the different types and forms of Philippine drama as well as the features, elements, and conventions which distinguish them from narratives Introduce the Essential question (EQ), How does one show appreciation of Philippine drama? with the learners. Make them assist the questions as exhaustively as possible and cue them into the big ideas by activating their prior knowledge or pa st experiences. Use non-formative assessment procedure to poker chip/evaluate learners readiness and competence on the prerequisite skills to the tasks at hand. Inform the learners of how they will be assessed. Their major output after the lesson is a meaningful reaction paper on a drama presentation. Likewise explain the rubrics. Activities Materials Date Remarks 1.Life is a drama TG. P. 4 Types of Drama listed on a manila August 15,2011 paper. 2. Illustrate it TG. P. 4 1. manila paper paper August 16,2011 2. Pentel pen/ pencil 3. crayons Note 1. Pre-test is given to students. To test their prior knowledge. 2. Ask the EQ-essential Question 3. Clarify expectation 4. Hook and engage interest. 5. Give the essential understanding. STAGE 3 TEACHING LEARNING SEQUENCE B.FIRM UP- At this stage, the teacher should be able to do the following Make the learners set up their knowledge of the different types and forms of Philippine drama, as we ll as the features, elements and conventions which distinguishes them from narratives. Highlight the grammar item by providing sufficient examples of word/phrase showing agreement or disagreement. offer the learners with activities that are motivating and challenging maximise learners participation in various tasks from controlled practice to free association phase of learning Provide feedback to check for understanding. Activities Materials Date Remarks 1. Which one are you TG. P. 6 1. A copy of the words JOLOGs and CONOS 2. A day for a play TG. P6 - Read and write words in the play 2. A photocopy of the Drama- Call that shows balance and Me Flory by Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero DISAGREEMENT. 3. Lexicon TG. P6 - Write the meaning of the phrases. 3. manila paper Paper with the Phrases taken from the play. 4. Simple Recall TG. P7 - Comprehension Questions 4.Manila paper with the comprehension questions. 5. Agree or Disagree TG. P9 - Expressing agreement and 5. Manila Paper with two pillar A Disagreement and B Agreement and Disagreement. 6. In my opinion TG. P10. 6. Various topics written on a - Choose one topic then write an Manila paper. opinion paragraph stressing their greatest ancestry for agreeing or disagreeing. Note Discuss and explain expressions on agreement and Outline of the topic disagreement. STAGE 3 TEACHING LEARNING SEQUENCE C. DEEPEN- At this stage, the teacher should be able to do the following Provide learners with thought provoking questions that will make them reflect, revisit, rethink, and revise earlier assumptions about the types and forms of Philippine drama, the features, elements, and conventions that distinguish them from narrative. alter learners to apply the grammar items learned by giving them activities within the confines of higher order thinking skills. extend the learners uniqueness, their strengths and weaknesses by providing them with differentiated instruction as needed. Provide them with meaningful and challenging activities that will reinforce what they wee learned. Engage them in meaningful self-evaluation. Give feedback. Activities Materials Date Remarks 1. Curtailed Freedom TG. P. 11 1. Topic on particularised reality or - Have them agree or disagree game show. 2. Mock Election TG. P11 -Write and express their ideas 2.Written issue on a manila paper- Are you in favor of using 3. Drama Inventory TG. P12 the Filipino language during - Complete the table after English time? watching/ auditory sense to various drama media. 3. Written CHART on a manila paper as draw and quarter to the activity. 4. Airing Feedback TG. P12. - Role play any situation 4. Rubrics Notes 1. Discuss the Elements of Drama 2. types of drama 3. drama conventions D.TRANSFER- At this stage, the teacher should be able to do the fo llowing Have the learners make strong-minded application of the various processes (drama review, play reaction paper production, critiquing an original extended drama script, ect) they have learned. Make them do independent performance or project using varied and complex assessment procedure. Harness the learners growing increase by letting them establish the interface among the activities they have performed. Have them see the connections between tasks and the world. Activities Materials Date Remarks 1. Drama Review TG. P13 1.evaluation Chart - Complete the evaluation chart after watching a scene in a drama or play. 2. DRP (Drama Reaction Paper) TG. P13 - evaluate the strength and 2. List of criteria written on a weaknesses of a play or drama. manila paper References Laarni- A Dream by Loreto Paras-Sulit Call Me Flory, by Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero The World is an Apple Prepared by FERDINAND A. SANGAO Subject Teacher Noted NORA D. DALAPNAS Head Teacher In Charge

Sunday, April 7, 2019

Multiple Intelligence Essay Example for Free

Multiple Intelligence Essay1) How would you compargon and secern constructs of knowledge and achievement?Though often linked with each other, intelligence and achievements are neither the alike(p) thing nor does possessing intelligence automatically results in a person being an achiever. Intelligence is only a part of the entire package and process that allows one to reach his or her goals. Success or achievements are met with the mixture of intelligence, hard work, and the right opportunities. At the same time, a person may have the heat and the willingness to work for a particular goal, but still not make it. One still need the inborn talent that will enable him or her to do the work needed. Thus, intelligence is one of the umpteen yet essential factors for achieving. It may be inborn, but it still needs to be developed to its salutary extent. If intelligence goes un-nurtured, then it is useless. Ones environment and learning are interdependent with ones genes for the development of his or her intelligence, and ultimately with his or her capability to achieve.2) How would you describe Gardners theory of intelligence? Do you agree with Gardners theory of multiple intelligences? Why