Friday, May 31, 2019

Political Philosophy Essay examples -- Politics Essays

Political PhilosophyPart One (Question 2)Aristotle, Locke, and Hobbes all place a nifty deal of importance on the state of nature and how it relates to the origin of policy-making bodies. Each one, however, has a different conception of what a natural state is, and ultimately, this leads to a different conception of what a government should be, based on this natural state. Aristotles feelings on the natural state of man is much different than that of fresh philosophers and leads to a construction of government in and of itself government for Hobbes and Locke is a departure from the natural state of man.Aristotles emphasis is on the urban center-state, or the political beingness as a natural occurrence. He says every city-state exists by nature, since the first communities do. (Aristotle 3). Aristotle continually reiterates the notion that the being of a community comes from necessity individuals aim at the highest good of all, happiness, through their own rationality, and the o nly way to achieve happiness is through the creation of the city-state. Aristotle follows the creation of a household and a village to the creation of the city-state in which citizens are able to come together to aim at the good which has the most authority of all, (Aristotle 1) happiness. In turn, this necessity for the formation of a city state comes from the idea of man as a rational being. It is also clear why a human being is more of a political animal than a bee or any other gregarious animal no animal has speech except for a human being. (Aristotle 4). For Aristotle, human beings are political animals because of their ability to speak, their ability to communicate pleasures and desires, and their ability to reason. Aristotles state com... ...ased on their heritage as nobles or the virtues of their fathers. Burke states that there is no mental reservation for government but virtue and wisdom, (Burke 561).The most compelling argument for Burke against Locke is his idea that government is not made in virtue of natural rights, which may and do exist in total independence of it but their abstract perfection is their practical defect. (Burke 564). Burke looks at the rights laid out by Locke and Rousseau and scoffs at them, stating that they have no merit in the real world, attractive as they are in principle. He believes that the pretended rights of these theorists are all extremes, and are then morally and politically false. Burke believes that the rights of men are in a sort of middle, (Burke 565), and their incapability of definition completely contradicts the extreme rights as defined by Locke.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Under Age Drinking : The Problems It Creates :: Teenage Drinking

Under Age Drinking The Problems It CreatesIts a Saturday night, and the bars ar packed. People be insidehaving a few, or more than a few, drinks. A select few are really drunk orpassed out. Now lets step removed and take a look at a different type ofdrinking, drinking at an early age. High school and junior high kids are at aparty drinking. Like the adults, some are just having a few, but quite a feware having more than that and are stumbling around.These kids have been given the idea that drinking is something thatadults do, and we all know that kids cant wait to be grown up. Thus, theydrink, figuring that if they can at least do what adults do then they will begrown up, in a way. This is how our society works.Enough with the philosophy of it. Now I would like to talk about thepersonal effects that early age drinking can have on a person. I grew up in a town thathas the most bars per capata in the state of Montana and is in the top ten inthe United States. This has a huge effe ct on under age drinkers. The bars measureat the door and as long as your 18 your in. And since the bouncers will stampnearly anyone they know or like the number of kids is always high. It dosnt aid that Dillon is a college town and ther are many under age college kidsthere. Now lets imagine another party where kids are drinking.The bonfire is roaring, Bubba just decided that singeing everyoneseyebrows clear up by throwing some gasoline on the fire would be fun. Of coursenobody thought that this was very funny except for Bubba. Bubba is not the only teen person at this party who has had a few to many. There are a lot ofunder age kids who are just plain drunk. This is a regular kind of party in myhometown, everyone goes out and drinks to get drunk. The sad thing is, thatthese kind of parties happen a lot of time twice a week expecially during thespring. All this partying catches up with these young peolpe. They dont getjobs because they are too tired from partying all night or all weekend long.Thier grades start slipping. The finish up effect, however has to be the addictionto alcohol. Ive seen freshman who drink all the time because they feel theycant live without their alcohol. Of course you have to realize that this is a

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Investigating the Relationship Between Women and Crime :: Papers

A consistent feature of the statistics, not only in England and Wales but across Europe and America, is that far less women are convicted of crime than men a fact which has changed little over the years. Female offenders also show a different pattern of offending organism less involved in violent offences and proportionately more involved in theft. In general most now accept that girls and women do trust fewer offences than boys. GENDER AND PATTERNS OF CRIME Writing in 1977 Carol Smart stated Our knowledge is still in its infancy. In comparison with the massive software documentation on all aspects of male delinquency and criminality, the amount of work carried out on the area of women and crime is extremely limited. Although the years since Smarts take have seen much more interest in the study of female crime and deviance, many general theories in this area continue to neglect sex as a factor influencing criminality. This is despite the fact that official figures suggest that gender is perhaps the most significant single factor in whether an individualistic is convicted of crime. Any theories which fail to explain this relationship could therefore be seen as inadequate. OFFICIAL STATISTICS, CRIMINALITY AND GENDER Pollak the masked female offender chivalry dissertation Writing in 1950, Otto pollak argued that official statistics on gender and crime were highly misleading. He claimed that the statistics seriously under-estimated the extent of female criminality. From an examination of official figures in a number of different countries he claimed to have identified certain crimes that are usually committed by women but are particularly likely to be unreported. Pollak went on to give reasons as to why there should be an under-recording of female crime. 1. He argues that the police, magistrates and other law enforcement officials tend to be men. Brought up to be chivalrous, they are usual ly lenient with female offenders so that fewer women appear in the statistics. However, he regards this as only a minor factor

Entrepreuer :: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework

EntrepreuerEntrepreneur, one who assumes the responsibility and the risk for a business operation with the expectation of making a profit, the entrepreneur generally decides on the product, acquires the facilities, and brings in concert the labor force, capital, and production materials. If the business succeeds, the entrepreneur reaps the reward of profits if it fails, he or she takes the loss. Entrepreneurial leadership is vital to an individual and to a corporation?s success. Entrepreneurial firms are a major source of innovation and change. They create jobs, new tax revenues, and other transfers of money. At a time when U.S. productivity draw-home is lagging behind other countries, and when our large corporations are laying off workers and focusing on core businesses, entrepreneurial firms assume a more material role They do what large companies are not doing The process itself consists of the set of activities necessary to identify an opportunity, develop a business concepti on, and then manage and harvest the venture. As a process, it has applicability to organizations of all sizes and types. The entrepreneurship construct has three underlying dimensions innovativeness, or the development of novel or unique products, services or processes risk-taking, or willingness to pursue opportunities having a reasonable chance of costly failure and proactive ness, or an emphasis on persistence and creativity in overcoming obstacles until the innovative concept is fully implemented.In 1953 the US government created an independent agency called the Small Business Administration. Its functions are to make loans to small businesses unable to obtain financing from confidential sources on reasonable terms, to help small firms sell

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The Observation of Savage Peoples (1800) :: Essays Papers

The Observation of Savage Peoples (1800)SynopsisJoseph-Marie Degerando was a revolutionary, French philosopher who transcribed one of the original guidelines for the study of anthropology in the year 1800 titled, I Societe des Observateurs de lHomme in French, and translated into English as, The Observations of Savage Peoples. According to the author of the introduction and translator of his work into English, F. C. T. Moore, Degerandos guidelines were a capital work of anthropology (Moore, U of CA Press. p. 2). Whether Degerando provided the most accurate guidelines for the study of humans is argued however, his work was certainly prestigious as it served as a foundation for the science of anthropology. In fact, Moore declares in that respect are consistent similarities between the anthropological recommendations of Degerando and those practiced by modern day anthropologists (Moore, U of CA Press. p. 4-5).Although Degerandos work is considered one of the earliest influential w orks serving as a foundation for the field of anthropology, the work was not advantageful at the time of its publication. Many reasons for its failure are speculated deep down reviews of the text which offer both criticism and approval. Moore provides an extensive overview of the history of the text in his introduction to The Observations of Savage Peoples, as well as an assessment of its success and failures at the time of its publication. Also, the article, Disappearing Savages? Thoughts on the Construction of an Anthropological Conundrum by John W Burton, also offers some criticism of Degerandos text.The inspirations of Degerando to save such guidelines in the year 1800 are numerous. At the time of its publication, Degerando was part of a new found caller in France in 1799, the Societe des Observateurs de lHomme. This society was formed in coincidence with increased interest in primitive peoples. We find in Moores text, False Beginnings early nineteenth snow episodes in the human sciences, an exert describing the intentions and purpose of the society from the journal, Magasin Enyclopdique, In taking the name Socit des observateurs de lhomme, and the ancient motto Gnothi seauton, Know thyself, the society has devoted itself to the science of man, in his physical, moral and intellectual existence it has called to its observations the true friends of philosophy and moral reality, the deep metaphysician, the practical doctor, the historian, the traveller, the student of the nature of language, the educationalist. In this way, man, followed and compared in the different scenes of life, will become the subject of research the more useful as it is free from passion, prejudice and excessive systematization.

The Observation of Savage Peoples (1800) :: Essays Papers

The Observation of Savage Peoples (1800)SynopsisJoseph-Marie Degerando was a revolutionary, French philosopher who transcribed one of the original guidelines for the study of anthropology in the year 1800 titled, I Societe stilbesterol Observateurs de lHomme in French, and translated into English as, The Observations of Savage Peoples. According to the author of the introduction and translator of his work into English, F. C. T. Moore, Degerandos guidelines were a capital work of anthropology (Moore, U of CA Press. p. 2). Whether Degerando provided the most accurate guidelines for the study of humans is argued however, his work was certainly influential as it served as a foundation for the science of anthropology. In fact, Moore decl atomic number 18s there are consistent similarities between the anthropological recommendations of Degerando and those practiced by modern day anthropologists (Moore, U of CA Press. p. 4-5).Although Degerandos work is considered one of the earliest i nfluential kit and boodle serving as a foundation for the field of anthropology, the work was not successful at the time of its publication. Many reasons for its failure are speculated within reviews of the text edition which offer both criticism and approval. Moore provides an extensive overview of the history of the text in his introduction to The Observations of Savage Peoples, as well as an assessment of its success and failures at the time of its publication. Also, the article, Disappearing Savages? Thoughts on the Construction of an Anthropological Conundrum by John W Burton, also offers some criticism of Degerandos text.The inspirations of Degerando to write much(prenominal) guidelines in the year 1800 are numerous. At the time of its publication, Degerando was part of a new found hostelry in France in 1799, the Societe des Observateurs de lHomme. This society was formed in coincidence with increased interest in primitive peoples. We find in Moores text, False Beginnings early nineteenth century episodes in the human sciences, an exert describing the intentions and purpose of the society from the journal, Magasin Enyclopdique, In taking the name Socit des observateurs de lhomme, and the ancient motto Gnothi seauton, Know thyself, the society has utilise itself to the science of man, in his physical, moral and intellectual existence it has called to its observations the true friends of philosophy and moral reality, the deep metaphysician, the practical doctor, the historian, the traveller, the student of the nature of language, the educationalist. In this way, man, followed and compared in the contrary scenes of life, will become the subject of research the more useful as it is free from passion, prejudice and excessive systematization.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Baker College Corporate Services Essay

