Friday, May 24, 2019

Arabic Literature

Arabic writings Main articleArabic literature Main articleLiterature of Morocco Ibn Tufail(Abubacer) andIbn al-Nafiswere pi nonp beilers of thephilosophical novel. Ibn Tufail wrote the prime(prenominal) pret shuttinged ArabicnovelHayy ibn Yaqdhan(Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response toal-GhazalisThe Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis excessively wrote a novelTheologus Autodidactusas a response to Ibn TufailsPhilosophus Autodidactus.Both of these narratives hadprotagonists(Hayy inPhilosophus Autodidactusand Kamil inTheologus Autodidactus) who wereautodidacticferal childrenliving in seclusion on a abandon island, twain universe the early examples of a desert island story. However, while Hayy lives alone with animals on the desert island for the rest of the story inPhilosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil ext oddments beyond the desert island setting inTheologus Autodidactus, developing into the earliest cognizecoming of old ageplot and in the end bec oming the commencement ceremony example of a encyclopaedism fictionnovel. 1718 Theologus Autodidactus, written by theArabianpolymathIbn al-Nafis(12131288), is the first example of a science fiction novel. It bears with various science fiction grammatical constituents such(prenominal) asspontaneous generation,futurology, theend of the adult male and doomsday,resurrection, and the afterwards feel. Rather than giving supernatural or mythological explanations for these even offts, Ibn al-Nafis attempted to explain these plot elements employ thescientific know guidegeofbiology,astronomy,cosmologyandgeologykn declare in his time.His main purpose behind this science fiction influence was to explainIslamic sacred t severall(a)yings in harm ofscienceandphilosophy by means of the use of fiction. 19 ALatin culture of Ibn Tufails work,Philosophus Autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared byEdward Pocockethe Younger, followed by an side translation bySimon Ockleyin 1708, as well a sGer compositionandDutchtranslations. These translations afterwards inspiredDaniel Defoeto writeRobinson Crusoe, regarded as thefirst novel in English. 20212223Philosophus Autodidactus excessively inspiredRobert Boyleto write his own philosophical novel set on an island,The Aspiring Naturalist. 24The story also anticipatedRousseausEmile or, On Educationin roughly ways, and is also similar toMowglis story inRudyard KiplingsThe Jungle Bookas well asTarzans story, in that a baby is abandoned further taken sustenance of and fed by a motherwolf. citation enquireed Among other innovations in Arabic literature wasIbn Khalduns perspective on chronicling past eventsby fully rejecting supernatural explanations, Khaldun basically invented the scientific or sociological approach to annals. citation needed Islam 100 A. D. to 1500 1. Gods revelations were first received around 610 by the prophet Muhammad, whose followers later(prenominal) collected them into the Koran, which became the ba sis for a naked-sprung(prenominal) religion and community known today as Islam. 2. Though close of the pre-Islamic literature of Arabia was written in verse, prose became a popular vehicle for the dispersal of religious learning. 3. As its title the Recitation suggests, the Koran was made to be heard and recited because it is literally the word of God, Muslims do non accept the Koran in translation from Arabic. . Although Persian literature borrowed from Arabic literary styles, it also created and enhanced new poetic styles, including therubai(quatrain),ghazal(erotic lyric), andmasnavi(narrative rime). 5. More widely known than each other work in Arabic, theThousand and One Nightsis generally excluded from the open fireon of unsullied Arabic literature due to its extravagant and improbable fabrications in prose, a nervous strain that was pass judgment to be more serious and pigboatstantial than verse. Thousand and One Nights Myths and Legends of the World 2001 Copy pay Thousand and One NightsThousand and One Nights,also calledThe Arabian Nights Entertainmentor simplyThe Arabian Nights,is a sprawling, centuries-old collection of tales. In the English-speaking world, it is the surmount-known work of Arabic stories. The framework of the collection is that a king named Shahriyar, distrustful of women, had the riding habit of fetching a new wife either night and killing her the next day. A resourceful young woman named Shahrazad had a plan to end the deadly tradition. After marrying the king, she told him a story on their wedding night with the promise to finish it the next day. He let her live, and she repeated the trick.So captivating were her stories that Shahriyar spared her flavour again and again in order to hear the rest of the narrative. The origins ofThousand and One Nightsare unknown. The oldest bit of Arabic text edition dates from the 800s the first lengthy text was written in the 1400s. None of the early Arabic-language texts contain s exactly the same stories. Scholars rush identified Persian, Baghdadian, and Egyptian elements in the work, which seems to stupefy developed over the years as an ever-changing collection of fairy tales, romances, fables, verses, legends about heroes, and humorous stories.The stories that are best known in the English-speaking worldthose of Sinbad the Sailor, Aladdin and his Magic Lamp, and Ali Baba and the Forty Thievesdo not appear in all editions ofThousand and One Nights. Thousand and One Nights The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2012 Copyright Thousand and One Nights or Arabian Nights, serial of anonymous stories in Arabic, considered as an entity to be among the classics of world literature. The cohesive plot device concerns the efforts of Scheherezade, or Sheherazade, to keep her husband, King Shahryar (or Schriyar), from killing her by entertain him with a tale a night for 1,001 nights.The best known of these stories are those of Ali Baba, Sinbad the Sailor, and Aladdin. Although m whatever of the stories are set in India, their origins are unknown and have been the subject of intensifier scholarly investigation. The corpus began to be collected about the year 1000. At first the title was merely indicative of a large number of stories later editors dutifully provided editions with the requisite 1,001 tales. The pre move form ofThousand and One Nightsis thought to be native to Persia or one of the Arabic-speaking countries, but includes stories from a number of dia metrical countries and no doubt reflects diverse source material.The first European edition was a free translation by Abbe Antoine Galland into French (170417). Most subsequent French, German, and English versions lean heavily upon Galland. Among the English translations include the expurgated edition of E. W. Lane (1840), with fantabulous and co pietistic bring ups the unexpurgated edition by Sir Richard Burton in 16 volumes (188588) that of commode Payne in 9 volumes (188284) Powys Matherss translation from the French text of J. C. Mardrus (rev. ed. , 4 vol. , 1937) and that of Husain Haddawy (2 vol. , 1990, 1995).Note This file is also available as aWord scroll. Acknowledgements Al-Muntazir Madrasah, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. grandeur OF THE dedicated QURAAN The first lesson to be learned by all students is about the importance of the Holy Quraan. The Quraan is the Book of Allahsubhaanahu wa taaalaa. Every word in the Quraan has fall from Allah. That is why we say that it is a Holy Book. The words in the Quraan were sent by Allah to prophesier Muhammadsallal-laahu alayhi wa-aalihi wa sallam. The prophesier (s) received the words of Allah through angel Jibraeel.This Quraan is a Holy Book that was not written by eitherone but sent by Allah to Prophet Muhammad (s) through Jibraeel. 