or why not?Gardner believed that intelligence is multi-faceted and flexible. He attacked the idea that intelligence is a virtuoso immutable entity created by just one source and is well measurable with math and language IQ tests (Smith, 2008 Benson, 2003). Gardner proposed humans have seven types of intelligence linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal human bodys of intelligence (Smith, 2008, n.p.).I agree with Gardner that at that place is no single, accurate way of measuring hoi pollois intelligence because people have different talents or intelligence. Humans have their own unique mix of intelligence they may excel in areas where others do not and vice versa. Gardners theory does not limit intellig ence into a single box. I believe that to be true since it is unfair to judge a kind of talent as better as or more rewarding than others. People ought to know that there are different realms of intelligence. They ought to realize theirs for the sake of forming their personality, building up confidence, and nurturing their competence. Gardner wrote that people need to know what they abide do to understand themselves and live productively and effectively (cited in Smith, 2008).In conclusion, Gardner recognizes that there is no single construct of intelligence. Intelligence goes beyond classrooms and report cards, and this, I think, is the most important for people to understand.

Saturday, April 6, 2019

Moral reasoning and classroom conduct Essay Example for Free

clean-living reasoning and nurtureroom canalise EssayThe article duplicates a look method previously utilize by two of the current researchers George Bear and Herbert Richards in 1981 in their research Moral reasoning and allot fusss in the classroom. Each of the 87 male and female participants were tasked for their individual levels of incorrupt reasoning utilize Kohlbergs Moral popular opinion Interview, Form A by the research assistant. Their classroom behavior was assessed by their t for each oneers using the Conduct Scale of the Behavior Problem Checklist.One of the strengths of the research methodology was that the teachers were blind to the results of the Moral Judgment Interview. This ensured that the teachers did not make a judgment on students behaviors base on the assessment of incorruptistic reasoning. The gobs from these two instruments were therefore independent. Additionally, to further decrease potential rater bias the twelve interview protocol w ere arbitrarily selected and scored by an independent judge. The scores produced by the research assistant and the independent judge were compared and a in high spirits level of correlation was found.Another strength is that there was pre-screening of research participants. Screening ensured equitable representation based on stage of moral reasoning, sex and grade level. The researchers justify eliminating the seven participants with stage mavin moral reasoning from data analysis on the grounds that this would facilitate easier duplication. This decision is still questionable since incomplete the current research, nor the one it replicates has accounted for the birth of stage one students.Thus there is still a open frame in the literature on how this category of students rate on their classroom conduct. One major weakness of the aim is in the data collection procedures. The classroom conduct of the participants is based on the assessment of teachers. plot of ground teachers are the ones who work more intimately with students and are in a better position to assess behavioral outcomes, teacher bias often produces inaccurate data (Reynolds, 1991). As in the case of the interviews, virtually measures should absorb been put in place to diminish possible evaluator bias.Another limitation of the study is that the researchers recruited participants from both the elementary and high school levels yet did not make any controls for how this factor could have exercised either moral reasoning or conduct. The nature of the school environment can have an tempt on these variables and thus, to ensure uniformity of survey conditions, it is advisable to utilize similar type schools for the survey setting. Where that is not possible or where the researchers desire to recruit participants from different school environments, the necessary controls for these factors need to be discussed in the presentation of data.1. Identify the primary question(s) of the article. The researchers wanted to discover if the results discovered by Bear and Richards (1981) on the influence of stage of moral development on classroom conduct of middle-class students in Iowa was replicable among culturally assorted students of different ages and grade levels. They also wanted to discover if the influence of moral stage on conduct varied based on sex. 2. Identify the theoretical construct that is being used. The theoretical foundation of the research is Kohlbergs theory of moral development.This theory postulates that individuals are at different stages of moral development ranging from one to six with each stage hierarchically higher than the other. He further stipulates that moral reasoning impacts and determines observable behavioral outcomes in different life situations. With respect to the classroom setting Kohlberg concludes that the lower the level of moral reasoning, the more disruptive behaviors will be displayed in the classroom and consequently the higher the level of moral reasoning the less problematic behaviors will be carried out in the classroom. 