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was one of Americas greatest leadership. His accomplishments are discussed in this paper in a biographical manner, as well as other reasons opinions ab start them, including my humble selfs. This paper gives an example of a step for ward front looking, charismatic attractor. The whole population of this great country is benefitting from his accomplishments, and will continue to do so for generations, with precisely slight ad mediocrements for technology and culture.Franklin Delano Roosevelt An Example to Remember When soulfulness asks to pick a favorite leader, a number of the great ones pop into mind, like Christopher Columbus, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Douglas McArthur, Franklin Delano Roosevelt among others. It is a tough choice. They were all great. Franklin Delano Roosevelt had so m either great accomplishments during his bearing time the only way to list and discuss them would be in the biographical manner the Author chose.The reason the motive chose to write astir(predicate) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the analogy of todays economy that he faced at the time of his jump term in the exponent as well as our incumbent president elects choice to character nigh of his strategies to correct the present give in of our economy. Faced with World War II, Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR), guided America through with(predicate) one of its greatest national crisis, His presidency, which spanned twelve yrs, was unparalleled, non only in length but in scope.FDR took office with the country mired in a horrible and debilitating economic depression which non only sapped its material wealth and spiritual strength, but cast a cloud over its future, not unlike what we are facing today. Roosevelts combination of confidence, optimism, and governmental savvy, all of which came together in the experimental economic and social programs of the New Deal jocked select about the beginnings of a national recovery (Baliles, 2005, p. 1). FDR also committed the United States to the defeat of Germany, Japan, and Italy, and led the nation and its allies to the brink of victory.This triumph dramatically neutered Americas relationship with the world, putting the United States into a position of international power, as well as political and moral leadership. By lawfulness of its newfound political and economic power, the United States would play a leading role in shaping the remainder of the twentieth century. Inside the United States Franklin Roosevelt turned on(p) a domestic political revolution on several(prenominal) fronts. FDR and the pop Party built a power base which carried the party to electoral and ideological, authorization until the late 1960s (Baliles, 2005, p.1) . FDRs policies, especially those comprising the New Deal, helped redefine and strengthen both the country as well as the Ameri hind end presidency, brandishing its political, administrative, and constitutional powers of the offi ce (Baliles, 2005). FDR was born in Hyde Park, New York, in 1882, to James and Sara Roosevelt. His parents were well off, if not wealthy by New York High society standards. While gro drawg up, they were commensurate to provide a succession of nannies, and at age 14 send him to a prestigious boarding school in Massachusetts.He went on to Harvard College, where he spent roughly of his time at the college paper, where he declared himself a Democrat. While at Harvard, he grew close to his cousin Theodor Roosevelt, who was moving up the political ladder in the elective Party, and began courting his distant cousin, Elanor Roosevelt. Although FDR started attending law school at Columbia at this time, he had little interest and dropped out after one year. Elanor and FDR were married in New York City in 1905. He had six children Anna Elanor, born 1906 James, born 1907 Franklin Jr., born 1909 and died the same year in November Elliott, born 1910 Franklin Jr. , born 1914 and John Aspinwall, born 1916 (Coker, 2005). In 1910 FDR ran and got elected to the New York Senate and was re-elected in 1912. unrivaled year later he began his term of office as assistant secretary of the Navy beneath the Wilson administration at the age of 31, share to prepare the country for entry into the world war. He travel his family to Washington for this reason. WWI lasted from April1917 until November 1918. On more than one occasion, he was subject to ribbing by those around him as being a little boy.Nevertheless, in characteristic Roosevelt fashion, he was undaunted by his lack of experience and plunged into the job with enthusiasm and confidence (Coker, 2005, pg. 28). As a matter of fact, he did much(prenominal) a great job, that in 1920 the Democratic Party named him the vice-presidential candidate on James Coxs ticket. They lost the election in November of that year. Roosevelts al about fundamental responsibility in the Navy Department had to do with labor negotiations with defe nse contractors. His primary goal in this area was to encourage positive relations between workers, industry leaders, and the military.In this capacity he gained appreciation for labor issues and learned how to handle sometimes rocky labor disputes (Coker, 2005). FDR proved to nurse the portentous ability to juggle various administrative and political responsibilities. Part of the reason he was equal to do so many things simultaneously was that he insisted on bringing the indispensable Louis Howe to Washington with him to serve as his personal secretary. Howe seemed to be anywhere at once, assisting Roosevelt in all matters-scheduling ap implyments, helping with clerical work, and even helping Roosevelt keep an eye on, and a hand in, New York politics. (Coker, 2005, pg. 31) In1921 FDR contracted polio, an incurable disease that left his legs paralyzed. By investing a considerable part of his opportunity in renovating a spa in Warm Springs, Georgia, whose curative waters, togeth er with strenuous physical therapy and the support of his wife, children and close confidantes, was he able to regain some use of his legs. By 1928 with the relentless help of his wife, Howe and a new personal secretary, Marguerite (Missy) LeHand, FDR was apparently sufficiently recovered to resume his political ambitions to run and go on the governorship of New York.The very next year FDR had to cope with the stock market crash in October. The stock market was pretty volatile in the 1920s. With no regulation, Americans and investors bought stock on credit. By the second half of 1929 the economy dumbed because of rising unemployment and high interest rates. When everybody started selling stock and found no buyers, the market nosedived. October twenty-fourth (Black Thursday) and October 29th ( Black Tuesday) were two days that marked the beginning of the depression, although not the only cause.At the same time, farmers were taking advantage of new technologies, which caused overpro duction. The parentage market crash, along with overseas competition, and urban areas lacking the income to buy agricultural products, caused those prices to crash also. Because of the prosperity in the 1920 over 80% of Americans held no savings at all and the rich stopped buying. Because of all these factors, 5000 banks collapsed, one in four farms went into foreclosure and 100,000 jobs vanished each week. By 1932 one quarter of this countrys people in were sluggish (Baliles, 2005).FDR implemented a number of innovative relief and recovery initiatives unemployment insurance, pensions for the elderly, limits on work hours, and massive public works projects. These programs labeled him as a liberal reformer and won him reelection as governor in 1930. It is important to note that FDR as Governor surrounded himself with best minds that worked with him in the State Senate, as well as some members of Al Smiths former gubernatorial administration, to solve his States problems.At the same time he had Louise Howe, as his chief campaign strategist and the head of the terra firma Democratic Party, James Farley laying the ground work for a presidential campaign (Coker, 2005). In the grip of the great depression, the Democrats turned to FDR in the election season of 1932 to run for President. He was a popular and successful governor for two terms, with a recognizable last name, that could challenge President Hoover. He won the presidency in a landslide, promising the American People a New Deal.Voters extended FDR approval to both houses of congress, giving the democrats consuming studyity, which would prove vital in FDRs first year in office. In his inaugural address, FDR promised the distraught Americans hope by enounceing them that they had nothing to venerate but fear itself (Baliles, 2005). True to his character, FDR surrounded himself with a group of advisers nicknamed the brain trust. This brain trust included former progressives, liberal-minded professors and bright young lawyers.One of the traits FDR is consistent on is the ability to recognize when expert help is needed, and then surrounding himself with it (Dubrin, 2004). An array of emergency measures proposed by FDR, and passed by relative reflected three introductory goals industrial recovery through business-government cooperation and pump-priming federal spending agricultural recovery through crop reduction and short-term emergency relief distributed through state and local agencies when possible, but directly by the federal government if necessary. ( Boyer, P. et. al. (2008).pg. 734) Between March and June 1933, a period labeled snow Days, Congress enacted more than a dozen key measures ( Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). pg. 736). These measures were all directed to solve every aspect of the depression, including regulating the stock market. Because so many people had been unemployed for some time, the help did not come fast enough. By 1934 the unity spirit of the hundred days wa s fading, industry was chafing under increasing National Recovery Administration (NRA) regulations. even so Nature seemed to work against recovery efforts.Between 1930 and 1939 the drought in the Oklahoma panhandle region turned much of the Great Plains in the Midwest into a dust bowl. Depression persisted, despite all efforts. FDR put great store in addressing to the people, and he used radio to talk to them. He would talk regularly and informally on shows called fireside chats about results and conceptions to help the nation and alleviate peoples fears (Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). At this point in his research the author remembered the first four chapters of required reading for the class.It is without exaggeration, when saying, that it is hard to ace out any one part of these chapters to describe FDR. They simply seem written about him. From the definition of leadership to the nine leadership roles in chapter one, the personality traits, motives and cognitive factors of effect ive leadership in chapter two, to initiating structure and consideration and attitude and behaviors of a leader in chapter four. FDR had it all. If it has been noticed the Author left out chapter three, because this chapter dealt with Charisma and transformational leadership.It would not be fair to pick any part of this chapter in the authors opinion FDR was the chassis of this chapter (Dubrin, 2004). While he was loved by the people, the new deal was criticized from all directions. Some saying that the New Deal was exit to far, others saying it was not going far enough. FDR seemed to relish the attacks of his critics, saying that the New Deal protected the average American, not the rich. In 1935 FDR fought back the criticism with a series of legislation that eclipsed the first hundred days termed the Second New Deal.He also lost support from the business community because of his support for the Wagner Act and Social Security. both(prenominal) were the more memorable of FDRs acco mplishments, the former allowed labor unions to organize and bargain collectively, the latter set up programs designed to provide for the needs of the aged, the poor, and the unemployed, but excluding farmers, domestic workers, and the self employed (Baliles, 2005). Because of his popularity with the American people, FDR acquires the election of 1936 against republican Alf Landon by a major volume.What this proved, was that the Democratic Party was the major party in the states. At his source he promised the people to continue to fight for the nations underprivileged. FDR put together a group of voters from different regions of the country. This diverse group became the core of the Democratic Party. It came to be called the New Deal Coalition or Roosevelt coalition and included members from different labor, racial, religious and ethnic groups, along with academics and intellectuals (Coker, 2005).FDR is first to realize he can not do it all himself, and has the presents and humili ty to put together a group that can give him, information, ideas and feedback from every segment of the population he is laborious to help (Dubrin, 2004). FDRs second term in office started with doing something about the resistance he has been encountering to his New Deal. The Supreme Court was on top of his lists of concern. They had tump over some agricultural and industrial New Deal reforms earlier and Roosevelt was concerned for future programs. He found it unbelievable that this body could overrule not only the presidency, but the Congress as well.He blamed it on the lack of vision of several older judges and was determined to do something about it. If they refused to crawfish out or to die, he would find a more systematic way to protect his policies from them. He consulted legal experts and advisers within the organization and came up with the idea to expand the number of judges on the Supreme Court. In 1937 FDR proposed legislation stating that because the age of some of t he judges, and in the interest of efficiency, adding an additional new and younger undecomposedice for every one of the sitting ones over the age of 75.Most of his opposition called FDR a dictator, but having such a majority in both houses of congress, the bill would realise plausibly passed. Perhaps that was the reason later that year, that the Supreme Court upheld some state and federal legislation. By the time the bill reached the Senate, all the steam went out of the argument and did not pass. The possibility of the event coming to pass however, had such an impact on the Supreme Court that they have not invalidated any legislation concerning regulating business or expanding social rights for the remainder of the century.Having won his point with the court, he was finding the whole federal bureaucracy moving to muted for his tastes, started to bypass established procedures, creating emergency agencies to carry out policies. In 1937 Roosevelt had a plan for reorganizing his ca binet. It called him to receive 6 full time executive assistants, for a single administrator to head the Civil Service Commission, for him and his staff to assume all responsibility in budget planning, and for every executive agency to be under the control of a cabinet department.Although he did get some of these things passed by Congress in 1939, his opposition was able to paint him as imperious and power-hungry (Baliles, 2005). The Author can empathize with FDR on the point of the Judges, mainly because of a similar difficulty in his work environment, involving very high sonority workers that could retire and start room for younger people to work in this difficult economy. He would have told him that he is also of the opinion that any political appointment should not be for life.Frustrated by red tape of bureaucracy FDR shows a segment of entrepreneurial leadership (Dubrin, 2004). To top all this controversy, FDR also tried to give-up the ghost some of the conservatives within h is own party by supporting their more liberal opponents in the 1938 primary. This attempt was later labeled The great Purge and failed. Of the 10 Democrats targeted, only one lost. All these were reasons the party suffered significant setbacks, as the Republicans reclaimed 81 seats in the House of Representatives and 8 in the Senate in the 1938 midterm examination elections.In the