1. It is the most truthful row Prophet Muhammad (s) regularly run down the words of Allah to Muslims around him. These Muslims were very pleased and excited to rec eive the words of Allah. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidThe most truthful speech, the most eloquent advice, and the greatest stories are in the Book of Allah. The Muslims heeded carefully to what the Prophet study, memorized the sentences and passages of the Quraan, recited them regularly and followed the teachings of the Quraan.In order to preserve the words of Allah the Prophet appointed special heap known as Scribes of the Quraan to write down the words of Allah. 2. It is in accredited language Prophet Muhammad (s) was an Arab and the majority of people in Mecca and Medina spoke Arabic. Therefore the Quraan was sent in Arabic. Arabic is written from right to left. It is bankrupt to learn to read the Quraan in its original language. Therefore, we testament put efforts to learn Quraan written in Arabic sort of of simply reading its translation in other languages. . The Holy Quraan contains Allahs message to all people. It tells people how to act conditi exactly. It plays us to a correct way of life in this world. The Book of Allah also talks about life after death. It tells us that Allah has prepared Paradise for intimately people and cavity for bad people. The Quraan encourages the worship of still one God Who creates and provides for them. The Book forbids people from evil and condemns those who do wrong. It contains stories of the past Prophets and the examples of bad and good people.People are advised in the Quraan to be good to others and find them. It teaches people to live in peace and harmony. 4. Quraan brings happiness in this world and the Hereafter. Following the Quraan brings happiness in this world and the world after death. The Prophet (s) saidIf you desire the life of the fortunate, the death of a martyr, the salvation on the Day of Regret and the shade on the Day of ingrained Heat, then you should memorize the Quraan because it is the word of the Merciful, a sanctuary from Shaytaan and a causes the tilting of the Balance.In some othe r Hadith we read that the Prophet (s) has saidThe recitor of the Quran will be spared from the calamities of the Hereafter. 5. It is the only god like book that has remained unchanged. Allah sent the Quraan to His Prophet. A book sent by Allah to people is known as a Divine Book or a celestial Book. Other Divine Books were also sent to previous prophets. These are Suhoof to Prophet Ibraheemalayhis salaam Zaboor to Prophet Dawoodalayhis salaamTawraah to Prophet Moosaaalayhis salaam andInjeel to Prophet Eisaaalayhis salaam.The difference amidst the Quraan and past revealed books is that the Quraan is the only Divine Book that has remained unaltered. The Quraan we have with us contains exactly the same message that was sent to Prophet Muhammad by Allah through Jibraeel. 6. Our supplications get answeredif we were to petition after reading the Holy Quraan. The Prophet (s) saidOne who starts the Quran and finishes it, Allah will grant him one answered supplication. It also helps in s trengthening our faith. imam Ali (a) saidReciting the Quran plants the eed of faith. 7. The Quraan is the best companion. It atomic number 50 be of great help when a child or adult is feeling lonely. imaum Ali Zaynul Aabideen (a) saidIf all who live between the eastern United States and West perish, I will have no fear as long as I have the Quran with me. 8. Students get wisewhen they start reading the Quraan in their childhood. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidWhoever reads the Quran before becoming Baaligh, has indeed been break upn wisdom as a child. The Holy Book is the best intellectual assess a student can have.Prophet Muhammad (s) saidThe Quran is a wealth with which there is no poverty, and without which there is no wealth. On the other hand not fondness to read and study the Quraan is a great loss. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidSurely the person in whose heart lacks the trace of the Quran is like a ruined house. 9. Muslims read the Quraan to understand the true teachings of Islam. Prophet Muhammad (s) left the Holy Book and the Ahlul Bayt (a) as the most important legacy for Muslims after him. He saidI perish tow weighty things among you The Book of Allah and my family the Ahlul Bayt.Indeed these two will never separate until they reach me near the pool of Kawthar. 10. All Muslims recite some Soorahs in their prayers. However, it is good to memorize more Soorahs and read them in Salaat. Imam Muhammad Al-Baaqir (a) saidWhoever recites the Quraan while standing in his prayer, Allah will bestow on him a hundred blessings for every letter and whoever recites it while sitting in his prayer, Allah will reward him fifty blessings for every letter and whoever recites it outside of his prayer, Allah will grant him ten blessings for every letter. 1. The Quraan is a cure to mental and spiritual diseases Imam Hasan al-Askaree (a) saidThe Messenger of Allah (s) said I advice you to the Quraan since it is the beneficial cure, the blessed medicine, the protection (Isma) f or he who holds fast to it, and the salvation for he who follows it. Neither does it cause crookedness so that it de move (from the truth) nor does it deviate so that it causes trouble. Its marvels do not come to end and the vastness of refutations does not wear it. RESPECT AND RIGHTS OF THE HOLY QURAANNow that we know that the Holy Quraan is not an ordinary book, but a Divine Book sent by Allah for the guidance of all people, we must show respect to it. Here are some of the points we need to remember. 1. A part of the Quraan carries the same respect as the faultless Quraan. Allah saysWhen the Quraan is recited, listen toit (7204). We know that when recitation takes jell it is unendingly of a part of the Quraan. Even then Allah uses the word Quraan for the part that is macrocosm recited. Therefore, if you have a Siparah, a binder or a booklet that contains Soorahs and passages from the Quraan, you cut through it like a Quraan. . The Quraan should always be carried with proper care. When your Madrasah clutch contains the Quraan, or a part of it, take extra care of the bag. Keep the bag verbosely on the desk or floor instead of letting it fall on its own. Use both hands to remove the Quraan from your bag, kiss the cover of the Quraan, gear up it slowly on a desk (or on a wooden carrier specially built for holding the Quraan) and o draw up the pages gently. 3. When the Quraan is being recited, listen to it and be captive (7204). If you are busy with something else then at least do not disturb the recitation by talking, for example, or making noise.There is reward for listening to the Quraan. Imam Ali Zaynul Aabideen (a) saidWhoever listens to a letter of the book of Allah, the Glorious and Almighty, without even reading it, Allah will write down for him one good deed, forgive a sin, and awake him a degree. It was the practice of unbelievers in Mecca to key a lot of noise so that others could not listen to the Quraan (4126). Do not be like them and in stead lend your ears to the Quraan and give it respect. We often wish that God would talk to us. One way to achieve this is by reading the Quraan. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidLoWhoever has longing for Allah should listen to the word of Allah Also, if you wish to talk to God then do Tilaawa. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidWhenever one of you would like to talk to his Lord, he should read the Quran. 4. The Quraan should be recited regularly. It is disesteem to keep the Holy Quraan unread. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidBrighten your homes with reciting Quraan do not turn them into graves. Surely the house in which a lot of recitation takes place enjoys many blessings and the members bene equalise from it. Such a household shines for the inhabitants of Heaven as stars shine to the inhabitants of the earth.On the Day of head the Prophet will complain to Allah about some Muslims who had abandoned the Quraan (2530). Another Hadith of the Prophet (s) saysIndeed black Maria rust in the same way irons r ust. He was asked What will polish the hearts? The Prophet answeredReading the Quran. The more Quraan we read the better it is. We should discipline ourselves to read a good portion of Quraan effortless. Imam Ali (a) saidHe who recites 100 verses daily from the Book in the order it is in, Allah writes for him the reward equal to all the good actions of every one on this earth.Shaytaan would like us not to read, understand and study the Quraan. Let us fight him with all our strength and faith. Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) saidThere is nothing more unpleasant to Shaytaan than to see a man reading the Quran to gain insight. 5. Children should get familiarized with the Quraan early in their lives. Imam as-Saadiq (AS) saidHe who recites Quraan while he is young, Quraan mixes with his flesh and his blood, and Allah places him amongst the blessed and the chosen righteous. On the Day of Judgment, Quraan shall become his defender andpray for him a handsome reward. 6. It is the right and respec t of the Quraan that it should be followed. Imam Jafar Saadiq (a) saidLo One, who learns the Quraan, teaches it and practices according to it, I will guide and lead him to Paradise. 7. It is also the right and respect of the Quraan that those who have the knowledge of the Quraan should teach it to others. This is among the noblest acts. Prophet Muhammad (s) saidThe best of you is he who learns the Quran and teaches it. 8. Take the interpretations of the Quraan from the Holy Prophet (s) and the Imams from his family, i. e. the Ahlul Bayt (a).Imam Hasan al-Askaree quoting Prophet Muhammad saidRecite it (i. e. the Quraan) as Allah gives you ten rewards for each letter that you recite from it. Then the Imam (a) saidDo you know who really holds fast to it and reaches to such honor and reward? He is the person who takes Quraan and its interpretation from us Ahlul-Bayt (a) or from the deputies that we send to our followers, and takes its (interpretation) neither from the opinions of those who argue (on the speech of Allah) nor form the analogyofthose who compare (different move of the speech of Allah). . Once you have completed reading your lesson or referring to the Quraan then close it gently instead of leaving it open. 2. Do not put another book or any weight above the Quraan. The Holy Book should always be kept on the top in a fold of books. 3. It is Haraam (forbidden) to make Najaasaat (impure things like blood and urine) touch the Quraan. In the event where the Quraan becomes Najis, for instance if it falls in Najis water, it is Waajib (obligatory) to purify it (make it Taahir). 4. Old and worn out copies of the Quraan should be addicted in safe places.This includes sending them for recycling, burying them in the earth or casting in rivers. **** * MANNERS OF RECITING THE HOLY QURAAN By now we know that the Quraan is a special book and deserves respect. Now let us look at some of the manners of reciting the Quraan. It is the right of the Tilaawa (recitation of the Quraan) that we follow the rules when reciting the Quraan. 1. Perform Wudhoo before you prepare to read the Quraan. Allah saysNone can touch it (the Quraan) save the purified ones(5679). Once Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) asked his son Ismaaeel to read the Quraan. The latter said that he was not in Wudhoo.The Imam said in that case he could recite it but should not touch the make-ups of the Quraan. Therefore, it is advisable touse a stick or pen to point to the wordsor sentences of the Quraan you are reading if you are not in Wudhoo. 2. Read Duaa before Tilaawa. Reading of the Duaa helps to keep our focus and reminds us of what we need to take from the Holy Book. Masoomeen (a) have recommended a number of Duaas. The Duaa taught by Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) appears in this booklet with Quraan lessons. 3. Always sayAoodhubillaahi minash shaytaanir rajeem( ) when you contract reading the Quraan. It means I seek refuge in Allah from the cursed Shaytaan. This is what Allah instructs us to do in Aayah 1698. 4. Next sayBismillaahir rahmaanir raheem( )The meaning of this formulate is In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Whenever Imam Moosaa Al-Kaazim (a) wished to make a point to Haroon Rasheed using Aayaat from the Quraan, the Imam would begin withAoodhubillaah . . . followed byBismillaah . . . 5. Sit facing Qiblaah when reciting the Quraan. Please note that this is the best direction to face.However where it may be herculean or impossible to face Qiblaah when reading the Quraan (for example if your desk is facing another direction) then it is all right not to face the Qiblaah. 6. Recite the Quraan with Tarteelas instructed by Allah in Aayah 734. This means that we should recite the Quraan in a good voice with rhythm instead of plain reading. 7. Recite the Quraan slowlyAllah said to the Prophetdo not move your tongue with it (Quraan) to make haste therein(7516). The aayaat of the Quraan should be recited in slow tones with each word being pro nounced clearly.The Prophet (s) advised Muslims not be concerned about finishing a Soorah when reciting the Quraan. 8. Be Humble when reciting the Quraan. The Prophet (s) says that the best recitor is he who is humble when reciting the Quraan and realizes his own insignificance. Some people exhibit their insignificance and the awe of talking to Allah through weeping. This is a good sign. Prophet Muhammad (s) said eyeball that weep when reciting the Quran will be shining with delight on the Day of Resurrection. 9. Try to understand the recitation. Holy Quraan is a book of Guidance (22).It is necessary for us to understand the message Allah sent all people through Prophet Muhammad (s). 10. Read from the Quraan by looking at the writings instead of reciting from your memory. In a Hadith from one of our Imams it is said that mere looking at the writings of the Quraan carries reward. 11. Interact with the Quraan. Imam Jafar As-Saadiq (a) says that it is important to react to the aayaat o f the Quraan when reciting it. When we come across aayaat on Paradise, Mercy and Grace of Allah, Good Outcome in the hereafter, we should hope for these in our hearts.On the other hand if we are reading aayaat that warn us about the punishment, fire, Hell, etc. we should pray to be saved from these. 12. Open your heart and mind to the Quraan and ponder over what you read. Allah often invites us to think and ponder over the contents of the Quraan. In 4724 Allah saysDo they not then think deeply in the Quraan, or are their hearts locked up? 13. Perform Sajdah where required to do soIn the entire Quraan there are 15 places where performing of Sajdah is required. At 4 places it is Waajib (obligatory) to do Sajdah if we were to read or listen to these sections of the Quraan.For the rest of the places it is Mustahab (recommended) to do Sajdah. 