3.Recommend an alternative decimal approach that could have been used for this study and support your rationale. In order to assess the classroom conduct of students I would recommend, as an alternative to the teacher-evaluated Conduct Scale of the Behavior Problem Checklist, that taped observations of classroom exercising be utilized. In this approach the researchers would obtain permission from school administrators and teachers to tape two typical classroom sessions each, with a one-week interval in between. In the three school environments one classroom at each level will be included in the study.There would be one fourth-grade and one fifth-grade classroom at each of the two elementary schools and two eighth grade classrooms at the high school to give a total of six classrooms and twelve video-taped sessions. Independent evaluators would score the classroom behaviors of each of the students in the classroom independently and then their scores will be correlated to ensure inter-rater reliability. The behavior problem checklist would form the criteria for assessment of the videotapes and would be completed for each student in each classroom independently. lose data would be eliminated from the study during analysis. The strength of this method is that it eliminates the bias that has customary been associated with teacher-evaluated instruments and thus would give a more reliable and hence valid indication of the classroom conduct of students. Classroom teachers will not be briefed as to the complete purpose of the survey so as to eliminate the influence they whitethorn exert on classroom conduct in the classroom. Additionally this method ensures that there is consistency in what behaviors are considered and how these behaviors are categorized.The evaluators of video tapes will be standardized prior to the actual evaluation procedure. Bibliography Reynolds, A. J. (1991). archaeozoic schooling of children at risk. Education Research daybook, 28, 392-422. Richards, H. C. , Stewart, A. L. , Bear, G. G. (1984). Moral reasoning and classroom conduct A replication. story presented at the 92nd Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Toronto, Ontario, Canada APA. Bear, G. G. , Richards, H. C. (1981). Moral reasoning and conduct problems in the classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 644-670.

President of the English Department Student Association Essay Example for Free

President of the incline De break offment Student Association EssayThere is no assimilator incapable of learning, tho teachers incapable of instruction. I became particularly enamored of this statement during my fourth form article of belief. To raise the caliber of my instruction, to reside in a new cultural environment and broaden my horizons, and to comfort a sincere desire to aid pupil schooldaysing, I am laying down my easygoing and secure government position to apply for entrance to your Masters program in TESOL for the come to semester of 2001.I deal always had an excellent academic performance at school, but un corresponding those who only have good grades, I also understood the significance of take a well-rounded student life. Not only have I participated in many different kinds of activities and competitions, but I have also held various part- date jobs with the result my life experience is far richer than my peers. A particular avail of this is that I a m more tolerant and understanding of others and appreciative of the strengths peculiar to individuals. My parents are both collateral school teachers, and they place great emphasis on childrens reading development.Thus we siblings all cultivated good learning habits. Therefore, during my undergraduate years, I was in the habit of neary previewing reading material that professors depute before bighearted lectures, in addition to the usual taking of notes. I also made full use of library services and materials to supplement my reading. As a result, in both linguistics and literature, I consistently earned good grades and tended to be a more creative student. I graduated from college as the government issue one government-sponsored student in my graduating class ( on that point were 25 of us) and won a large number of scholarships in the process.Although I work hard at whatever I do, I have always been generous sharing the fruits of my efforts with others. Scholastic performance is naturally important, but the mutual learning process excite by sharing ones knowledge and experiences with others is even more important. Through my teaching, I forecast to inculcate students with a similar attitude and inspire them to base their self-assurance on themselves and not odour for it from others. In addition to strictly academic pursuits, I participated in many societies and organizations, playing many leading roles.I held several interesting part-time positions such as Stage Management Assistant for the Russian Sligo Ballet Dance Company, Campaign Assistant during the presidential election campaign for the now-ruling Democratic Progressive Party, and as Translator for the 1994 Taipei Inter guinea pig Toy Show in World Trade Center. On campus I was the Editor for departmental publications and President of the English Department Student Association. Also, I was the stage lighting supervisory program for my graduating years public drama performance.The most important event I worked on was as a school representative helping organize and setup the National Alumni Association of Senior high-pitched Schools in Hsinchu. Under our efforts, it became an official association recognized and sponsored by the Hsinchu City Government. Speaking of sports, I jollify volleyball and badminton very much. Thus, I was assigned to be the school badminton club instructor as part of my teaching practice. Also worth mentioning is that I was a volunteer instructor at two orphanages, giving those in need love and care.At junior high school, I was an advanced science student but on reaching high school I became really attached to popular medical specialty in general and the heavy metal genre in particular. My interest in reading oral communication sheets prompted the discovery that the underlying concepts and cultural background of foreign and domestic music are often very different. This inspired me to transfer from the university science preparatory track to the s tudy of English. Continuing to earn high grades, I attended the Department of English at Chang Hua University of Education on scholarship.My abiding interest in English ensured I was highly motivated but the well-chosen course materials also naturally engendered interest. In 1997, because of my good performance, I was assigned to Taipei Municipal Fu-Hsing Senior High School to complete my teaching practice. A year later, I became a certified English teacher and have been teaching there until now. During the past three years, I have taken one class of students through an entire three-year hertz of studies ending in graduation, and from this have noted that the dry nature of language studies unnecessarily renders this message little than captivating to most students.Here in Taiwan, there is intense pressure on students facing the national college entrance examination with the result that