midst of these setbacks, international events were becoming more important and harder to ignore. During the internal struggle of the depression the administration had adopted a position of isolation and neutrality toward the rest of the world claiming the United States was dragged into WWI by trade entanglements with European factions. The Japanese invaded the Chinese Mainland in 1937 and the fact this happened with very little resistance, FDR considered responding, concerned Japan susceptibility be encouraged to continue to press forward flagellumening crucial United States locations in the Philippines .Although FDR wanted to respond to the threat, he relented to his opposition. He sufficed to publicly obscure Japan, mainly to express U. S. opposition to the invasion. He did ask and receive funding for increase naval development in the pacific under the guise of creating more jobs (Baliles, 2005). FDR shows his democratic leadership side as he cedes to the wishes of the population and the political majority and refrains from taking any direct and hostile action toward Japan.He probably realizes that the internal problems need the most focus as Japan has not physically attacked the U. S. Although, like the entrepreneurial and situational leader that he is, he sees an opportunity to use the goals of economic recovery and job creation to build up the countrys defenses. The Author would most likely have suggested using this creative plan to enforce the dark blue in the Atlantic as well (Dubrin, 2004). In Europe, Germany lead by Hitler was also invading neighboring countries under th e guise of reuniting Germanic people under one nation.As long as his actions suited his declaration, France and England were content to stay out of the action. Russia under Stalin, seeing the lack of opposition, do a nonaggression pact with Hitler, and started seizing territory in Eastern Europe, while Hitler invaded Poland. These actions in 1939 shocked the world, with France and England declaring the start of World War II (Coker, 2005). Throughout this aggression in Europe, FDR was hamstrung because of the neutrality acts congress passed between 1935 and 1939.Being as staunch supporter of England and France, he did manage to relax them in 1939, accomplishing two goals, boosting our economy with our allies able to buy arms and munitions from us, as well as supporting them. In a speech to Congress he voiced his opposition to the neutrality laws and his grief of signing them. Explaining that none of our ships would enter hostile waters, the allies buying from us would transport the munitions. He also refrained from using military language, afraid of loosing hard won political support, needed in the upcoming election.At this time decisions war vying for supremacy in FDR between the future of the nation and his political career (Baliles, 2005). It is estimable and probably due to his inner circle of family and friend, that FDR has the presents of mind to divide his concentration between the troubles in Europe, trouble in the country and making sure he wins the election. FDR seems to see himself as a servant leader (Dubrin, 2004). Although expressing concern once that the Democratic Party was becoming to dependent on him, he was confidante he would win the nomination and be a favorite in the election.After a period of indecision, that left the party hanging, FDR announced his full support for the ticket. He did win the nomination and promptly announced his intention to replace the vice president, conservative John Nance Garner with Henry Wallace, a progressive who had been a major player in the administration. This caused a major disagreement within the party as nobody wanted a change. FDR got his way by a finalise margin, simply because he threatened to drop out of the race and resign from the white house immediately (Baliles, 2005).FDR seems to let his position go to his head jolly as his actions describe a section of chapter 4 entitled the dark side of charismatic leadership. It describes that the end justifies the means (Dubrin, 2004). The race was the most challenging so far for FDR. The republicans, taking advantage of the strife in the Republican Party, tried labeling FDR as unstable and warmonger. In return FDR was warning the public of the threat the republicans would part the New Deal and destroy the progress it had do.FDR would win the presidency for a third term with a narrower margin than the last two. Without the concern of the an election FDR proposed a bill to congress, which he promoted through a Fireside chat as well as a speech in congress, stressing that while the country was a peaceful one, with no intention of entering the war, the country had a good neighbor responsibility to help defeat Hitler through the production of goods and weaponry and a Lend-Lease program, under which the Allies could borrow military hardware to return after use.A bill was passed in congress in early1941 that greatly increased our help to Great Britain. As Hitler was fighting by now against England and Russia, having broken the nonaggression pack, FDR was able to increase the U. S. naval presence in the Atlantic on the threat that Hitler was out of control without breaking the neutrality act. This action caused our ships to come under fire, resulting in the sinking of several. In September of 1941, while mourning the death of his mother, FDR gave our navy orders to fire at will. Emboldened by its alliance with Germany, Japan attacked the U. Pearl Harbor hoping to invade and secure the natural resources, denied them after their alliance with Germany, which they were merchandise from the U. S. before. On December 8, 1941, FDR de croakred his famous A ate which will live in infamy speech, to congress asking for a declaration of war and get it that same afternoon (Coker, 2005). Despite Roosevelts lifelong interest in diplomacy, he never held illusions that he would formulate strategy in case of war. He did, however, conceive to stay in close contact with his officers and surround himself with an able advisory team (Coker, 2005, Pg.134). He also took similar steps to reorient the country for war production, creating the War Production Board to oversee mobilization soon joined by an Office of War Mobilization. FDRs New Deal experience helped him seduce a cooperative venture between government and private industry to meet defense needs (Coker, 2005). During mobilization FDR brought about significant changes for the betterment of unemployed and minorities. Farmers streamed into cities, findi ng jobs, women were urged to work at jobs previously occupied by men and everybody was urged to join a union.Unions saw the peek of membership during these years. If the New Deal was slow in turning the economy around, although creating enormous deficit, the Second World War kick started the economy into high gear. Although reluctant and concerned about violating civil liberties, FDR, as was his policy in most military matters, listened to his military advisors and issued Executive Order 9066, which forced over 100,000 Japanese-Americans into internment camps, for security reasons. (Coker, 2005) Controversial and widely criticized later, this action was through out of fear of espionage.At that time, however not the Civil Liberties Union, nor the public objected to this action. If War was not one of FDRs strong points, organizing, creating smooth transitions using programs such as maintenance for membership and no strike-pledge was. He used fireside chats to explain to the public the need for such policies, applying to patriotism. While researching FDRs accomplishments during WWII, the author was kayoed by his power of feeling and organization during this time of mass confusion in this country. Had he lived in this time frame, the Author would have liked FDR to tell him how he kept it all straight(Dubrin, 2004). The outlook did not look promising for the allies in the first months of 1942, but things turned against Germany and Japan when the U. S. won victories in the pacific theater in 1943 and D-Day operation was a great success in France in 1944. On the home front, FDR had to concentrate internally again for several reasons. First the Republicans, having won major advancements in the election of 1942 in Congress, were making it almost impossible to pass legislation to fund the war, which mainly consisted of significant tax hikes.The Labor unions were also threatening to strike over this issue. Mainly the public was fed up with funding the war and having to do without. In 1944, FDR made it known to his party that he was willing to run for a forth term. The party acknowledged that he would be their best chance for victory, however, nominated Senator get at Truman as Vice President. Although a sick man, run down from his years in office, his energetic campaigning and his medical condition, FDR downplayed the situation and convinced the public they should not change leaders in mid-war.He won the presidency against republican New York governor Thomas Dewey by 54% of the popular vote (Baliles, 2005). FDRs stamina and drive at this point in his life is a little disturbing from the authors point of view. Highly regarded as a great leader, it is strike he does not recognize his deficiencies and recommends the party choose a different candidate. But then, if his wife, doctor and friends could not persuade him to retire, the author doubts highly that his own powers of persuasion could have influenced FDR to turn the country over to somebody e lse, and concentrate on his health and family.FDRs health deteriorated rapidly after the election. He would not live to see the end of WWII. Convalescing in Warm Spring, Georgia on April, 12, 1945 he collapsed and died of cerebral hemorrhage. His body was transported from Georgia to Washington D. C. and from there to Hyde Park, N. Y. for burial. speed of lights of thousands of people came to pay their view during this final journey, attesting to the fact that he was considered the hero and savior of the 20th century (Boyer, P. et. al. (2008). Congress did limit the terms of a president to two terms suddenly after FDRs death.Actually, the Republican Party started legislation on this subject four years earlier, at the time of the last election. They did not pursue it on the grounds of seeming petty during the election. Over the decades the subject FDR, private life, political life and all his accomplishments, good or bad, would be studied by economists, politicians, and academics a s well as students like us. One such example is a Policy Review interview of several students asked to equalise the obtain with America which the 1995, 104th Congress and House Speaker Newt Gingrich promised to deliver in less than 100 days with FDRs New Deal.The Author would like to show Quotes to prove several points. Sally C. Pipes, President of Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich and the new Republican House Leadership be thanks and congratulations for the successful completion of the Contract with America. What a revolutionary series of events has taken place With the Contract, a promise to the American people was made in a little less than the promised hundred days, the promise was kept. Of what other Congress in this Century can that be said? (Pitney, 1995) Mike Siegel, origin president of the National Association of Radio Talk Show Hosts. The Contract with America committed the House Republicans to raising and voting on each of the Contract Items. This was accomplished and should be considered a major shift from politics as usual (Pitney, 1995). Deroy Murdock, President of Loud & Clear Communication. Assuming the Senate and President Clinton cooperate, the enactment of most Contract items, per se, will not influence American politics as profoundly as did FDR in his First Hundred Days.However, the paradigm shift that has attach to the Contract likely will parallel the new thinking that FDR inspired 62 years ago. (Pitney, 1995) Mona Charen, Nationally syndicated columnist. The First Hundred Days of the Republican majority were like a laser showfull of color and sound, but so fast and furious that it was difficult for voters to single out the benefits of tort reform, eudaimonia reform, or regulatory reform. (Pitney, 1995) Jeff Jacoby, Nationally syndicated columnist for the Boston Globe. So, no, in terms of legislation completed, Gingrichs First Hundred Days dont compare with FDRs.So thoroughly did Ging rich and his army upend that piece of conventional wisdom, that by the end of a hundred days, Bill Clinton was reduced to insisting he serene mattered. The President, he sniffled in a mid-April press conference, is relevant here. (Pitney, 1995) William A. Rusher, Former publisher of National Review. The First Hundred Days of the new House Republican Leaders will deserve that well-worn adjective historic even if relatively few of the measures listed in their Contract with America ever make law in the form they recognize (Pitney, 1995). Burton W.Folsom Jr. , Senior Fellow in Economic Education at the Mackinac Center for Public Policy in Midland, Michigan. The House Republican Leadership did most of what it said it would do in the Contract with America. The Republican Contract was a conscious, thoughtful, and usually coherent plan that went from campaign document to legislative writ. The New Deal was improvisational and contradictory right from the start. (Pitney, 1995) John J Pit ney, JR. Associate professor of government at Claremont McKenna College. The House GOPs First Hundred Day compared badly with FDRs.Although all the items in the Contract With America reached the House floor, only two of them became law before the hundredth day. By contrast, FDR signed bushels of bills during the Hundred Days of 1933. Crisis is the great lubricant of the legislative process, and the economic calamities of FDRs early days briefly suspended Capitol Hills normal Friction. Government has become tangled in its own red tape. (Pitney, 1995) The Author would like to point out, that there is hardly mention of the president of this time and then only to point out that he was left out of the loop.Apparently the House Speaker and the Republican majority in Congress decided they could upstage a Democratic President with a style of government by one of its own party example. As shown, none of the interviewees have lied, but it was entertaining to read just how much of the story a particular party adherent brings to light to prove his point of view. Clearly, the more is known of the story, the worse the scenario of the Contract With America sounds. We have just had a historical presidential election.If FDR started with having portentouss, women and other minorities in high office, this country as a whole just elected a black man into the White house. In 1995 Congress took up FDRs ideology but tried to upend the hierarchy. Since then the Countrys problems have just gotten worse. Again the cry has started and the president has taken up the challenge and stated publicly that he would use some of FDRs strategies. Immediately the media, economists and scholars exploded with the similarities of the state of the country then and now, advice and warnings to the administration.We are closer to the FDR era state of the economy, the sharp rise in unemployment, the near collapse of the banking industry and the essential pessimism of the population. FDRs overall messag e is less caution and more boldness. The congress will also have a democratic majority next year and one of the most liberal caucuses ever, which should facilitate cooperation by past experience. Together with the lubricant of crisis stated earlier should help (Schlesinger, 2009). Two other similarities are contributed to Barack Obama.He unusually charismatic person and is a great speaker, which should help him guide the general public through this crisis. He has surrounded himself with an experienced staff, headed by 101st Senator Rouse. To get his agenda passed, he just needs to convince Congress to take some political risks (Drum, 2008). There is hardly any advice this Author can offer that has not already been offered by persons more qualified other than hope. Hope that lessons have been learned from history and similar situations. God knows this country has had most imaginable, and the