14. SaySadqallaahul Aliyyul Azeem( ) every time you end a recitation of the Quraan. The meaning of this phrase is Allah, the Sublime, the Great , is truthful in what He has said 15. Read one of the Duaas after Tilaawa. The Masoomeen have taught a number of Duaas, from these two have been included with Quraan lessons. In these Duaas, amongst other things, we pray to the Almighty to enlighten us through the Quraan and make us follow the teachings of the Quraan. THE HOLY QURAN Islam appeared in the form of a book the ledger.Muslims, consider the Quran (sometimes spelled Koran) to be the Word of God as transmitted by the Angel Gabriel, in the Arabic language, through the Prophet Muhammad. The Muslim view, moreover, is that the Quran supersedes earlier revelations it is regarded as their summation and completion. It is the final revelation, as Muhammad is regarded as the final prophet the Seal of the Prophets. In a very real sense the Quran is the mentor of millions of Muslims, Arab and non-Arab alike it shapes their everyday life, anchors them to a unique establishment of law, and inspires them by its guiding principles.Wri tten in noble language, this Holy Text has done more than move multitudes to tears and ecstasy it has also, for almost fourteen hundred years, light the lives of Muslims with its eloquent message of uncompromising monotheism, human dignity, righteous living, individual responsibility, and social justice. For countless millions, consequently, it has been the single most important force in guiding their religious, social, and pagan lives. Indeed, the Quran is the cornerstone on which the edifice of Islamic civilization has been built.The text of the Quran was delivered orally by the Prophet Muhammad to his followers as it was revealed to him. The first verses were revealed to him in or about 610, and the last revelation dates from the last year of his life, 632. His followers at first committed the Quran to memory and then, as instructed by him, to writing. Although the entire contents of the Quran, the placement of its verses, and the system of rules of its chapters date back to t he Prophet, as long as he lived he continued to receive revelations.Consequently, the Holy Text could only be collected as a single corpus between the two covers after the death of Muhammad. This is exactly what happened. After the battle of al-Yamamah in 633, Umar ibn al-Khattab, later to become the second caliph, suggested to Abu Bakr, the first caliph, that because of the grievous loss of life in that battle, there was a very real d wrath of losing the Quran, enshrined as it was in the memories of the unaired and in uncollated fragments.Abu Bakr recognized the danger and entrusted the occupation of gathering the revelations to Zayd ibn Thabit, who as the chief scribe of the Prophet was the person to whom Muhammad frequently dictated the revelations in his lifetime. With great difficulty, the task was carried out and the first complete manu deal compiled from bits of parchment, thin white stones ostracae leafless palm branches, and the memories of men. Later, during the time of Uthman, the third caliph, a final, authorized text was prepared and completed in 651, and this has remained the text in use ever since. The contents of the Quran differ in substance and arrangement from the Old and New Testaments. Instead of confronting a straight historical narrative, as do the Gospels and the historical books of the Old Testament, the Quran treats, in allusive style, spiritual and practical as well as historical matters.The Quran is divided into 114 surahs, or chapters, and the surahs are conventionally assigned to two broad categories those revealed at Mecca and those revealed at Medina. The surahs revealed at Mecca at the beginning of Muhammads guardianship tend to be forgetful and to stress, in highly moving language, the eternal themes of the unity of God, the necessity of faith, the punishment of those who stray from the right path, and the Last Judgment, when all mans actions and beliefs will be judged.The surahs revealed at Medina are longer, often deal in detail with specific legal, social, or political situations, and sometimes can only be right understood with a full knowledge of the circumstances in which they were revealed All the surahs are divided into ayahs or verses and, for purposes of pedagogy and recitation, the Quran as a wholly is divided into thirty parts, which in turn are divided into short divisions of nearly equal length, to facilitate study and memorization. The surahs hemselves are of varying length, ranging from the longest, Surah 2, with 282 verses, to the shortest, Surahs 103, 108, and 110, each of which has only three. With some exceptions the surahs are position in the Quran in descending order of length, with the longest at the beginning and the shortest at the end. The major exception to this arrangement is the opening surah, al-Fatihah, which contains seven verses and which serves as an introduction to the entire revelation In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, Lord of the WorldsThe Merciful, the Compassionate Master of the Day of Judgment Thee only do we worship, and Thee alone we ask for help. Guide us in the straight path, The path of those whom Thou hast favored not the path of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray. Non-Muslims are often struck by the range of styles found in the Quran. Passages of impassioned beauty are no less common than energetic narratives. The sublime Verse of the Throne is perhaps one of the most famous God There is no god but He, The Living. the EverlastingSlumber seizes Him not, neither sleep To Him belongs all that is In the heavens and the earth Who is there that can intercede with Him Save by His leave? He knows what lies before them And what is after them, Nor do they encompass anything of His knowledge Except such as He wills His Throne extends over the heavens and earth The preserving of them wearies Him not He is the Most High, the All-Glorious. Muslims regard the Quran as untranslatab le the language in which it was revealed Arabic is inseparable from its message and Muslims everywhere, o matter what their native tongue, must learn Arabic to read the tabu Book and to perform their worship. The Quran of course is available in many languages, but these versions are regarded as interpretations rather than translations partly because the Arabic language, extraordinarily condensed and allusive, is impossible to translate in a mechanical, word-for-word way. The inimitability of the Quran has crystallized in the Muslim view of ijaz or impossibility, which holds that the style of the Quran, being divine, cannot be imitated any attempt to do so is doomed to failure.It must also be remembered that the Quran was originally transmitted orally to the faithful and that the Holy Text is not meant to be read only in silence. From the earliest days it has always been recited aloud or, more accurately, chanted. As a result, several traditional means of chanting, or intoning, the Quran were found side by side. These methods carefully preserved the elaborate science of reciting the Quran with all its intonations and its cadence and punctuation.As the exact pronunciation was important and learning it took years special schools were founded to be sure that no error would creep in as the traditional chanting methods were