grade school instruction focuses on grammar, as this is the prime subject tested by the exam. F ortunately, in the last several years Taiwan has been going through a transition period of educational reform and the stress has changed from the dull ritual of grammar studies to the more colorful participatory style of community language learning.Furthermore, high schools are now given more latitude accommodate programs to their needs, all of which represents a paradigm change from the Japanese educational style to the American which emphasizes personal development and independent thought. To achieve my potential as a teacher operating within this new and hush developing system, I wish to study and research a variety of general teaching methodologies, in addition to linguistics teaching methodologies. Reviewing your catalogue, I have been very impressed with your curriculum, faculty, facilities, and overall academic environment.I have discovered your curriculum and developmental style is in great accord with my needs and, because your school is located in one of the worlds econo mic and cultural center, I expect it to cater both an outstanding curriculum and an exceptional environment for cultural immersion. Recently, preparing for the TOEFL and TSE, I have taken a great interest in assessing second language acquisition. The CLOZE ladder and Reading Comprehension Test and other related preparatory tests are relatively disorganized and less than ideally effective at present.Thus I hope to make a concrete contribution to the improvement of this aspect of English language instruction upon my return. I believe I possess the enthusiasm and determination to successfully erect my skills teaching English as a second language, but I also believe that self-reformation is the most important thing in my life. Only by setting myself up as an example, well-educated my own strengths and weaknesses, and trying to improve myself, can I have the confidence to step up to a platform and teach students.After all, teaching is not only about inculcating students with a body of pragmatical skills, but also about investing them with moral courage and character education during the process. As such, I make a point of ensuring I have spare time for my students after school and I thus find the progress of my students to be very fulfilling. Highly motivated, resolute, and more than willing to devote the time and effort to complete your program, I sincerely hope you will accept my candidacy. In closing, I would like to express my gratitude for your review of my application materials, and I thank you for your time.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Mechanical Barriers to Communication

robotic Barriers to colloquyAny tour by which whizz person gives to or receives from some other person reading ab divulge that persons needs, desires, perceptions, cognizeledge, or stirive states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional it may learn conventional or unconventional signals, may t severally linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.Organisations crowd out non operate without parley. Communication can take various forms but all forms involve the transfer of schooling from iodin party to the other. In battle array for the transfer of culture to qualify as communicating, the receiving system must take cargon the mean valueing of the discipline transferred to them. If the recipient does non realize the meaning of the information transported to them, intercourse has not taken swan.Communication is the life ascendent of arrangings beca use organisations involve mint. People cannot interact with each ot her without talk. In the absence of communicating, everything would grind to a halt. For character the workers in an organisation would not know the organisations objectives so they would not strive to achieve the organisations objectives.The workers in an organisation would not know what their roles and responsibilities were, so they would not be able to need out their daily tasks and duties.The realityagers would not be able to train their workers reports so the workers would not possess the skills they needed to carry out their professions.The partagers would not be able to inform workers of changesThe organisation would not be aw be of their competitors activitiesOn the whole commonwealth ar able to pass around with each other as this is a basic human function. stock- stable successful organisations strive not just now for communication but hard-hitting communication.Interpersonal CommunicationThis is outlined as communication between two or much people and involv es the transfer of information (or core) from one person to the other(s). The person transferring the information is called the vector or transmitter. The people receiving the substance are kn possess as receivers. The transmitter go away need to send the information in a format that the receiver(s) will understand. Converting the information into a format that the receivers will understand is known as Encoding.Messages can be encoded into a change of formats oral exam, written or visual. After encoding the subject is transferred via a medium called a channel, for sheath a letter, fax, phone call, or e- escape. After transference the information will need to be interpreted by the receiver. This process of interpretation is known as decryption. Finally the receiver will send a message back to the transmitter confirming whether the information send has been understood. This back check is known as feedback. The communication process involves seven key elements as illustrated i n the draw under.Why you need to pee your message acrossEffective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people clearly and unambiguously. Its too about receiving information that others are sending to you, with as little distortion as possible.Doing this involves effort from both(prenominal)(prenominal) the sender of the message and the receiver. And its a process that can be fraught with error, with messages muddled by the sender, or interpreted by the recipient. When this isnt detected, it can cause tremendous confusion, wasted effort and missed opportunity.In fact, communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver understand the same information as a yield of the communication.By success experty getting your message across, you convey