Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Dangers Of Lack Of Sleep Deprivation - 913 Words

Alexis Timm Mr. Frisbie Contemporary Lit, 3rd Hour October 16, 2017 The Dangers of Lack of Sleep in Highschoolers Sleep deprivation in high school students is creating a long list of problems in their health and academic areas. Sleep deprivation has been linked to many different health effects, and a major cause of sleep deprivation in high schooler s is the start time of their first morning class. Many different studies have been conducted concerning start times in schools and the current time that schools begin classes, is wreaking havoc on student health. Sleep has been shown to be a biological necessity and adolescents are the least likely to get enough sleep. Teenagers need an average of 9 hours of sleep per night, though most†¦show more content†¦(Backgrounder) A lack of sleep has been linked to risky health behaviors, such as lack of physical activity, suicidal thoughts or actions, and substance use/abuse. Sleep deprivation can lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes. (Minges) Research shows that the typical teenager’s natural time to fall asleep may be around eleven pm or even later, because with this change in their biological clocks, teens may feel wide awake at bedtime, even if they are exhausted. North America, South America, Asia, Australia, and Europe all have found evidence for adolescent sleep patterns being naturally scheduled to be later at night. Teenage sleep deprivation is largely driven by a constant war between teens’ internal biological clocks and the schedules and demands of society. (Backgrounder) Paragraph 4 As children grow, they begin to naturally prefer going to bed at a later time in the night and wake up later in the day (Kirby) however, schools do not reflect these changes in their start times. Research has shown that teenagers require almost the same amount of sleep as they did as children (Backgrounder). Teens are the least likely age group to get enough sleep, averaging around 7 hours per night instead of the required average of 9 hours. Sleep deprivation can lead to obesity, diabetes, and in some cases, can increase theShow MoreRelatedSleep Deprivation In Adolescents. Sleep Is Very Important.1741 Words   |  7 PagesSleep Deprivation in Adolescents Sleep is very important. Many people have probably heard this many times, but often they do not realize how important it really is, especially for adolescents. A scary statistic from the National Sleep Foundation states that driving as a sleep deprived individual is equivalent to driving with a BAC (Blood Alcohol Content) of around 0.08%. Additionally, annually more than 100,000 accidents happen because of sleep deprived drivers(â€Å"Teens and Sleep†, p.1). Some peopleRead MoreThe Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Sleep Disorders926 Words   |  4 PagesCommission on Sleep Disorders Research, â€Å"at least 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-term sleep disorders† (Sleep Disorders and Sleeping Problems†). There are several causes for the increase in lack of sleep or sleep deprivation; which include, using electronics late at night, using your bed for more than just sleeping, and anxiety. As a result of modern technology, there are many people who every now and then don’t sleep well, but there are several who experience what is called sleep deprivation:Read MoreCause And Effect Essay Sleep Deprivation1134 Words   |  5 PagesCause and Effect Essay Sleep Deprivation Cause and effect Essay Sleep deprivation Most people have at least stayed awake for the entire night once during their lifetime. This behavior is common amongst individuals enrolled in High School or pursuing University degree. One might wonder how lack of sleep for the night impact him/her. However, it has being proven that being awake for 24 hours has unpleasant effects on health.So why is sleep so important? How does lack of sleep impact one’s mood so significantlyRead MoreWhy We Need Sleep1376 Words   |  6 PagesWe Need Sleep Sleep is a very important aspect of our lives and people rely on it to re-energize them so they can continue onto the next day. Although sleep is thought to conserve energy it actually drains your metabolism by 5-10%. However, sleep is very beneficial to humans. Sleeping progresses the bodies’ growth and rejuvenates the immune, skeletal, nervous and muscular systems. Sleep also improves short-term memory, mood, efficiency, concentration, and it is actually believed that sleep also helpsRead MoreThe Effects Of Negative Habits On College1681 Words   |  7 PagesAn Analysis of Negative Habits in College Negative habits such as alcoholism, abuse of drugs, sleep deprivation, and procrastination impact minority students more than non-minority students. Many students go off to college every year and do not stay on track. They begin college with the best of intentions: go to class, excel, and eventually graduate. College is very fun, but it is also a time in your life where you have to learn what to put first, and what can wait for later. Some students suchRead MoreThe Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Sleep Disorders971 Words   |  4 Pagesbecome more about of society there has been a trend in people who are not getting a full night’s rest. According to the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, â€Å"at least 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-term sleep disorders† (Sleep Disorders and Sleeping Problems†). There are several causes for the increase in lack of sleep or sleep deprivation; which include, using electronics late at night, using your bed for more than just sleeping, and anxiety. As a result, of more American’sRead MoreSleep Deprivation And Sleep Disorders976 Words   |  4 Pagesbecome more about of society there has been a trend in people who are not getting a full night’s rest. According to the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research, â€Å"at least 40 million Americans suffer from chronic, long-term sleep disorders† (Sleep Disorders and Sleeping Problems†). There are several causes for the increase in lack of sleep or sleep deprivation; which include, using electronics late at night, using your bed for more than just sleeping, and anxiety. As a result, of more American’sRead MoreSleep Deprivation And Its Effects On The Brain And Body905 Words   |  4 PagesWhile loss of sleep must be required at times, sleep deprivation has become a problem worth addressing because it is a very common sleep disorder which can adversely affect the brain and cognitive function. However, It has many effects on a human brain such as depression, memory lapses or loss, and symptoms similar to ADHD. In order to identify what sleep deprivation is, it is necessary to understand how sleep is a necessity for the human brain and body. Sleep is the most important part of one sRead MoreSleep Deprivation Negatively Influences Driving Performance1722 Words   |  7 Pagesaverage person is generally awake for around 16 hours a day, however sometimes within busy lives sleep may become a last priority between family and work, and thus extending the period a person is awake (Williamson Feyer, 2000). In this essay, it will be argued that sleep deprivation negatively influences driving performance, as it has been found that driving for long periods of time or after sleep deprivation leads to poor driving performance as levels of alertness are low. Two empirical studies haveRead MoreThe Effects Of Sleep Deprivation On Children s Routine Performance And Interaction Skills979 Words   |  4 PagesSleep deprivation has likely harmed most people’s routine performance and interaction skills at least enough to alarm them of its profound impairment to their mental and physical state. Everyone knows the feeling of being sh ort-tempered and irritable because they didn’t get enough sleep the night before, but many also know the feeling of delirium and decreased cognitive abilities associated with many frightening consequences such as surmountable drops in their ability to communicate well with others