handed down. It is largely owing to the worldly concern of these traditional methods of recitation that the text of the Quran was preserved without error. As the script in which the Quran was first written down indicated only the consonantal underframe of the words, oral recitation was an essential element in the transmission of the text.Because the circumstances of each revelation were thought necessary to correct interpretation, the community, early in the muniment of Islam, reason that it was imperative to gather as many traditions as possible about the life and actions of the Prophet so that the Quran might be more fully understood. These traditions not only provided the historical context for many of the surahs and then contributing to their more exact explication but also contained a wide variety of subsidiary information on the practice, life, and legal rulings of the Prophet and his companions.This material became the basis for what is called the sunnah, or practice of the Prophet the deeds, utterances, and taqrir (unspoken approval) of Muhammad. Together with the Quran, the sunnah, as embodied in the canonical collections of traditions, the hadith, became the basis for the shariah, the sacred law of Islam. Unlike Western legal systems, the shariah makes no distinction between religious and civil matters it is the codification of Gods Law, and it concerns itself with every aspect of social, political, economic, and religious life.Islamic law is thus different from any other legal system it differs from canon law in that it is not administered by a church pecking order in Islam there is nothing that corresponds to a church in the Christian sense. Instead, there is the ummah the community of the believers whose cohesion is guaranteed by the sacred law. Every action of the pious Muslim, therefore, is determined by the Quran, by precedents set by the Prophet, and by the practice of the early community of Islam as enshrined in the shariah.No description, however, can fully capture the whelm importance of the Quran to Muslims. Objectively, it is the central fact of the Islamic faith, the Word of God, the final and complete revelation, the foundation and framework of Islamic law, and the source of Islamic thought, language, and action. It is the essence of Islam. to that extent it is, in the deeply personal terms of a Muslim, something more as well. In innumerable, almost indescribable ways, it is also the central fact of Muslim life.To a degree almost incomprehensible in the West it shapes and colors broadly, specifically, and totally the thoughts, emotions, and values of the de vout Muslims life from birth to death. ARABIC LITERATURE The Quran, the primary document of the Islamic faith, is the first Arabic book. Its style, at once vigorous, allusive, and concise, deeply influenced later compositions in Arabic, as it continues to color the mode of ex promoteion of native speakers of Arabic, Christian as well as Muslim, both in writing and in conversation. The Quran also largely determined the course of Arabic literature.The earliest Arabic prose came into being not from literary motives, but to serve religious and practical needs, above all the need to fully understand the Islamic revelation and the circumstances of the first Muslim community in the Hijaz. The sayings and actions of the Prophet and his Companions were collected and preserved, at first by memory and then by writing, to be finally collected and arranged by such men as al-Bukhari and Muslim in the ninth snow. This material, the hadith, not only provided the basic texts from which Islamic law was elaborated, but also create the raw material for historians of the early Muslim community.Since each hadith, or saying, is a first-person narrative, usually by an eyewitness of the event describe, they have an immediacy and freshness that has come down unimpaired through the centuries. The personalities of the narrators Abu Bakr, Umar, Aishah, and a host of others are just as vivid as the events described, for the style of each hadith is very personal. The hadith also determined the characteristic form of such works as Ibn Ishaqs Life of the Messenger of God, originally written in the middle of the eighth hundred.In this book, hadith dealing with the life of the Prophet are arranged in chronological order, and the comments of the author are kept to a minimum. Events are seen through the eyes of the people who witnessed them three or four versions of the same event are often apt(p), and in each case the chain of transmission of the hadith is given, so that the ratifier may ju dge its authenticity. During Umayyad times, a number of historians wrote monographs on specific historical, legal, and religious questions, and in each case these authors seem to have adhered to the hadith method of composition.Although a couple of(prenominal) of the works of these writers have survived in their entirety, enough has been preserved by later incorporation in such vast works as the Annals of al-Tabari to give us an idea not only of their method of composition, but also of their wide-ranging interests. The practice of prefacing a chain of authorities to each hadith led to the compilation of vast biographic dictionaries, like the Book of Classes of the early ninth century author Ibn Said, which includes a biography of the Prophet and a great deal of information on notable personalities in Mecca and Medina during his lifetime.Works such as this allowed readers to identify and judge the veracity of transmitters of hadith later, the content of biographical dictionaries was broadened to include poets, writers, eminent reciters of the Quran, scientists, and the like. These biographical dictionaries are often lively reading, and are a mine of information about social and political circumstances in the Islamic world. The spread of Islam by nature found chroniclers, such as al-Waqidi, who wrote in the late eighth and early ninth centuries, and al-Baladhuri, who composed his well known Book of the Conquests in the ninth century.These books, like the hadith, were written for practical motives. Al-Waqidi was interested in establishing the exact chronology of the spread of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and adjoining areas, while al-Baladhuri was interested in legal and tax problems attached with the settlement of new lands. Their books nevertheless are classics of their kind and, aside from containing a lot interesting information, they have passages of great descriptive power.By the ninth century, the method of compiling history from hadith and carefully citing the authorities for each tradition a process which had resulted in books of unwieldy length was abandoned by some authors, like al-Dinawari and al-Yaqubi, who omitted the fetter of transmitters and combined hadith to produce a narrative. The result was greater readability and smaller compass, at the sacrifice of richness and complexity. The works of al-Dinawari and al-Yaqubi, unlike those of their predecessors, aimed to entertain as well as instruct they are literary productions.This form of light history reached its apogee in the tenth century in al-Masudis brilliant and entertaining Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a comprehensive encyclopedia of history, geography, and literature. The literary productions of these men would not, however, have been possible without the careful collections of historical hadith made by their predecessors. Just as the writing of history began from practical rather than literary motives, so the collection and preservation of Arabic