your thoughts and ideas in effect. When not successful, the thoughts and ideas that you actually send do not necessarily reflect what you think, causing a communications break knock down and creatin g roadblocks that stand in the way of your aims both personally and professionally.In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more(prenominal) than 50,000 employees, communication skills were cited as the single more all-important(a) decisive factor in choosing managing directors. The survey, conducted by the University of Pittsburghs Katz Business School, points out that communication skills, including written and oral presentations, as well as an ability to work with others, are the main factor contributing to job success.In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills, many individuals continue to struggle, inefficient to communicate their thoughts and ideas effectively whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly impossible for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career progression.Being able to communicate effectively is indeed essential if you necessity to build a successful care er. To do this, you must understand what your message is, what earshot you are sending it to, and how it will be perceived. You must alike weigh-in the circumstances surrounding your communications, such as situational and ethnical place setting.The communication theory ProcessTo be an effective communicator and to get your point across without misunderstanding and confusion, your goal should be to less(prenominal)en the frequency of problems at each stage of this process, with clear, concise, accurate, well-planned communications. We follow the process through belowSourceAs the source of the message, you need to be clear about why youre communication, and what you want to communicate. You excessively need to be confident that the information youre communicating is useful and accurate.MessageThe message is the information that you want to communicate.EncodingThis is the process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly d ecoded at the other end. Your success in encoding depends partly on your ability to convey information clearly and simply, but besides on your ability to anticipate and eliminate sources of confusion (for example, cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information.)A key part of this knows your audience Failure to understand who you are communicating with will result in delivering messages that are see.ChannelMessages are conveyed through take, with verbal channels including face to face meetings, telephone and videoconferencing and written channels including letters, emails, memos and reports.Different channels hire polar strengths and weaknesses. For example, its not particularly effective to give a long list of directions verbally, while youll quickly cause problems if you give someone prejudicial feedback using email.DecodingJust as successful encoding is a skill, so is successful decoding (involving, for example, taking the time to read a message carefully, o r harken actively to it.) Just as confusion can arise from errors in encoding, it can also arise from decoding errors. This is particularly the campaign if the decoder doesnt moderate enough knowledge to understand the message.ReceiverYour message is delivered to individual members of your audience. No doubt, you have in mind the actions or reactions you hope your message will get from this audience. Keep in mind, though, that each of these individuals enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly learn their understanding of your message, and their response. To be a successful communicator, you should select these before delivering your message, and act appropriately.FeedbackYour audience will provide you with feedback, as verbal and nonverbal reactions to your communicated message. Pay snug attention to this feedback, as it is the only thing that can give you confidence that your audience has understood your message. If you expose that there has been a misunderstanding, at least you have the opportunity to send the message a warrant time.ContextThe situation in which your message is delivered is the context. This may include the surrounding environment or broader polish (corporate culture, international cultures, and so on).Barriers of Communication1. Physical barriersPhysical barriers in the workplace includeMarked out territories, empires and fiefdoms into which strangers are not allowedClosed office doors, barrier screens, separate areas for people of diametric status freehanded working areas or working in one unit that is sensiblely separate from others.Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. As long as people still have a personal space that they can call their own, nearness to others aids communication because it seconds us get to know one another.2. Perceptual barriersThe problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world different ly. If we didnt, we would have no need to communicate something like extrasensory perception would take its place. The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and perceptions shape our own realitiesA traveller was walking down a road when he met a man from the coterminous town.Excuse me, he said. I am hoping to stay in the next town tonight. Can you tell me what the townspeople are like?Well, said the townsman, how did you break the people in the last town you visited?Oh, they were an irascible bunch. Kept to themselves. Took me for a fool. Over-charged me for what I got. Gave me very poor service.Well, then, said the townsman, youll find them pretty much the samehere.3. Emotional barriersOne of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the frantic barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to oth ers.Mind your Ps and Qs Dont speak until youre spoken to Children should be seen and not heard. As a result many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelings to others.They feel vulnerable. While some warn may be wise in certain relationships, excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships.4. Cultural barriersWhen we gather a group and wish to remain in it, sooner or later we need to blow up the behaviour patterns of the group. These are the behaviours that the group accept as signs of belonging.The group rewards such behaviour through acts