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Creative Arts Essay

This lecture enhances the creativity of the students by cultivating their interest in music. Various activities using different mediums like listening to CDs or watch musical shows help in having a better understanding of the lecture. Though the lecture may seem filled with fun activities, the lecture overly focuses on learning to the highest degree the technical terms commonly used in studying music. abbreviation In this lecture, I fuck off learned that it is important to have interaction with the students in order to determine their erudition progress.Also, having an activity that would sum all the lectures would be beneficial in measuring the students attainment curve. Week 1 Visual Arts Description The teaching strategy used to teach the visual artistic creationworks is methodical wherein the basic ideas are introduced about visual arts followed by an activity to put into practice what the students learned in class. More so, to teach kids about visual arts, use examples that theu stop come up relate like cartoons or anything that is related to the interest of children. Meanwhile, for an older audience, use images or samples that apply to their generation so that they nookie quickly understand the lesson. abstract Going through the lesson plan, I have noticed that beyond the explanation of basic visual art terminologies and the description of numerous artworks, art appreciation was also included. Art can be very subjective so the interpretation of a piece of art can be derived from ones opinion. Because of this art appreciation can be very limited but by teaching the objective and academic way of assessing artworks, ordinary people can prevail a better understanding and respect for the world of visual arts. Week 4 Dance DescriptionThis lecture shows how and why students should learn the art of dancing. I personally like the part that encourages students to craft their own moves to express their knowledge and judgment about dancing. Through this , one can really value the grandness of this art form in a particular culture. Analysis I have learned that dancing can enhance or stimulate several(prenominal) types of intelligence including visual-spatial, interpersonal and former(a)s. Also, I have realized that dancing is not just movement but it also help in boosting self-esteem and enhancing sociable skills.Week 6 sport Description Teaching drama requires focus and self-discovery. Students can use words or images to invoke emotions. To do this, one as yet needs to conduct research in order to realistically play a specific role. Also, it would be better to perform in front of other people so that you will be given criticisms on how to improve your acting skills. This will also be an opportunity to interact with other actors. Analysis Prior to reading this lecture, I have always associated drama with just acting out roles like what I see in the movies and television programs.Drama is more than what it seems. It involves a lot of concentration, dedication and understanding about different things in life. More so, every part of the body is used in this art form to convey a message or a story. Week 10 Arts and Literacy Description This lecture provides provide children with holistic and meaningful learning experiences. It uses integration to make the change from learning facts to understanding and applying concepts to developing generic skills for living and working.Analysis I think syntegration is a great way to teach arts and literacy. This is a process wherein subjects are working together synergistically to explore a theme, concept or focus question, while achieving their own outcomes as well as generic outcomes. Through this, students are able to value and fully appreciate what they learn in class. Week 11 Thematic Integration instruction Description A simple element like the colors of the rainbow can be used to learn about the different forms of art.Through definition and application, students can de termine how to relate one form of art to another. Analysis I like the idea of having different stages in learning. First by exploring, then followed by developing the skills involved and lastly would be reflecting on the end results. Through this, students can have the freedom to discover things at their own space and they can interpret their findings based on their own opinions. This teaching strategy is simple and direct but it is a very effective learning tool.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Stefan’s Diaries: Origins Chapter 13

I walked back to my room, unsure what to think. Vampiros. Vampires. The vocalise sounded wrong, no matter what language it was in. Coyotes. That was a word that made sense. After all, a coyote was just like a wolf, a wild animal drawn to the confusing tangle of the deep Virginia woods. If Rosalyn was killed by a coyote, it would be tragic, but understandable. But for Rosalyn to be killed by a demon?I laughed, the sound coming out like a short(p) bark as I strode into my bedroom and sit down with my head in my hands. My headache had re dark with renewed vigor, and I remembered Emilys request that I non eat Cordelias cooking. On top of everything else, it seemed the servants were turning on each other.Suddenly, I heard three soft raps on the entrance. The sound was so slight it might be the wind, which had shown no sign of stopping since we got back from the woods.Hello? I called hesitantly.The raps started again, more insistently this time. On the other side of the room, the cott on curtains blew violently in the wind.Alfred? I called, the hairs on the back of my neck standing up. begetters tale had definitely affected me. I wont be admiting dinner, I called affected me. I wont be needing dinner, I called loudly.I grabbed a letter opener from my desk and held it behind my back as I headed cautiously toward the door. But just as I placed my hand on the doorknob, the door began to swing inward.This isnt funny I called, half hysterical, when all of a sudden, a figure in pale blue slipped into the room.Katherine.Good, because humor has never been one of my untroubled points, Katherine said, her smile revealing her straight, white teeth.Im sorry. I blushed and hastily dropped the letter opener onto the desk. Im just Y oure still recovering. Katherines brown eyes locked with my own. Im sorry to startle you. She sat down on the center of my bed, pulling her knees up to her chest. Y our brothers worried about you.Oh , I stammered. I couldnt believe that Katherine Pierce had come into my bedroom and was seance on my bed, as if it were perfectly normal. No woman, except my mother and Cordelia, had ever been in my sleeping chambers. I was suddenly embarrassed by my muddy boots in one corner, the pile of china dishes in another, and the Shakespeare volume still open on the desk.Do you necessitate to know a secret? Katherine asked.I stood at the door, clutching the brass doorknob. Maybe? I asked hesitantly.Come closer and Ill tell you. She beckoned me with her finger. Townspeople were scandalized if a couple went walking to the Wickery Bridge without a chaperone. But here Katherine was without a chaperoneor stockings, for that matter perched on my bed, asking me to join her there. There was no way I could resist that.I gingerly sat on the edge of the bed. Immediately she flipped onto her hands and knees and crawled over to me. Pushing her hair over one shoulder, she cupped my ear with her hand.My secret is that Ive been worried about you, too, she whispered.Her breath was unnaturally insensate against my cheek. My leg muscles twitched. I knew I should demand that she leave, right away. But instead I inched closer to her.Really? I whispered.Yes, Katherine murmured, looking deep into my eyes. Y need to forget Rosalyn.ouI shivered and glanced away from Katherines dark-brown eyes toward the window, watching a fast-moving summer storm sweep in.Katherine took my chin in her ice-cold hands and turned my eyes back to hers. Rosalyn is dead, she continued, her face full of sorrow and kindness. But you arent. Rosalyn wouldnt have wanted you to shut yourself away like a criminal. No one would want that for their betrothed, dont you agree?I nodded slowly. Even though Damon had told me the same thing, the words made infinitely more sense when coming from Katherines mouth.Her lips curved in a tiny smile. Y oull find happiness again, she said. I want to help you. But you have to let me, sweet Stefan. Katherine laid her hand against my forehead. I felt a surge of heat and ice converging at my temple. I flinched from the force of it, disappointment welling in my chest as Katherines hand dropped back into her lap.Are those the flowers I picked for you? Katherine asked suddenly, looking across the room. Y ouve shoved them into the corner without any lightIm sorry, I said.She imperiously swung her legs off the bed and bent to take the basket from under my desk. She pull the shades, then stared at me, her arms crossed over her chest. My breath caught in my throat. Her light-blue crepe dress highlighted her tiny waist, and her necklace lay at the hollow of her neck. She was undeniably beautiful.She plucked a daisy from the bunch, removing the petals one by one. Y esterday I saw a servant child play a silly gamehe loves me, he loves me not. She laughed, but then her smile abruptly turned solemn. What do you think the answer would be?And suddenly, she stood above me, her hands on my shoulders. I inhaled her odour of gin ger and lemon, unsure what to say, knowing only that I wanted to feel her hands on my shoulders forever. Would the answer be he loves me or he loves me not? Katherine asked, leaning toward me. My body began quivering with a desire I didnt know I possessed. My lips were mere inches away from hers.Whats the answer? Katherine asked, biting her lip in the postage of a shy maiden. I laughed despite myself. I felt as if I were watching the scene unfold, powerless to stop what I was about to do. I knew this was wrong. Sinful. But how could it be sinful if every fiber of my being wanted it more than anything? Rosalyn was dead. Katherine was alive. And I was alive, too, and I needed to start acting like it.If what Father said was true, and I was about to fight the battle of my life between good and evil, then I needed to learn to have confidence in myself and my choices. I needed to stop thinking and start believing in myself, in my convictions, in my desires.Do you really need me to answe r? I asked, make for her waist. I grabbed her and pulled her onto the bed with a strength I didnt know I her onto the bed with a strength I didnt know I possessed. She shrieked in delight and tumbled onto the bed next to me. Her breath was sweet, and her hands were cold and holding mine, and suddenly, nothing elsenot Rosalyn, not my fathers demons, not even Damonmattered.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Arabic Literature