meter was undertaken by scholars with, at first, little interest in its artistic merit.The linguists and exegetes of Kufa and Basra began collecting this poetry in the eighth century because of the light it threw on unusual expressions and grammatical structures in the Quran and the hadith. Editions and commentaries were prepared of the poems of Antarah, Imru al-Qays, and many others, and thus the works of the early poets were preserved for later generations. The Quran a part, poetry has always been considered the highest expression of literary art among the Arabs. Long before the coming of Islam, Bedouin poets had amend the forms of panegyric, satire, and elegy.Their poetry obeys strict conventions, both in form and content, which indicates that it must have had a long period of development before it was finally committed to writing by scholars. The principal form utilise by the desert poets was the qasidah or ode, a poem of variable length rhyming in the last syllable of each line. T he qasidah begins with a description of the abandoned encampment of the poets beloved and goes on to an account of his anguish at her absence and his consuming love for her. The poet then describes an arduous excursion across the desert nd ends the qasidah with an appeal to the generosity of his host. Although the subject matter is almost invariable, the language is very complex and of great precision. In the Hijaz during the first century of Islam, contemporary with the first hadith scholars, a group of poets broke with the past and introduced new forms and subjects. Men like Umar ibn Abi Rabiah wrote realistic and urbane verse, and a school of poetry which expressed the themes of Platonic love grew up around the poet Jamil ibn Muiammar, better known as Jamil al-Udhri.The lives and works of these poets of the Umayyad period are preserved in the entertaining tenth-century anthology by Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani, the Book of Songs. The Umayyad court in Damascus patronized poets and mu sicians. It was also the scene of the development of the type of Arabic literature called adab. Adab is usually translated as belles-lettres, which is slightly misleading. This literature, at least in its inception, was created to serve the practical end of educating the growing class of government ministers in the Arabic language, manners and deportment, history, and statecraft.Works in Sanskrit, Pahlavi, Greek, and Syriac began to find their way into Arabic at this time. Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-Katib, an Umayyad official, and the creator of this genre, defined its aims as follows Cultivate the Arabic language so that you may speak correctly develop a handsome script which will add luster to your writings learn the poetry of the Arabs by heart familiarize yourself with unusual ideas and expressions read the history of the Arabs and the Persians, and remember their great deeds. Abd Allah ibn al-Muqaffa, a contemporary of Abd al-Ham id ibn Yahya, translated the history of the ancie nt kings of Persia into Arabic, as well as Kalilah wa-Dimnah, an Indian book of advice for princes cast in the form of animal fables. His works are the earliest surviving examples of Arabic art prose and are still used as models in schools throughout the Middle East. By the ninth century, Arabic literature had entered its classical age. The various genres had been defined adab, history, Quranic exegesis, geography, biography, poetry, satire, and many more.Al-Jahiz was perhaps the greatest stylist of the age, and one of the most original personalities. He wrote more than two hundred books, on every conceivable subject he was critical, rational, and always amusing. His Book of Animals is the earliest Arabic treatise on zoology and contains very modern-sounding discussions of such things as animal mimetism and biological adaptation. He wrote one of the earliest and best treatises on rhetoric and a large number of amusing essays.By the time of his death at the age of ninety-six he had shown that Arabic prose was capable of use any subject with ease. The most gifted of al-Jahizs contemporaries was probably Ibn Qutaybah, also a writer of encyclopedic learning and an excellent stylist. His Book of Knowledge, a history of the world beginning with the creation, is the earliest work of its kind and later had many imitators. The tenth century witnessed the creation of a new form in Arabic literature, the maqamat. This was the title of a work by al-Hamadhani, called Badi al-Zaman, The Wonder of the Age. His Maqamat (Sessions) is a series of episodes written in rhymed prose concerning the life of Abu al-Fath al-Iskandari, a sort of confidence trickster, who takes on a different personality in each story and always succeeds in bilking his victims. These stories are witty and packed with action, and were straight popular. Al-Hamadhani was imitated by al-Hariri a hundred years later. Al-Hariri was a linguistic virtuoso, and his Maqamat is filled with obscure words, alliter ation, puns, and wild metaphors.He too was extremely popular, and many learned commentaries were written on his Maqamat. This purely Arab form can most closely be compared with the Spanish picaresque novels, which it may have influenced. Rhymed prose, which had come to be used even in government documents, was employed by Abu al-Ala al-Maarri in his Message of kindness, one of the best known of Arabic prose works. Al-Maarri lived in the eleventh century, leading an ascetic life in his native Syrian village. Blind from the age of four, he possessed a prodigious memory and great intellectual curiosity and skepticism.The Message of Forgiveness is cast in the form of a journey to paradise the narrator there interrogates the scholars and poets of the past regarding their lives and works, receiving surprising and often ironic responses. The book is an extended refresh of literature and philology, and represents a high point of classical Arabic culture. One of the other great figures of late classical literature was the poet al-Mutanabbi, whose skill in handling the complex meters of Arabic poetry was probably unsurpassed.His verbal brilliance has always been admired by Arab critics, although it is difficult for those whose native tongue is not Arabic to revalue it fully. The period between the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols in 1258 and the nineteenth century is generally held to be a period of literary as well as political decline for the Arabs. It is true that during these five hundred years Arabic writers were more preoccupied with the preservation of their literary heritage than with the development of new forms and ideas.This is the age of encyclopedias, commentaries, and lexicons. Faced with the massive destruction of books by the invasions of Genghis Khan and Hulagu and later of Tamerlane, scholars compiled digests and abridgments of works that had survived in order to ensure their continued existence. There were also some original works, however. Ibn Battu tah, the greatest traveler of the Middle Ages, lived in the fourteenth century, and his Travel provide a fascinating picture of the Muslim world, from the islands of the Indian Ocean to Timbuktu.Ibn Khaldun, like Ibn Battutah a native of North Africa, lived in the later fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. His Prolegomena is a work of brilliance and originality the author analyzes human society in terms of general sociological laws and gives a lucid account of the factors that contribute to the rise and decline of civilizations. Ibn