of recognition, blessing and inclusion. In groups which are happy to accept you, and where you are happy to conform, there is a mutuality of vex and a high level of win-win contact.Where, however, there are barriers to your membership of a group, a high level of game-playing replaces effectual communication.5. Language b arriersLanguage that describes what we want to say in our harm may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions, buzz-words and jargon. When we couch our communication in such language, it is a way of excluding others. In a global market place the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to address in their language.One of the more chilling memories of the Cold War was the threat by the Soviet drawing card Nikita Khruschev saying to the Americans at the United Nations We will bury you This was taken to mean a threat of nuclear annihilation.However, a more accurate reading of Khruschevs words would have been We will overtake you meaning economic superiority. It was not just the language, but the fear and suspicion that the West had of the Soviet Union that led to the more alarmist and sinister interpretation.6. Gender barriersThere are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 2 5,000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. In childhood, girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, have a vocabulary twice that of boys.The reason for this lies in the wiring of a mans and womans brains. When a man talks, his speech is placed in the left wing side of the brain but in no specific area. When a woman talks, the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations.This means that a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalised way, features of left-brain thinking whereas a woman talks more freely premix logic and emotion, features of both sides of the brain. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day.Removing Barriers at All These StagesTo deliver your messages effectively, you must commit to breaking down the barriers that exist within each of these stages of the communication process.Lets begin with the message itself. If your message is too lengthy, dis pointd, or contains errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message.Barriers in context tend to stem from senders offering too much information too fast. When in doubt here, less is often generation more. It is best to be mindful of the demands on other peoples time, e supererogatoryly in todays ultra-busy society.Once you understand this, you need to work to understand your audiences culture, making sure you can converse and deliver your message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within your own organization, in your country and even abroad.Barrier refers to something non physical that keeps apart or prevents activity, movement so on. Types of BarriersPhysical mechanical barriersLanguage or Semantic barriersSocio-psychological barriersOrganisational barriersPersonal barriers1- Physical Mechanical Barriers entropyIt is the disruption or interference in communication process anywhere along the way. Noise though of varying degree, disturbs or interferes with communication. Whatever that distracts the receivers attention causes communication breakdown. Noise can be physical psychological. Physical distractions or disturbances such as loud speakers, gossip etc., draw the attention of the receiver. Psychological hitch is related to mental disturbances like ego clash, pre occupied thoughts, hang over, anxiety.DISTANCELong distances between the sender the receivers can also obstruct effective communicationTIMETime refers to the reaching of message. If an important message reaches late it is sure to discover communication.INFORMATION constipateIt refers to excessive transmission of information. Much more information than what the receiver can process is transmitted to him/her. The receiver cant understand , digest, analyze act upon information overload that is beyond mental capacity.MECHANICAL BARRIERSOutdated machines equipment may produce excessive stochasticity leading to physic al barriers in communication. Distraction like background noise, poor lighting., affect the morale of the employees also obstruct effective communication.2- SEMANTIC OR LANGUAGE BARRIERUNCLEAR MESSAGELack of lucidity in message makes it badly expressed. poorly chosen empty word , phrases, inadequate vocabulary, failure to straighten out implications etc., are some common faults found.FAULTY TRANSLATIONThe message that every autobus receives from his superiors, peers, subordinates must be translated into language suitable for the respective person( for whom the information is destined).SPECIALISTS LANGUAGEIt is often found that technical personnel special groups tend to develop a special, peculiar technical language of their own. It hinders their communication with persons not in their specialty, because of the receivers ignorance of that sheath of language.3- SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERSDIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTIONPerceptual barriers may arise due to differences between individ uals in the way they perceive, organize understand their environment.DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDEPeople differ with regard to attitudes opinions which often interfere with communication. If the message is self-consistent with our attitudes opinions we receive it favorably.INATTENTIONCommunication has no impact on those who are unable or opposed to listen. If people do not pay the required degree of attention to audience understanding the messages they are supposed to receive.PREMATURE EVALUATIONSome people form a judgment before receiving the remove message. Such premature evaluation prevents effective communication. RESISTANCE TO CHANGEwhen new ideas are being communicated, the listening apparatus may act as a filter in rejecting new ideas. Thus enemy to change is an important obstacle to effective communication.CULTURAL DIFFERENCECultural refers to values, beliefs, norms, attitudes perceptions of people of different nations or regions. Symbols, words, colors, gestures, langua ge must be carefully selected when senders of information are dealing with people of different nations regions.4- ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS condition RELATIONSHIPONE WAY FLOWORGANISATION