Arabic writings Main articleArabic literature Main articleLiterature of Morocco Ibn Tufail(Abubacer) andIbn al-Nafiswere pi nonp beilers of thephilosophical novel. Ibn Tufail wrote the prime(prenominal) pret shuttinged ArabicnovelHayy ibn Yaqdhan(Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response toal-GhazalisThe Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis excessively wrote a novelTheologus Autodidactusas a response to Ibn TufailsPhilosophus Autodidactus.Both of these narratives hadprotagonists(Hayy inPhilosophus Autodidactusand Kamil inTheologus Autodidactus) who wereautodidacticferal childrenliving in seclusion on a abandon island, twain universe the early examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story inPhilosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil ext oddments beyond the desert island setting inTheologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest cognizecoming of old ageplot and in the end bec oming the commencement ceremony example of a encyclopaedism fictionnovel. 1718 Theologus Autodidactus, written by theArabianpolymathIbn al-Nafis(12131288), is the first example of a science fiction novel. It bears with various science fiction grammatical constituents such(prenominal) asspontaneous generation,futurology, theend of the adult male and doomsday,resurrection, and the afterwards feel. Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these even offts, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements employ thescientific know guidegeofbiology,astronomy,cosmologyandgeologykn declare in his time.His main purpose behind this science fiction influence was to explainIslamic sacred t severall(a)yings in harm ofscienceandphilosophy by means of the use of fiction. 19 ALatin culture of Ibn Tufails work,Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared byEdward Pocockethe Younger, followed by an side translation bySimon Ockleyin 1708, as well a sGer compositionandDutchtranslations. These translations afterwards inspiredDaniel Defoeto writeRobinson Crusoe, regarded as thefirst novel in English. 20212223Philosophus Autodidactus excessively inspiredRobert Boyleto write his own philosophical novel set on an island,The Aspiring Naturalist. 24The story also anticipatedRousseausEmile or, On Educationin roughly ways, and is also similar toMowglis story inRudyard KiplingsThe Jungle Bookas well asTarzans story, in that a baby is abandoned further taken sustenance of and fed by a motherwolf. citation enquireed Among other innovations in Arabic literature wasIbn Khalduns perspective on chronicling past eventsby fully rejecting supernatural explanations, Khaldun basically invented the scientific or sociological approach to annals. citation needed Islam 100 A. D. to 1500 1. Gods revelations were first received around 610 by the prophet Muhammad, whose followers later(prenominal) collected them into the Koran, which became the ba sis for a naked-sprung(prenominal) religion and community known today as Islam. 2. Though close of the pre-Islamic literature of Arabia was written in verse, prose became a popular vehicle for the dispersal of religious learning. 3. As its title the Recitation suggests, the Koran was made to be heard and recited because it is literally the word of God, Muslims do non accept the Koran in translation from Arabic. . Although Persian literature borrowed from Arabic literary styles, it also created and enhanced new poetic styles, including therubai(quatrain),ghazal(erotic lyric), andmasnavi(narrative rime). 5. More widely known than each other work in Arabic, theThousand and One Nightsis generally excluded from the open fireon of unsullied Arabic literature due to its extravagant and improbable fabrications in prose, a nervous strain that was pass judgment to be more serious and pigboatstantial than verse. Thousand and One Nights Myths and Legends of the World 2001 Copy pay Thousand and One NightsThousand and One Nights,also calledThe Arabian Nights Entertainmentor simplyThe Arabian Nights,is a sprawling, centuries-old collection of tales. In the English-speaking world, it is the surmount-known work of Arabic stories. The framework of the collection is that a king named Shahriyar, distrustful of women, had the riding habit of fetching a new wife either night and killing her the next day. A resourceful young woman named Shahrazad had a plan to end the deadly tradition. After marrying the king, she told him a story on their wedding night with the promise to finish it the next day. He let her live, and she repeated the trick.So captivating were her stories that Shahriyar spared her flavour again and again in order to hear the rest of the narrative. The origins ofThousand and One Nightsare unknown. The oldest bit of Arabic text edition dates from the 800s the first lengthy text was written in the 1400s. None of the early Arabic-language texts contain s exactly the same stories. Scholars rush identified Persian, Baghdadian, and Egyptian elements in the work, which seems to stupefy developed over the years as an ever-changing collection of fairy tales, romances, fables, verses, legends about heroes, and humorous stories.The stories that are best known in the English-speaking worldthose of Sinbad the Sailor, Aladdin and his Magic Lamp, and Ali Baba and the Forty Thievesdo not appear in all editions ofThousand and One Nights. Thousand and One Nights The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2012 Copyright Thousand and One Nights or Arabian Nights, serial of anonymous stories in Arabic, considered as an entity to be among the classics of world literature. The cohesive plot device concerns the efforts of Scheherezade, or Sheherazade, to keep her husband, King Shahryar (or Schriyar), from killing her by entertain him with a tale a night for 1,001 nights.The best known of these stories are those of Ali Baba, Sinbad the Sailor, and Aladdin. Although m whatever of the stories are set in India, their origins are unknown and have been the subject of intensifier scholarly investigation. The corpus began to be collected about the year 1000. At first the title was merely indicative of a large number of stories later editors dutifully provided editions with the requisite 1,001 tales. The pre move form ofThousand and One Nightsis thought to be native to Persia or one of the Arabic-speaking countries, but includes stories from a number of dia metrical countries and no doubt reflects diverse source material.The first European edition was a free translation by Abbe Antoine Galland into French (170417). Most subsequent French, German, and English versions lean heavily upon Galland. Among the English translations include the expurgated edition of E. W. Lane (1840), with fantabulous and co pietistic bring ups the unexpurgated edition by Sir Richard Burton in 16 volumes (188588) that of commode Payne in 9 volumes (188284) Powys Matherss translation from the French text of J. C. Mardrus (rev. ed. , 4 vol. , 1937) and that of Husain Haddawy (2 vol. , 1990, 1995).Note This file is also available as aWord scroll. Acknowledgements Al-Muntazir Madrasah, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. grandeur OF THE dedicated QURAAN The first lesson to be learned by all students is about the importance of the Holy Quraan. The Quraan is the Book of Allahsubhaanahu wa taaalaa. Every word in the Quraan has fall from Allah. That is why we say that it is a Holy Book. The words in the Quraan were sent by Allah to prophesier Muhammadsallal-laahu alayhi wa-aalihi wa sallam. The prophesier (s) received the words of Allah through angel Jibraeel.This Quraan is a Holy Book that was not written by eitherone but sent by Allah to Prophet Muhammad (s) through Jibraeel. 1. It is the most truthful row Prophet Muhammad (s) regularly run down the words of Allah to Muslims around him. These Muslims were very pleased and excited to rec eive the words of Allah. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidThe most truthful speech, the most eloquent advice, and the greatest stories are in the Book of Allah. The Muslims heeded carefully to what the Prophet study, memorized the sentences and passages of the Quraan, recited them regularly and followed the teachings of the Quraan.In order to preserve the words of Allah the Prophet appointed special heap known as Scribes of the Quraan to write down the words of Allah. 2. It is in accredited language Prophet Muhammad (s) was an Arab and the majority of people in Mecca and Medina spoke Arabic. Therefore the Quraan was sent in Arabic. Arabic is written from right to left. It is bankrupt to learn to read the Quraan in its original language. Therefore, we testament put efforts to learn Quraan written in Arabic sort of of simply reading its translation in other languages. . The Holy Quraan contains Allahs message to all people. It tells people how to act conditi exactly. It plays us to a correct way of life in this world. The Book of Allah also talks about life after death. It tells us that Allah has prepared Paradise for intimately people and cavity for bad people. The Quraan encourages the worship of still one God Who creates and provides for them. The Book forbids people from evil and condemns those who do wrong. It contains stories of the past Prophets and the examples of bad and good people.People are advised in the Quraan to be good to others and find them. It teaches people to live in peace and harmony. 4. Quraan brings happiness in this world and the Hereafter. Following the Quraan brings happiness in this world and the world after death. The Prophet (s) saidIf you desire the life of the fortunate, the death of a martyr, the salvation on the Day of Regret and the shade on the Day of ingrained Heat, then you should memorize the Quraan because it is the word of the Merciful, a sanctuary from Shaytaan and a causes the tilting of the Balance.In some othe r Hadith we read that the Prophet (s) has saidThe recitor of the Quran will be spared from the calamities of the Hereafter. 5. It is the only god like book that has remained unchanged. Allah sent the Quraan to His Prophet. A book sent by Allah to people is known as a Divine Book or a celestial Book. Other Divine Books were also sent to previous prophets. These are Suhoof to Prophet Ibraheemalayhis salaam Zaboor to Prophet Dawoodalayhis salaamTawraah to Prophet Moosaaalayhis salaam andInjeel to Prophet Eisaaalayhis salaam.The difference amidst the Quraan and past revealed books is that the Quraan is the only Divine Book that has remained unaltered. The Quraan we have with us contains exactly the same message that was sent to Prophet Muhammad by Allah through Jibraeel. 6. Our supplications get answeredif we were to petition after reading the Holy Quraan. The Prophet (s) saidOne who starts the Quran and finishes it, Allah will grant him one answered supplication. It also helps in s trengthening our faith. imam Ali (a) saidReciting the Quran plants the eed of faith. 7. The Quraan is the best companion. It atomic number 50 be of great help when a child or adult is feeling lonely. imaum Ali Zaynul Aabideen (a) saidIf all who live between the eastern United States and West perish, I will have no fear as long as I have the Quran with me. 8. Students get wisewhen they start reading the Quraan in their childhood. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidWhoever reads the Quran before becoming Baaligh, has indeed been break upn wisdom as a child. The Holy Book is the best intellectual assess a student can have.Prophet Muhammad (s) saidThe Quran is a wealth with which there is no poverty, and without which there is no wealth. On the other hand not fondness to read and study the Quraan is a great loss. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidSurely the person in whose heart lacks the trace of the Quran is like a ruined house. 9. Muslims read the Quraan to understand the true teachings of Islam. Prophet Muhammad (s) left the Holy Book and the Ahlul Bayt (a) as the most important legacy for Muslims after him. He saidI perish tow weighty things among you The Book of Allah and my family the Ahlul Bayt.Indeed these two will never separate until they reach me near the pool of Kawthar. 10. All Muslims recite some Soorahs in their prayers. However, it is good to memorize more Soorahs and read them in Salaat. Imam Muhammad Al-Baaqir (a) saidWhoever recites the Quraan while standing in his prayer, Allah will bestow on him a hundred blessings for every letter and whoever recites it while sitting in his prayer, Allah will reward him fifty blessings for every letter and whoever recites it outside of his prayer, Allah will grant him ten blessings for every letter. 1. The Quraan is a cure to mental and spiritual diseases Imam Hasan al-Askaree (a) saidThe Messenger of Allah (s) said I advice you to the Quraan since it is the beneficial cure, the blessed medicine, the protection (Isma) f or he who holds fast to it, and the salvation for he who follows it. Neither does it cause crookedness so that it de move (from the truth) nor does it deviate so that it causes trouble. Its marvels do not come to end and the vastness of refutations does not wear it. RESPECT AND RIGHTS OF THE HOLY QURAANNow that we know that the Holy Quraan is not an ordinary book, but a Divine Book sent by Allah for the guidance of all people, we must show respect to it. Here are some of the points we need to remember. 1. A part of the Quraan carries the same respect as the faultless Quraan. Allah saysWhen the Quraan is recited, listen toit (7204). We know that when recitation takes jell it is unendingly of a part of the Quraan. Even then Allah uses the word Quraan for the part that is macrocosm recited. Therefore, if you have a Siparah, a binder or a booklet that contains Soorahs and passages from the Quraan, you cut through it like a Quraan. . The Quraan should always be carried with proper care. When your Madrasah clutch contains the Quraan, or a part of it, take extra care of the bag. Keep the bag verbosely on the desk or floor instead of letting it fall on its own. Use both hands to remove the Quraan from your bag, kiss the cover of the Quraan, gear up it slowly on a desk (or on a wooden carrier specially built for holding the Quraan) and o draw up the pages gently. 3. When the Quraan is being recited, listen to it and be captive (7204). If you are busy with something else then at least do not disturb the recitation by talking, for example, or making noise.There is reward for listening to the Quraan. Imam Ali Zaynul Aabideen (a) saidWhoever listens to a letter of the book of Allah, the Glorious and Almighty, without even reading it, Allah will write down for him one good deed, forgive a sin, and awake him a degree. It was the practice of unbelievers in Mecca to key a lot of noise so that others could not listen to the Quraan (4126). Do not be like them and in stead lend your ears to the Quraan and give it respect. We often wish that God would talk to us. One way to achieve this is by reading the Quraan. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidLoWhoever has longing for Allah should listen to the word of Allah Also, if you wish to talk to God then do Tilaawa. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidWhenever one of you would like to talk to his Lord, he should read the Quran. 4. The Quraan should be recited regularly. It is disesteem to keep the Holy Quraan unread. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidBrighten your homes with reciting Quraan do not turn them into graves. Surely the house in which a lot of recitation takes place enjoys many blessings and the members bene equalise from it. Such a household shines for the inhabitants of Heaven as stars shine to the inhabitants of the earth.On the Day of head the Prophet will complain to Allah about some Muslims who had abandoned the Quraan (2530). Another Hadith of the Prophet (s) saysIndeed black Maria rust in the same way irons r ust. He was asked What will polish the hearts? The Prophet answeredReading the Quran. The more Quraan we read the better it is. We should discipline ourselves to read a good portion of Quraan effortless. Imam Ali (a) saidHe who recites 100 verses daily from the Book in the order it is in, Allah writes for him the reward equal to all the good actions of every one on this earth.Shaytaan would like us not to read, understand and study the Quraan. Let us fight him with all our strength and faith. Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) saidThere is nothing more unpleasant to Shaytaan than to see a man reading the Quran to gain insight. 5. Children should get familiarized with the Quraan early in their lives. Imam as-Saadiq (AS) saidHe who recites Quraan while he is young, Quraan mixes with his flesh and his blood, and Allah places him amongst the blessed and the chosen righteous. On the Day of Judgment, Quraan shall become his defender andpray for him a handsome reward. 6. It is the right and respec t of the Quraan that it should be followed. Imam Jafar Saadiq (a) saidLo One, who learns the Quraan, teaches it and practices according to it, I will guide and lead him to Paradise. 7. It is also the right and respect of the Quraan that those who have the knowledge of the Quraan should teach it to others. This is among the noblest acts. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidThe best of you is he who learns the Quran and teaches it. 8. Take the interpretations of the Quraan from the Holy Prophet (s) and the Imams from his family, i. e. the Ahlul Bayt (a).Imam Hasan al-Askaree quoting Prophet Muhammad saidRecite it (i. e. the Quraan) as Allah gives you ten rewards for each letter that you recite from it. Then the Imam (a) saidDo you know who really holds fast to it and reaches to such honor and reward? He is the person who takes Quraan and its interpretation from us Ahlul-Bayt (a) or from the deputies that we send to our followers, and takes its (interpretation) neither from the opinions of those who argue (on the speech of Allah) nor form the analogyofthose who compare (different move of the speech of Allah). . Once you have completed reading your lesson or referring to the Quraan then close it gently instead of leaving it open. 2. Do not put another book or any weight above the Quraan. The Holy Book should always be kept on the top in a fold of books. 3. It is Haraam (forbidden) to make Najaasaat (impure things like blood and urine) touch the Quraan. In the event where the Quraan becomes Najis, for instance if it falls in Najis water, it is Waajib (obligatory) to purify it (make it Taahir). 4. Old and worn out copies of the Quraan should be addicted in safe places.This includes sending them for recycling, burying them in the earth or casting in rivers. **** * MANNERS OF RECITING THE HOLY QURAAN By now we know that the Quraan is a special book and deserves respect. Now let us look at some of the manners of reciting the Quraan. It is the right of the Tilaawa (recitation of the Quraan) that we follow the rules when reciting the Quraan. 1. Perform Wudhoo before you prepare to read the Quraan. Allah saysNone can touch it (the Quraan) save the purified ones(5679). Once Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) asked his son Ismaaeel to read the Quraan. The latter said that he was not in Wudhoo.The Imam said in that case he could recite it but should not touch the make-ups of the Quraan. Therefore, it is advisable touse a stick or pen to point to the wordsor sentences of the Quraan you are reading if you are not in Wudhoo. 2. Read Duaa before Tilaawa. Reading of the Duaa helps to keep our focus and reminds us of what we need to take from the Holy Book. Masoomeen (a) have recommended a number of Duaas. The Duaa taught by Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) appears in this booklet with Quraan lessons. 3. Always sayAoodhubillaahi minash shaytaanir rajeem( ) when you contract reading the Quraan. It means I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed Shaytaan. This is what Allah instructs us to do in Aayah 1698. 4. Next sayBismillaahir rahmaanir raheem( )The meaning of this formulate is In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Whenever Imam Moosaa Al-Kaazim (a) wished to make a point to Haroon Rasheed using Aayaat from the Quraan, the Imam would begin withAoodhubillaah . . . followed byBismillaah . . . 5. Sit facing Qiblaah when reciting the Quraan. Please note that this is the best direction to face.However where it may be herculean or impossible to face Qiblaah when reading the Quraan (for example if your desk is facing another direction) then it is all right not to face the Qiblaah. 6. Recite the Quraan with Tarteelas instructed by Allah in Aayah 734. This means that we should recite the Quraan in a good voice with rhythm instead of plain reading. 7. Recite the Quraan slowlyAllah said to the Prophetdo not move your tongue with it (Quraan) to make haste therein(7516). The aayaat of the Quraan should be recited in slow tones with each word being pro nounced clearly.The Prophet (s) advised Muslims not be concerned about finishing a Soorah when reciting the Quraan. 8. Be Humble when reciting the Quraan. The Prophet (s) says that the best recitor is he who is humble when reciting the Quraan and realizes his own insignificance. Some people exhibit their insignificance and the awe of talking to Allah through weeping. This is a good sign. Prophet Muhammad (s) said eyeball that weep when reciting the Quran will be shining with delight on the Day of Resurrection. 9. Try to understand the recitation. Holy Quraan is a book of Guidance (22).It is necessary for us to understand the message Allah sent all people through Prophet Muhammad (s). 10. Read from the Quraan by looking at the writings instead of reciting from your memory. In a Hadith from one of our Imams it is said that mere looking at the writings of the Quraan carries reward. 11. Interact with the Quraan. Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) says that it is important to react to the aayaat o f the Quraan when reciting it. When we come across aayaat on Paradise, Mercy and Grace of Allah, Good Outcome in the hereafter, we should hope for these in our hearts.On the other hand if we are reading aayaat that warn us about the punishment, fire, Hell, etc. we should pray to be saved from these. 12. Open your heart and mind to the Quraan and ponder over what you read. Allah often invites us to think and ponder over the contents of the Quraan. In 4724 Allah saysDo they not then think deeply in the Quraan, or are their hearts locked up? 13. Perform Sajdah where required to do soIn the entire Quraan there are 15 places where performing of Sajdah is required. At 4 places it is Waajib (obligatory) to do Sajdah if we were to read or listen to these sections of the Quraan.For the rest of the places it is Mustahab (recommended) to do Sajdah. 14. SaySadqallaahul Aliyyul Azeem( ) every time you end a recitation of the Quraan. The meaning of this phrase is Allah, the Sublime, the Great , is truthful in what He has said 15. Read one of the Duaas after Tilaawa. The Masoomeen have taught a number of Duaas, from these two have been included with Quraan lessons. In these Duaas, amongst other things, we pray to the Almighty to enlighten us through the Quraan and make us follow the teachings of the Quraan. THE HOLY QURAN Islam appeared in the form of a book the ledger.Muslims, consider the Quran (sometimes spelled Koran) to be the Word of God as transmitted by the Angel Gabriel, in the Arabic language, through the Prophet Muhammad. The Muslim view, moreover, is that the Quran supersedes earlier revelations it is regarded as their summation and completion. It is the final revelation, as Muhammad is regarded as the final prophet the Seal of the Prophets. In a very real sense the Quran is the mentor of millions of Muslims, Arab and non-Arab alike it shapes their everyday life, anchors them to a unique establishment of law, and inspires them by its guiding principles.Wri tten in noble language, this Holy Text has done more than move multitudes to tears and ecstasy it has also, for almost fourteen hundred years, light the lives of Muslims with its eloquent message of uncompromising monotheism, human dignity, righteous living, individual responsibility, and social justice. For countless millions, consequently, it has been the single most important force in guiding their religious, social, and pagan lives. Indeed, the Quran is the cornerstone on which the edifice of Islamic civilization has been built.The text of the Quran was delivered orally by the Prophet Muhammad to his followers as it was revealed to him. The first verses were revealed to him in or about 610, and the last revelation dates from the last year of his life, 632. His followers at first committed the Quran to memory and then, as instructed by him, to writing. Although the entire contents of the Quran, the placement of its verses, and the system of rules of its chapters date back to t he Prophet, as long as he lived he continued to receive revelations.Consequently, the Holy Text could only be collected as a single corpus between the two covers after the death of Muhammad. This is exactly what happened. After the battle of al-Yamamah in 633, Umar ibn al-Khattab, later to become the second caliph, suggested to Abu Bakr, the first caliph, that because of the grievous loss of life in that battle, there was a very real d wrath of losing the Quran, enshrined as it was in the memories of the unaired and in uncollated fragments.Abu Bakr recognized the danger and entrusted the occupation of gathering the revelations to Zayd ibn Thabit, who as the chief scribe of the Prophet was the person to whom Muhammad frequently dictated the revelations in his lifetime. With great difficulty, the task was carried out and the first complete manu deal compiled from bits of parchment, thin white stones ostracae leafless palm branches, and the memories of men. Later, during the time of Uthman, the third caliph, a final, authorized text was prepared and completed in 651, and this has remained the text in use ever since. The contents of the Quran differ in substance and arrangement from the Old and New Testaments. Instead of confronting a straight historical narrative, as do the Gospels and the historical books of the Old Testament, the Quran treats, in allusive style, spiritual and practical as well as historical matters.The Quran is divided into 114 surahs, or chapters, and the surahs are conventionally assigned to two broad categories those revealed at Mecca and those revealed at Medina. The surahs revealed at Mecca at the beginning of Muhammads guardianship tend to be forgetful and to stress, in highly moving language, the eternal themes of the unity of God, the necessity of faith, the punishment of those who stray from the right path, and the Last Judgment, when all mans actions and beliefs will be judged.The surahs revealed at Medina are longer, often deal in detail with specific legal, social, or political situations, and sometimes can only be right understood with a full knowledge of the circumstances in which they were revealed All the surahs are divided into ayahs or verses and, for purposes of pedagogy and recitation, the Quran as a wholly is divided into thirty parts, which in turn are divided into short divisions of nearly equal length, to facilitate study and memorization. The surahs hemselves are of varying length, ranging from the longest, Surah 2, with 282 verses, to the shortest, Surahs 103, 108, and 110, each of which has only three. With some exceptions the surahs are position in the Quran in descending order of length, with the longest at the beginning and the shortest at the end. The major exception to this arrangement is the opening surah, al-Fatihah, which contains seven verses and which serves as an introduction to the entire revelation In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, Lord of the WorldsThe Merciful, the Compassionate Master of the Day of Judgment Thee only do we worship, and Thee alone we ask for help. Guide us in the straight path, The path of those whom Thou hast favored not the path of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray. Non-Muslims are often struck by the range of styles found in the Quran. Passages of impassioned beauty are no less common than energetic narratives. The sublime Verse of the Throne is perhaps one of the most famous God There is no god but He, The Living. the EverlastingSlumber seizes Him not, neither sleep To Him belongs all that is In the heavens and the earth Who is there that can intercede with Him Save by His leave? He knows what lies before them And what is after them, Nor do they encompass anything of His knowledge Except such as He wills His Throne extends over the heavens and earth The preserving of them wearies Him not He is the Most High, the All-Glorious. Muslims regard the Quran as untranslatab le the language in which it was revealed Arabic is inseparable from its message and Muslims everywhere, o matter what their native tongue, must learn Arabic to read the tabu Book and to perform their worship. The Quran of course is available in many languages, but these versions are regarded as interpretations rather than translations partly because the Arabic language, extraordinarily condensed and allusive, is impossible to translate in a mechanical, word-for-word way. The inimitability of the Quran has crystallized in the Muslim view of ijaz or impossibility, which holds that the style of the Quran, being divine, cannot be imitated any attempt to do so is doomed to failure.It must also be remembered that the Quran was originally transmitted orally to the faithful and that the Holy Text is not meant to be read only in silence. From the earliest days it has always been recited aloud or, more accurately, chanted. As a result, several traditional means of chanting, or intoning, the Quran were found side by side. These methods carefully preserved the elaborate science of reciting the Quran with all its intonations and its cadence and punctuation.As the exact pronunciation was important and learning it took years special schools were founded to be sure that no error would creep in as the traditional chanting methods were handed