Khalduns style is innovative, simple, and very personal, and perfectly suited to the expression of his often difficult ideas.This post classical period also saw the composition of popular romances, such as the coquette of Antar, based on the life of the famous pre-Islamic poet the Romance of the Bani Hilal, a cycle of stories and poems based on the migration of an Arabian tribe to North Africa in the eleventh century and many more. These romances c ould be heard recited in chocolate shops from Aleppoto Marrakesh until very recently. The most famous popular work of all, The Thousand and One Nights, assumed its present form during the fifteenth century.A revival of Arabic literature began in the nineteenth century, and coincided with the first efforts of Arabic speaking nations to assert their independence of Ottoman rule. Napoleon, during his brief occupation of Egypt in the late eighteenth century, introduced a printing press with fonts of Arabic type, and Muhammad Ali, ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848, initiated a series of projects to modernize Egypt. He encouraged the use of Arabic in schools and government institutions, and established a printing press.Selected Egyptian students were sent to study in France, and on their return assigned to undertake translations of Western technical manuals on agriculture, engineering, mathematics, and military tactics. These works, together with many of the classics of Arabic literature, were printed at the government press at Bulaq and had a profound impact on intellectuals in the Arab East. Another factor in the literary revival was the swift development of journalism in Lebanon and Egypt. Starting in the late 1850s, newspapers were soon available through the Middle East.By 1900 well over a hundred and fifty newspapers and journals were being published. These journals had a great influence on the development and modernization of the written Arabic language their stress on substance rather than style did much to simplify Arabic prose and bring it within the comprehension of everyone. One of the first leaders of the Arabic literary renaissance was the Lebanese writer and scholar Butrus al-Bustani, whose dictionary and encyclopedia awakened great interest in the problems of expressing modern Western ideas in the Arabic language.His nephew Sulayman translated Homers Iliad into Arabic, thus making one of the first expressions of Western literature accessible to the A rabic-reading public. Other writers, such as the Egyptian Mustafa al-Manfaluti, adapted French romantic novels to the tastes of the Arab public, as well as writing elegant essays on a variety of themes. The historical novel, in the hands of Jurji Zaydan, proved immensely popular, perhaps because of the intense interest Arabs have always had in their past, and because of the novelty of a new form.But the first Arabic novel that can rank with European productions is Muhammad Husayn Haykals Zaynab, set in Egypt and dealing with local problems. Perhaps the greatest figure in modern Arabic literature is Taha Husayn. Blind from an early age, Taha Husayn wrote movingly of his life and beloved Egypt in his autobiography, al-Ayyam, The Days. Taha Husayn was a graduate of both al-Azhar and the Sorbonne, and his voluminous writings on Arabic literature contributed a new critique of this vast subject.The novel was not the only new form introduced to the Arabic-reading public. The drama, first in the form of translations of Western work, then of original compositions, was pioneered by Ahmad Shawqi and came to maturity in the hands of Tawfiq al-Hakim. Tawfiq al-Hakims long career and devotion to the theater did much to make this one of the liveliest arts of the Middle East. The history of modern Arabic poetry, with its many schools and contending styles, is almost impossible to summarize. Traditional forms and subjects were challenged by Abbas Mahmud al-Aqqad,Mahmud Shukri, and Ibrahim al-Mazini, who strove to introduce nineteenth-century European themes and techniques into Arabic, not always with success. Lebanese poets were in the forefront of modernist verse, and one of them, Gibran Kahlil Gibran, proved very popular in the West. Poets are now experimenting with both old and new techniques, although discussions of form have given way to concern for content. The exodus of Palestinians from their native land has become a favorite theme, often movingly handled.In Saudi Ar abia, it was not until well into the twentieth century that literary movements in neighboring lands made themselves felt. rhyme, of course, has been cultivated in Arabia since the pre-Islamic period, and it has lately been influenced by new forms and subjects. Hasan al-Qurashi, Tahir Zamakhshari, Hasan Faqi, and Mahrum (the pen name of Amir Abd Allah al-Faysal) have won renown for their poetry throughout the Arab world. Hasan Faqis poetry is introspective and philosophical, while the verse of the three others is lyrical and romantic.Ghazi al-Gosaibi is distinguished by a fresh, fecund imagination that expresses itself in both Arabic and English verse. Two novels by the late Hamid al-Damanhuri have been well received. They are Thaman al-Tadhiyah, The Price of Sacrifice, and Wa-Marrat al-Ayyam, And the Days Went By. With the rapid increase in education and communications, presses are now beginning to publish more and more works by writers, and it can certainly be expected that the great social changes that are taking place will eventually be reflected in equally far-reaching developments in the Arabic literature. Introduction Read in the Name of your Lord. 1 These were the first few words of the Quran revealed to the Prophet Muhammad over 1400 years ago. Muhammad, who was known to have been in retreat and meditation in a cave outside Mecca 2, had received the first few words of a book that would have a tremendous impact on the world of Arabic literature. 3 Not being known to have composed any piece of poetry and not having any special rhetorical gifts, 4 Muhammed had just received the beginning of a book that would deal with matters of belief, legislation, multinational law, olitics, ritual, spirituality, and economics 5 in an entirely new literary form. Armstrong states, It is as though Muhammad had created an entirely new literary formWithout this experience of the Koran, it is extremely unlikely that Islam would have taken root. 6 This unique literary fo rm was the cause of the dramatic intellectual revival of desert Arabs 7, and after thirteen years of the first revelation, it became the only wing for a new state in Medina. 8 This new form of speech, the Quran, became the sole source of the new civilisations political, philosophical, and spiritual outlook.It is well known amongst Muslim and Non-Muslim scholars that the Quranic discourse cannot be described as any of the known forms of Arabic speech namely Poetry and Prose. 9 Taha Husayn, 10 a prominent Egyptian Litterateur, during the course of a public conjure up summarised how the Quran achieves this unique form But you know that the Quran is not prose and that it is not verse either. It is rather Quran, and it cannot be called by any other name but this. It is not verse, and that is clear for it does not bind itself to the bonds of verse.And it is not prose, for it is bound by bonds peculiar to itself, not found elsewhere some of the binds are related to the endings of its ver ses and some to that melodious sound which is all its own. It is therefore neither verse nor prose, but it is a Book whose verses have been perfected the expounded, from One Who is Wise, All-Aware. We cannot therefore say its prose, and its text itself is not verse. It has been one of a kind, and nothing like it has ever preceded or followed it. 11 Any expression of the Arabic language falls into the literary forms of Prose and Poetry.There are other sub forms that fall into the above categories. Kahin, which is a form of rhymed prose, is one of these sub forms but all literary forms can be described as prose and poetry. Poetry Arabic Poetry is a form of metrical speech with a rhyme. 