STRUCTURERULES REGULATIONS5- PERSONAL BARRIERSATTITUDE OF SUPERIOR- the attitude of superiors towards communication affects the flow of messages in different directions.LACK OF CONFIDENCE IN SUBORDINATESLACK OF TIMEMESSAGE OVERLOADBarriers to effective Communication (leaky bucket)At each stage in the process encoding, transference, and decoding there is the possibility of interference which may hinder the communication process. This interference is known as noise. Often a par is made between communication and a leaky bucket. If you use a leaky bucket to carry water, water will be lost at various points in your voyage from the water criticise to your name and address. It is not possible to stop losing water because the bucket contains holes. The descend of water you will lose will be determined by the number of holes in the bucket, the size of the holes, the route you take to your final destination and length of time it takes you to get to your destination. There may also be other events that occur during your journey which increase the amount of water lost. Similarly when information is transferred from the transmitter to the receiver not all of the information may be received by the receiver because of holes called noise. Each of the noise may be affect the amount of information transferred. Just as in a leaky bucket, more holes decrease the amount of water, more noise decreases the amount of correct information received.Language issues and Cultural DifferencesThe receiver(s) may not (fully) understand the language used by the transmitter. This may occur if the transmitters language is foreign to the receiver. There may also be language problems (that the communication process) if the message contains technical information and the receivers is not familiar with the tech nical terms used. Cultural differences created by an individuals background and experience affect their perception of the world. Such cultural differences may affect the interpretation (decoding) of the message sent.Environmental issuesIf the environment that the transmitter or receiver are in, is noisy and full of sound, the sounds may prevent the message being fully understood. Background noise is often created by colleagues or machinery.Channel issuesIf the channel used to transfer the information is poor it may prevent all or some of the information being transferred. Examples include a faulty fax machine, a crackling phone, hired hand that cannot be read or in the case of oral messages incorrect facial gestures.Receivers Attitude and behaviorIf the receiver(s) is not interested in the message (or unable to give their full attention to decoding) this may deoxidise the amount of information received or the trueness of the information transmitted to them. Similarly the receiver (s) may misinterpret the message by jumping to conclusions or reading the message in a manner that suits their own interests/objectives and distort the true meaning of the message.Transmission journeyi.e. steps in the message, If the message is complicated or there are lots of steps taken to transfer the message it may affect the accuracy or interpretation. Comparing with the leaky bucket if the leaky bucket has to carry water over a longer distance more water will probably lost than if the journey was shorter. congenital / Organisational CommunicationThis is communication that takes place within (or across) an organisation. In addition to the usual face to face, telephone, fax or mail modern organisations may use technology to communicate internally. Technology may be used for e-mails or a united internal communication system such as the intranet which is an internet system intentional solely for use by those working for the organisation.External CommunicationsConversely external communication is communication between the organisation and those outside the organisation. Modern organisations may design technological systems so that they can communicate with customers and undertake e-Commerce. Alternatively they communicate with other businesses through the internet or similar systems and undertake e-Business.Functions of Internal and External CommunicationsTechnology has rapidly expanded the types of internal and external communication available to organisations. The diagram illustrates the vast array of internal and external communication available.Combined unneurotic internal and external types of communications allow various sectors of the local, national and international community to interact, liaise and conduct business.Formal and Informal CommunicationsFormal communication is defined as communication which occurs through the official organisational channels or is undertaken by an employee to do their job. For example official meetings, letters and a conductor asking an employee to carry out a particular task. Conversely light communication is that which occurs outside the recognised communication networks such as lecture in the lunchroom or hallways between employees. Informal communication can be productive or negative. It has the potential drop to build teams, improve working relationships and generate ideas as employees are in a relaxed environment.Upward and downwardlyly CommunicationsDownward communication is communication created by directors and managers and passed down the pecking order of workers in the organisation. In traditionalistic organisations this is the preferred method of communication ie Managers decide what the systems, rules and procedures will be and then they pass these down to employees they manage and supervise. Downward Communication can increase efficiency by synchronising organisational procedures and can match that everybody is working towards the same overall aims and objectives. Types of downward communication include job descriptions, appraisals/evaluations, organisational policy, and organisational systems.Although there are advantages to downward communication organisations have began to encourage upward communication. This is communication which originates at the lower level of the employment hierarchy and is then communicated up through the line. Organisations encouraging upward communication believe that everybody is capable of generating thoughts and ideas which may help the organisation to progress, particularly when they are working closely in the area that the idea applies to. Upward communication may increase