down. It is largely owing to the worldly concern of these traditional methods of recitation that the text of the Quran was preserved without error. As the script in which the Quran was first written down indicated only the consonantal underframe of the words, oral recitation was an essential element in the transmission of the text.Because the circumstances of each revelation were thought necessary to correct interpretation, the community, early in the muniment of Islam, reason that it was imperative to gather as many traditions as possible about the life and actions of the Prophet so that the Quran might be more fully understood. These traditions not only provided the historical context for many of the surahs and then contributing to their more exact explication but also contained a wide variety of subsidiary information on the practice, life, and legal rulings of the Prophet and his companions.This material became the basis for what is called the sunnah, or practice of the Prophet the deeds, utterances, and taqrir (unspoken approval) of Muhammad. Together with the Quran, the sunnah, as embodied in the canonical collections of traditions, the hadith, became the basis for the shariah, the sacred law of Islam. Unlike Western legal systems, the shariah makes no distinction between religious and civil matters it is the codification of Gods Law, and it concerns itself with every aspect of social, political, economic, and religious life.Islamic law is thus different from any other legal system it differs from canon law in that it is not administered by a church pecking order in Islam there is nothing that corresponds to a church in the Christian sense. Instead, there is the ummah the community of the believers whose cohesion is guaranteed by the sacred law. Every action of the pious Muslim, therefore, is determined by the Quran, by precedents set by the Prophet, and by the practice of the early community of Islam as enshrined in the shariah.No description, however, can fully capture the whelm importance of the Quran to Muslims. Objectively, it is the central fact of the Islamic faith, the Word of God, the final and complete revelation, the foundation and framework of Islamic law, and the source of Islamic thought, language, and action. It is the essence of Islam. to that extent it is, in the deeply personal terms of a Muslim, something more as well. In innumerable, almost indescribable ways, it is also the central fact of Muslim life.To a degree almost incomprehensible in the West it shapes and colors broadly, specifically, and totally the thoughts, emotions, and values of the de vout Muslims life from birth to death. ARABIC LITERATURE The Quran, the primary document of the Islamic faith, is the first Arabic book. Its style, at once vigorous, allusive, and concise, deeply influenced later compositions in Arabic, as it continues to color the mode of ex promoteion of native speakers of Arabic, Christian as well as Muslim, both in writing and in conversation. The Quran also largely determined the course of Arabic literature.The earliest Arabic prose came into being not from literary motives, but to serve religious and practical needs, above all the need to fully understand the Islamic revelation and the circumstances of the first Muslim community in the Hijaz. The sayings and actions of the Prophet and his Companions were collected and preserved, at first by memory and then by writing, to be finally collected and arranged by such men as al-Bukhari and Muslim in the ninth snow. This material, the hadith, not only provided the basic texts from which Islamic law was elaborated, but also create the raw material for historians of the early Muslim community.Since each hadith, or saying, is a first-person narrative, usually by an eyewitness of the event describe, they have an immediacy and freshness that has come down unimpaired through the centuries. The personalities of the narrators Abu Bakr, Umar, Aishah, and a host of others are just as vivid as the events described, for the style of each hadith is very personal. The hadith also determined the characteristic form of such works as Ibn Ishaqs Life of the Messenger of God, originally written in the middle of the eighth hundred.In this book, hadith dealing with the life of the Prophet are arranged in chronological order, and the comments of the author are kept to a minimum. Events are seen through the eyes of the people who witnessed them three or four versions of the same event are often apt(p), and in each case the chain of transmission of the hadith is given, so that the ratifier may ju dge its authenticity. During Umayyad times, a number of historians wrote monographs on specific historical, legal, and religious questions, and in each case these authors seem to have adhered to the hadith method of composition.Although a couple of(prenominal) of the works of these writers have survived in their entirety, enough has been preserved by later incorporation in such vast works as the Annals of al-Tabari to give us an idea not only of their method of composition, but also of their wide-ranging interests. The practice of prefacing a chain of authorities to each hadith led to the compilation of vast biographic dictionaries, like the Book of Classes of the early ninth century author Ibn Said, which includes a biography of the Prophet and a great deal of information on notable personalities in Mecca and Medina during his lifetime.Works such as this allowed readers to identify and judge the veracity of transmitters of hadith later, the content of biographical dictionaries was broadened to include poets, writers, eminent reciters of the Quran, scientists, and the like. These biographical dictionaries are often lively reading, and are a mine of information about social and political circumstances in the Islamic world. The spread of Islam by nature found chroniclers, such as al-Waqidi, who wrote in the late eighth and early ninth centuries, and al-Baladhuri, who composed his well known Book of the Conquests in the ninth century.These books, like the hadith, were written for practical motives. Al-Waqidi was interested in establishing the exact chronology of the spread of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and adjoining areas, while al-Baladhuri was interested in legal and tax problems attached with the settlement of new lands. Their books nevertheless are classics of their kind and, aside from containing a lot interesting information, they have passages of great descriptive power.By the ninth century, the method of compiling history from hadith and carefully citing the authorities for each tradition a process which had resulted in books of unwieldy length was abandoned by some authors, like al-Dinawari and al-Yaqubi, who omitted the fetter of transmitters and combined hadith to produce a narrative. The result was greater readability and smaller compass, at the sacrifice of richness and complexity. The works of al-Dinawari and al-Yaqubi, unlike those of their predecessors, aimed to entertain as well as instruct they are literary productions.This form of light history reached its apogee in the tenth century in al-Masudis brilliant and entertaining Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a comprehensive encyclopedia of history, geography, and literature. The literary productions of these men would not, however, have been possible without the careful collections of historical hadith made by their predecessors. Just as the writing of history began from practical rather than literary motives, so the collection and preservation of Arabic meter was undertaken by scholars with, at first, little interest in its artistic merit.The linguists and exegetes of Kufa and Basra began collecting this poetry in the eighth century because of the light it threw on unusual expressions and grammatical structures in the Quran and the hadith. Editions and commentaries were prepared of the poems of Antarah, Imru al-Qays, and many others, and thus the works of the early poets were preserved for later generations. The Quran a part, poetry has always been considered the highest expression of literary art among the Arabs. Long before the coming of Islam, Bedouin poets had amend the forms of panegyric, satire, and elegy.Their poetry obeys strict conventions, both in form and content, which indicates that it must have had a long period of development before it was finally committed to writing by scholars. The principal form utilise by the desert poets was the qasidah or ode, a poem of variable length rhyming in the last syllable of each line. T he qasidah begins with a description of the abandoned encampment of the poets beloved and goes on to an account of his anguish at her absence and his consuming love for her. The poet then describes an arduous excursion across the desert nd ends the qasidah with an appeal to the generosity of his host. Although the subject matter is almost invariable, the language is very complex and of great precision. In the Hijaz during the first century of Islam, contemporary with the first hadith scholars, a group of poets broke with the past and introduced new forms and subjects. Men like Umar ibn Abi Rabiah wrote realistic and urbane verse, and a school of poetry which expressed the themes of Platonic love grew up around the poet Jamil ibn Muiammar, better known as Jamil al-Udhri.The lives and works of these poets of the Umayyad period are preserved in the entertaining tenth-century anthology by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, the Book of Songs. The Umayyad court in Damascus patronized poets and mu sicians. It was also the scene of the development of the type of Arabic literature called adab. Adab is usually translated as belles-lettres, which is slightly misleading. This literature, at least in its inception, was created to serve the practical end of educating the growing class of government ministers in the Arabic language, manners and deportment, history, and statecraft.Works in Sanskrit, Pahlavi, Greek, and Syriac began to find their way into Arabic at this time. Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-Katib, an Umayyad official, and the creator of this genre, defined its aims as follows Cultivate the Arabic language so that you may speak correctly develop a handsome script which will add luster to your writings learn the poetry of the Arabs by heart familiarize yourself with unusual ideas and expressions read the history of the Arabs and the Persians, and remember their great deeds. Abd Allah ibn al-Muqaffa, a contemporary of Abd al-Ham id ibn Yahya, translated the history of the ancie nt kings of Persia into Arabic, as well as Kalilah wa-Dimnah, an Indian book of advice for princes cast in the form of animal fables. His works are the earliest surviving examples of Arabic art prose and are still used as models in schools throughout the Middle East. By the ninth century, Arabic literature had entered its classical age. The various genres had been defined adab, history, Quranic exegesis, geography, biography, poetry, satire, and many more.Al-Jahiz was perhaps the greatest stylist of the age, and one of the most original personalities. He wrote more than two hundred books, on every conceivable subject he was critical, rational, and always amusing. His Book of Animals is the earliest Arabic treatise on zoology and contains very modern-sounding discussions of such things as animal mimetism and biological adaptation. He wrote one of the earliest and best treatises on rhetoric and a large number of amusing essays.By the time of his death at the age of ninety-six he had shown that Arabic prose was capable of use any subject with ease. The most gifted of al-Jahizs contemporaries was probably Ibn Qutaybah, also a writer of encyclopedic learning and an excellent stylist. His Book of Knowledge, a history of the world beginning with the creation, is the earliest work of its kind and later had many imitators. The tenth century witnessed the creation of a new form in Arabic literature, the maqamat. This was the title of a work by al-Hamadhani, called Badi al-Zaman, The Wonder of the Age. His Maqamat (Sessions) is a series of episodes written in rhymed prose concerning the life of Abu al-Fath al-Iskandari, a sort of confidence trickster, who takes on a different personality in each story and always succeeds in bilking his victims. These stories are witty and packed with action, and were straight popular. Al-Hamadhani was imitated by al-Hariri a hundred years later. Al-Hariri was a linguistic virtuoso, and his Maqamat is filled with obscure words, alliter ation, puns, and wild metaphors.He too was extremely popular, and many learned commentaries were written on his Maqamat. This purely Arab form can most closely be compared with the Spanish picaresque novels, which it may have influenced. Rhymed prose, which had come to be used even in government documents, was employed by Abu al-Ala al-Maarri in his Message of kindness, one of the best known of Arabic prose works. Al-Maarri lived in the eleventh century, leading an ascetic life in his native Syrian village. Blind from the age of four, he possessed a prodigious memory and great intellectual curiosity and skepticism.The Message of Forgiveness is cast in the form of a journey to paradise the narrator there interrogates the scholars and poets of the past regarding their lives and works, receiving surprising and often ironic responses. The book is an extended refresh of literature and philology, and represents a high point of classical Arabic culture. One of the other great figures of late classical literature was the poet al-Mutanabbi, whose skill in handling the complex meters of Arabic poetry was probably unsurpassed.His verbal brilliance has always been admired by Arab critics, although it is difficult for those whose native tongue is not Arabic to revalue it fully. The period between the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258 and the nineteenth century is generally held to be a period of literary as well as political decline for the Arabs. It is true that during these five hundred years Arabic writers were more preoccupied with the preservation of their literary heritage than with the development of new forms and ideas.This is the age of encyclopedias, commentaries, and lexicons. Faced with the massive destruction of books by the invasions of Genghis Khan and Hulagu and later of Tamerlane, scholars compiled digests and abridgments of works that had survived in order to ensure their continued existence. There were also some original works, however. Ibn Battu tah, the greatest traveler of the Middle Ages, lived in the fourteenth century, and his Travel provide a fascinating picture of the Muslim world, from the islands of the Indian Ocean to Timbuktu.Ibn Khaldun, like Ibn Battutah a native of North Africa, lived in the later fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. His Prolegomena is a work of brilliance and originality the author analyzes human society in terms of general sociological laws and gives a lucid account of the factors that contribute to the rise and decline of civilizations. Ibn