12 The rhyme in Arabic poetry is achieved by every line of the poem ending upon a specific letter. 13 The metrical aspect of Arabic poetry is due to its rhythmical divisions, these divisions are called al-Bihar, literally meaning The Seas in Arabic. This term has been used to describe the rhythmical divisions as a result of the way the poem moves according to its rhythm.In Arabic poetry there are sixteen rhythmical patterns, which all of Arabic poetry adheres too or is loosely based upon 1. at-Tawil 2. al-Bassit 3. al-Wafir 4. al-Kamil 5. ar-Rajs 6. al-Khafif 7. al-Hazaj 8. al-Muttakarib 9. al-Munsarih 10. al-Muktatab 11. al-Muktadarak 12. al-Madid 13. al-Mujtath 14. al-Ramel 15. al-Khabab 16. as-Saria Each one of the al-Bihar have a unique rhythmical division. 14 The al-Bihar were first codified in the 8th century by al-Khalil bin Ahmad and have changed little since. The al-Bihar are based on the length of syllables.A short syllable is a consonant followed by a short vowel. A long syllable is a vowelled letter followed by either an unvowelled consonant or a long vowel. A nunation sign at the end of a word also makes the final syllable long. In Arabic poetry each line is divided into two halves. Below are basic scansions of the metres ordinarily found in Arabic poetry, showing long () and short () syllables. They represent pairs of half-lines and should be read from left to right. The patterns are not rigidly followed two short syllables may be substituted for a long one. Tawil Kamil Wafir Rajaz Hazaj Basit Khafif Sari For more details on the al-Bihar please seewww. theinimitablequran. om/TheRhythmicalPatterns. html An example of an Arabic poem, is the ancient Arabian poem called Abu-l-Ata of Sind Of thee did I dream, while spears between us were quivering And sooth, of our blood full drop had drunken the tawny shafts I know not, by heaven I swear, and true is the word I say This pang, is it love sickness, or wrought by a spell from thee. If it be a spell, then grant me state of grace of my love-longing If other t he sickness be, then none is the guilt of thine. 15 This poem, in the original Arabic, falls into the rhythmical pattern of Tawil, one of the al-Bihar shown above. 16 A literary analysis on any Arabic Poem will conclude that it adheres too or is based upon the rhythmical patterns. This is supported by Louis Cheikho who collected pre-Islamic and Islamic poetry and concluded that all of the poems conformed and were based upon the al-Bihar. 17 Prose Arabic Prose can be called non-metrical speech, meaning it does not have a rhythmical pattern like poetry mentioned above. Arabic prose can be further divided into two categories Saj which is rhymed prose and Mursal which is straight prose or what some may call normal speech. 18 An apt description of Saj is, in the words of Von Deffer A literary form with some emphasis on rhythm and rhyme, but distinct from poetry. Saj is not really as sophisticated as poetry, but has been employed by Arab poets, and is the best known of the pre- Islamic Ar ab prosodies. It is distinct from poetry in its lack of metre, i. e. it has not consistent rhythmical pattern, and it shares with poetry the element of rhyme, though in many cases some what irregularly employed. 19 Mursal can be defined as a literary form that goes on and is not divided, but is continued straight throughout without any divisions, either of rhyme or of anything else. 20 Mursal is meant as a way of expression close to the everyday spoken language, examples can be seen in speeches and prayers intended to encourage or motivate the masses. The Qurans Literary Form The Quranic discourse cannot be described as any of the known literary forms. The most predominant opinion is that it doesnt adhere to any of the rules known to poetry and prose. Another opinion is that the Quran combines metrical and non-metrical composition to create its own literary form. Some scholars disagree with the above opinions and claim that the Quran is a form of rhymed prose, saj.This opinion has arisen mainly due to the similarities of pre-Islamic prose and early Meccan chapters of the Quran. However, the scholars who carry this opinion do not contend that the Quran is unique by its use of literary and stylistic elements that render it inimitable. This unique use of literary elements has not been found in any Arabic Prose, past or present. Below is an explanation, with reference to the main opinions above, on how the Quran achieves its unique inimitable form. Non-compliance to the Rules of Prose or PoetryThe Quranic literary form differs as it does not fit in to any of the literary categories explained above, 21 it is not like the prose of Saj or Mursal and it doesnt fit into any of the al-Bihar. This can be seen by the following example Wad Duha wal laili idha saja Ma waddaka Rabbuka wa maa qala Wa lal akhiraatu khairul laka minal oola Wa la sawfa ya teeka Rabbuka fa tarda By the morning hours and by the night most still Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you And indeed the hereafter is better for you than the present And verily your Lord will give you so that you shall be well pleased 22The examination of the whole chapter with reference to the above literary forms indicates that it is not Saj or Mursal as this verse has an internal rhythm, whereas Saj does not have a consistent rhythm and Mursal has no rhythm or rhyme. Also it cannot be described as poetry the totality of this chapter, or any other chapter for that matter, does not adhere to any of the al-Bihar. Unique Fusion of Metrical and non-Metrical Speech Some parts of the Quran follow the rules of poetry, that is, some verses can be described as one of the al-Bihar. 23 When the totality of a Quranic Chapter, that contains some these verses is analysed, it is not possible to distinguish its literary form. The Quran is not verse, but it is rhythmic. The rhythm of some verses resemble the regularity of saj But it was recognized by Quraysh critics to belong to neither one nor the other category. 24 The Quran achieves this unique literary form by intermingling metrical and non-Metrical speech in such a way that the difference can not be perceived. 25 This intermingling of metrical and non- metrical composition is present throughout the whole of the Quran.The following examples illustrate this, But the righteous will be in Gardens with Springs Enter in Peace and Safety and We shall remove any bitterness from their hearts they will be like brothers, sitting on couches, face to face. No weariness will ever touch them there, nor will they ever be expelled. Prophet tell My servants that I am the Forgiving, the Merciful, but My torment is the truly painful one. Tell them too about Abrahams guests when they came to him and said Peace, he said, We are algophobic of you 26When reading the original Arabic of the above verse the reader moves from metric composition to prose with out experiencing the slightest change of style or mode. 27 The same mingling of metrical and non-metrical composition

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