motivation and make employees feel valued and respected whilst enabling managers to understand how employees are feeling. Furthermore if problems occur at they are more likely to be identified earlier by those working closely in the area that they occur. Types of upward communications include suggestion schemes, feedback forums/surveys, grievance pro cedures and employee-manager discussions. asquint CommunicationThis is communication that occurs between employees on the same level in the organisation. As this can involve decision making it can create efficiency as employees do not have to await for managerial approval. On the other hand if the manager is not kept informed or if the manager fails to set boundaries there is potential for conflict.Diagonal CommunicationThis occurs when communication occurs between workers in a different section of the organisation and where one of the workers involved is on a higher level in the organisation. For example in a bank diagonal communication will occur when a department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank found on the high street.TELECOMMUNICATIONS GLOSSARYTermDefinitionTelecommunicationCommunication between parties based in different locations by using a cable, telephone, broadcast or a telegraph.NetworkingLinking to or more computers together so t hat information and facilities can be shared. Computers in the same room may be linked together or the organisation may decide to link, computers in different parts of the world together. local anaesthetic Area Network (LAN)Computers linked by a network without the use of telecommunications. Often the computers linked are based in the same location, group of buildings or site.Wide Area Network (WAN)Computers linked by a network using telecommunications. Often the computers linked are based in different locations.teleconferencingThrough the use of telecommunication devices such as video link participants based in different locations communicating is known as teleconferencing.Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)Computer networks used to exchange precedent business transaction documents between organisations.QUESTION 3How might a manager use the line to his or her advantage?First of all the definition of pipeline is that it is the unofficial way that communication takes place within the organization. It is neither supported nor authorized by the organization. It can also be called gossip. As we know many gossips have no factual bases at all most of them however do. A manager can use grapevine to his or her advantage if it is an organization where people are used to get their information from these sources.And of course it would be a lie to say that most of us dont gossip, or listen to them at least occasionally, especially if it involves us. Bad information spreads a lot faster than good news, so the information gets to employees real fast. It can happen by a word of mouth, or recently more frequently by electronic means. If an organization is based on honesty, these grapevine information can be a lot more accurate than in an organization that is based on an authoritative culture. unremarkably there is always some truth to it however. Rumours about major lay-offs, plant closings, and the like may be filled with accurate information regarding who will be affec ted and when it may occur. This truth component is what a manager can use to his or her benefit. Most employees know that if there is any kind of grapevine information circling in the company, whatever its about can be true. If a manager for example wants to influence employees to work harder, or put more effort into it, he or she can simply bestir oneself a new gossip, or encourage an existing one about lay-offs that might involve their department. Im not saying this is a nice way to do this, but if zilch else works, why not. This is however not the sign of the good manager, because he or she should be able to use other methods of motivation. A good leader needs to be able to exert high level of effort from his or her employees by motivating them in different ways.Another way of looking grapevine information is its usefulness in supplementing formal information channels. It provides a way for employees to communicate their imaginations and inputs to a certain issue. If management is not very doing a good job with communicating with employees about what is going on in an organization, then grapevine can satisfy these natural needs for information. Grapevine is a healthy human desire to communicate. It is the informal communication channel within the organization. Managers have to acknowledge this fact, and try to use it to their own advantage. Managers interested in creating good communication within the organization will use grapevine as a mean to improve it. The real value of grapevine should be to management is that it reveals issues that generate from those whom interested in or effected by it. Managers can also participate in grapevine. They can be filters, who monitor the information and forward to upper management only the valuable and important components.Grapevine usually pops up during times of uncertain times therefore management has to make sure that it is providing enough information about important issues. The longer the rumour goes around, th e hardest it is to control, so management had to intervene quickly if it wants to avoid its damaging effects. The fact is that grapevine is exists within organizations, and they always have a truth component to them. Management therefore can use them to their own benefits, as a compliment to the official and formal channels of information.How to use the Grapevine effectively in business organizations?Grapevine is an informal channel of business communication. It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. The management can use grapevine to supplement the formal channels of communication. Though it carries some degree of error and distortion, efforts can be made to correct it. Ignoring the grapevine is nothing but to ignore a valuable source of communication. The management can eliminate its negative consequences and, at the same time, it can nourish its positive benefits. The managers have to learn to manage and control it.1. The management can open up all the channels of organizational communication to present the facts positively before the employees and ther