Khalduns style is innovative, simple, and very personal, and perfectly suited to the expression of his often difficult ideas.This post classical period also saw the composition of popular romances, such as the coquette of Antar, based on the life of the famous pre-Islamic poet the Romance of the Bani Hilal, a cycle of stories and poems based on the migration of an Arabian tribe to North Africa in the eleventh century and many more. These romances c ould be heard recited in chocolate shops from Aleppoto Marrakesh until very recently. The most famous popular work of all, The Thousand and One Nights, assumed its present form during the fifteenth century.A revival of Arabic literature began in the nineteenth century, and coincided with the first efforts of Arabic speaking nations to assert their independence of Ottoman rule. Napoleon, during his brief occupation of Egypt in the late eighteenth century, introduced a printing press with fonts of Arabic type, and Muhammad Ali, ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, initiated a series of projects to modernize Egypt. He encouraged the use of Arabic in schools and government institutions, and established a printing press.Selected Egyptian students were sent to study in France, and on their return assigned to undertake translations of Western technical manuals on agriculture, engineering, mathematics, and military tactics. These works, together with many of the classics of Arabic literature, were printed at the government press at Bulaq and had a profound impact on intellectuals in the Arab East. Another factor in the literary revival was the swift development of journalism in Lebanon and Egypt. Starting in the late 1850s, newspapers were soon available through the Middle East.By 1900 well over a hundred and fifty newspapers and journals were being published. These journals had a great influence on the development and modernization of the written Arabic language their stress on substance rather than style did much to simplify Arabic prose and bring it within the comprehension of everyone. One of the first leaders of the Arabic literary renaissance was the Lebanese writer and scholar Butrus al-Bustani, whose dictionary and encyclopedia awakened great interest in the problems of expressing modern Western ideas in the Arabic language.His nephew Sulayman translated Homers Iliad into Arabic, thus making one of the first expressions of Western literature accessible to the A rabic-reading public. Other writers, such as the Egyptian Mustafa al-Manfaluti, adapted French romantic novels to the tastes of the Arab public, as well as writing elegant essays on a variety of themes. The historical novel, in the hands of Jurji Zaydan, proved immensely popular, perhaps because of the intense interest Arabs have always had in their past, and because of the novelty of a new form.But the first Arabic novel that can rank with European productions is Muhammad Husayn Haykals Zaynab, set in Egypt and dealing with local problems. Perhaps the greatest figure in modern Arabic literature is Taha Husayn. Blind from an early age, Taha Husayn wrote movingly of his life and beloved Egypt in his autobiography, al-Ayyam, The Days. Taha Husayn was a graduate of both al-Azhar and the Sorbonne, and his voluminous writings on Arabic literature contributed a new critique of this vast subject.The novel was not the only new form introduced to the Arabic-reading public. The drama, first in the form of translations of Western work, then of original compositions, was pioneered by Ahmad Shawqi and came to maturity in the hands of Tawfiq al-Hakim. Tawfiq al-Hakims long career and devotion to the theater did much to make this one of the liveliest arts of the Middle East. The history of modern Arabic poetry, with its many schools and contending styles, is almost impossible to summarize. Traditional forms and subjects were challenged by Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad,Mahmud Shukri, and Ibrahim al-Mazini, who strove to introduce nineteenth-century European themes and techniques into Arabic, not always with success. Lebanese poets were in the forefront of modernist verse, and one of them, Gibran Kahlil Gibran, proved very popular in the West. Poets are now experimenting with both old and new techniques, although discussions of form have given way to concern for content. The exodus of Palestinians from their native land has become a favorite theme, often movingly handled.In Saudi Ar abia, it was not until well into the twentieth century that literary movements in neighboring lands made themselves felt. rhyme, of course, has been cultivated in Arabia since the pre-Islamic period, and it has lately been influenced by new forms and subjects. Hasan al-Qurashi, Tahir Zamakhshari, Hasan Faqi, and Mahrum (the pen name of Amir Abd Allah al-Faysal) have won renown for their poetry throughout the Arab world. Hasan Faqis poetry is introspective and philosophical, while the verse of the three others is lyrical and romantic.Ghazi al-Gosaibi is distinguished by a fresh, fecund imagination that expresses itself in both Arabic and English verse. Two novels by the late Hamid al-Damanhuri have been well received. They are Thaman al-Tadhiyah, The Price of Sacrifice, and Wa-Marrat al-Ayyam, And the Days Went By. With the rapid increase in education and communications, presses are now beginning to publish more and more works by writers, and it can certainly be expected that the great social changes that are taking place will eventually be reflected in equally far-reaching developments in the Arabic literature. Introduction Read in the Name of your Lord. 1 These were the first few words of the Quran revealed to the Prophet Muhammad over 1400 years ago. Muhammad, who was known to have been in retreat and meditation in a cave outside Mecca 2, had received the first few words of a book that would have a tremendous impact on the world of Arabic literature. 3 Not being known to have composed any piece of poetry and not having any special rhetorical gifts, 4 Muhammed had just received the beginning of a book that would deal with matters of belief, legislation, multinational law, olitics, ritual, spirituality, and economics 5 in an entirely new literary form. Armstrong states, It is as though Muhammad had created an entirely new literary formWithout this experience of the Koran, it is extremely unlikely that Islam would have taken root. 6 This unique literary fo rm was the cause of the dramatic intellectual revival of desert Arabs 7, and after thirteen years of the first revelation, it became the only wing for a new state in Medina. 8 This new form of speech, the Quran, became the sole source of the new civilisations political, philosophical, and spiritual outlook.It is well known amongst Muslim and Non-Muslim scholars that the Quranic discourse cannot be described as any of the known forms of Arabic speech namely Poetry and Prose. 9 Taha Husayn, 10 a prominent Egyptian Litterateur, during the course of a public conjure up summarised how the Quran achieves this unique form But you know that the Quran is not prose and that it is not verse either. It is rather Quran, and it cannot be called by any other name but this. It is not verse, and that is clear for it does not bind itself to the bonds of verse.And it is not prose, for it is bound by bonds peculiar to itself, not found elsewhere some of the binds are related to the endings of its ver ses and some to that melodious sound which is all its own. It is therefore neither verse nor prose, but it is a Book whose verses have been perfected the expounded, from One Who is Wise, All-Aware. We cannot therefore say its prose, and its text itself is not verse. It has been one of a kind, and nothing like it has ever preceded or followed it. 11 Any expression of the Arabic language falls into the literary forms of Prose and Poetry.There are other sub forms that fall into the above categories. Kahin, which is a form of rhymed prose, is one of these sub forms but all literary forms can be described as prose and poetry. Poetry Arabic Poetry is a form of metrical speech with a rhyme. 12 The rhyme in Arabic poetry is achieved by every line of the poem ending upon a specific letter. 13 The metrical aspect of Arabic poetry is due to its rhythmical divisions, these divisions are called al-Bihar, literally meaning The Seas in Arabic. This term has been used to describe the rhythmical divisions as a result of the way the poem moves according to its rhythm.In Arabic poetry there are sixteen rhythmical patterns, which all of Arabic poetry adheres too or is loosely based upon 1. at-Tawil 2. al-Bassit 3. al-Wafir 4. al-Kamil 5. ar-Rajs 6. al-Khafif 7. al-Hazaj 8. al-Muttakarib 9. al-Munsarih 10. al-Muktatab 11. al-Muktadarak 12. al-Madid 13. al-Mujtath 14. al-Ramel 15. al-Khabab 16. as-Saria Each one of the al-Bihar have a unique rhythmical division. 14 The al-Bihar were first codified in the 8th century by al-Khalil bin Ahmad and have changed little since. The al-Bihar are based on the length of syllables.A short syllable is a consonant followed by a short vowel. A long syllable is a vowelled letter followed by either an unvowelled consonant or a long vowel. A nunation sign at the end of a word also makes the final syllable long. In Arabic poetry each line is divided into two halves. Below are basic scansions of the metres ordinarily found in Arabic poetry, showing long () and short () syllables. They represent pairs of half-lines and should be read from left to right. The patterns are not rigidly followed two short syllables may be substituted for a long one. Tawil Kamil Wafir Rajaz Hazaj Basit Khafif Sari For more details on the al-Bihar please seewww. theinimitablequran. om/TheRhythmicalPatterns. html An example of an Arabic poem, is the ancient Arabian poem called Abu-l-Ata of Sind Of thee did I dream, while spears between us were quivering And sooth, of our blood full drop had drunken the tawny shafts I know not, by heaven I swear, and true is the word I say This pang, is it love sickness, or wrought by a spell from thee. If it be a spell, then grant me state of grace of my love-longing If other t he sickness be, then none is the guilt of thine. 15 This poem, in the original Arabic, falls into the rhythmical pattern of Tawil, one of the al-Bihar shown above. 16 A literary analysis on any Arabic Poem will conclude that it adheres too or is based upon the rhythmical patterns. This is supported by Louis Cheikho who collected pre-Islamic and Islamic poetry and concluded that all of the poems conformed and were based upon the al-Bihar. 17 Prose Arabic Prose can be called non-metrical speech, meaning it does not have a rhythmical pattern like poetry mentioned above. Arabic prose can be further divided into two categories Saj which is rhymed prose and Mursal which is straight prose or what some may call normal speech. 18 An apt description of Saj is, in the words of Von Deffer A literary form with some emphasis on rhythm and rhyme, but distinct from poetry. Saj is not really as sophisticated as poetry, but has been employed by Arab poets, and is the best known of the pre- Islamic Ar ab prosodies. It is distinct from poetry in its lack of metre, i. e. it has not consistent rhythmical pattern, and it shares with poetry the element of rhyme, though in many cases some what irregularly employed. 19 Mursal can be defined as a literary form that goes on and is not divided, but is continued straight throughout without any divisions, either of rhyme or of anything else. 20 Mursal is meant as a way of expression close to the everyday spoken language, examples can be seen in speeches and prayers intended to encourage or motivate the masses. The Qurans Literary Form The Quranic discourse cannot be described as any of the known literary forms. The most predominant opinion is that it doesnt adhere to any of the rules known to poetry and prose. Another opinion is that the Quran combines metrical and non-metrical composition to create its own literary form. Some scholars disagree with the above opinions and claim that the Quran is a form of rhymed prose, saj.This opinion has arisen mainly due to the similarities of pre-Islamic prose and early Meccan chapters of the Quran. However, the scholars who carry this opinion do not contend that the Quran is unique by its use of literary and stylistic elements that render it inimitable. This unique use of literary elements has not been found in any Arabic Prose, past or present. Below is an explanation, with reference to the main opinions above, on how the Quran achieves its unique inimitable form. Non-compliance to the Rules of Prose or PoetryThe Quranic literary form differs as it does not fit in to any of the literary categories explained above, 21 it is not like the prose of Saj or Mursal and it doesnt fit into any of the al-Bihar. This can be seen by the following example Wad Duha wal laili idha saja Ma waddaka Rabbuka wa maa qala Wa lal akhiraatu khairul laka minal oola Wa la sawfa ya teeka Rabbuka fa tarda By the morning hours and by the night most still Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you And indeed the hereafter is better for you than the present And verily your Lord will give you so that you shall be well pleased 22The examination of the whole chapter with reference to the above literary forms indicates that it is not Saj or Mursal as this verse has an internal rhythm, whereas Saj does not have a consistent rhythm and Mursal has no rhythm or rhyme. Also it cannot be described as poetry the totality of this chapter, or any other chapter for that matter, does not adhere to any of the al-Bihar. Unique Fusion of Metrical and non-Metrical Speech Some parts of the Quran follow the rules of poetry, that is, some verses can be described as one of the al-Bihar. 23 When the totality of a Quranic Chapter, that contains some these verses is analysed, it is not possible to distinguish its literary form. The Quran is not verse, but it is rhythmic. The rhythm of some verses resemble the regularity of saj But it was recognized by Quraysh critics to belong to neither one nor the other category. 24 The Quran achieves this unique literary form by intermingling metrical and non-Metrical speech in such a way that the difference can not be perceived. 25 This intermingling of metrical and non- metrical composition is present throughout the whole of the Quran.The following examples illustrate this, But the righteous will be in Gardens with Springs Enter in Peace and Safety and We shall remove any bitterness from their hearts they will be like brothers, sitting on couches, face to face. No weariness will ever touch them there, nor will they ever be expelled. Prophet tell My servants that I am the Forgiving, the Merciful, but My torment is the truly painful one. Tell them too about Abrahams guests when they came to him and said Peace, he said, We are algophobic of you 26When reading the original Arabic of the above verse the reader moves from metric composition to prose with out experiencing the slightest change of style or mode. 27 The same mingling of metrical and non-metrical composition