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Pathophysiology Of Diabetic Neuropathy And Diabetes

Pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects blood glucose levels. Diabetes is the loss of pancreatic metabolic activity that is responsible for the use of energy, which comes from glucose that an individual consumes. There are two types of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes is the failure of pancreas to secrete a hormone called insulin; responsible for the removal of glucose from the body to be used in the muscles for energy. Type 2 Diabetes is the failure of using the insulin that is secreted form the pancreas. Individuals with controlled blood sugar levels due to normal functioning of the endocrine system, avoid several complications. However, a high percentage of individuals suffering from diabetes also consequently suffer from hyperglycemia. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to many serious cardiovascular diseases in the body like retinopathy, nephropathy and mainly neuropathy (Kumar et al., 2007), but the neuropathy severity is determined by the duration and intensity of uncontrolled blood sugar levels (Tesfaye et al., 2005). About 50-60 % of diabetic patients suffer from diabetic neuropathy, and it generates from having constant hyperglycemia leading to nerve damage in the body, mainly the extremities starting from the legs and feet (Kumar et al., 2007). Patients describe the symptoms as ‘numbness’, ‘pins and needles’, burning, tingling and weakness of the muscles (Dejgaard, 1998). Severe cases leads to amputation of the limbs (Kumar etShow MoreRelatedDiabetic M icrovascular : Leading Cause Blindness762 Words   |  4 PagesDiabetic microvascular complications are the leading cause of blindness, end-stage renal diseases, and other neuropathies due to hypoxia and ischemia in the retina, the kidney, and nerves. Thickening of the capillary basement membrane result in decreased tissue perfusion. Many people with type 2 diabetes present with microvascular complications because of the long duration of asymptomatic hyperglycemia that usually precedes diagnosis (Mccaine and Huther). Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic retinopathyRead MoreIs Diabetes A Chronic Metabolic Disorder?1161 Words   |  5 PagesDiabetes, a chronic metabolic disorder, affects 9.3% of the U.S population. The prevalence is much higher in the population of age 65 or older, reaching 25.9%. It was the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S in 2010, evidenced by a total of 234,051 certificates including both underlying causes and contributing causes. Multiple factors contribute to the development of diabetes, although the exact pathogenesis is still undetermined. Patients with diabetes usually require a lifestyle change, dietRead MoreMain Aspects Of Wellness Should Be Promoted For Sally1458 Words   |  6 PagesNowadays, increased number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes may develop several significant complications. These complications can be classified as microvascular disease like retinopathy, nephronpathy, neuropathy and macrovasular disease, such as severe cardiovascular disease. (Forbes Cooper, 2013) . According to Sally’s condition, her health has been affected by neuropathy, which is leg ulcer. This essay will be focused on one symptom which is leg ulcers that had very serious impacts toRead MoreDPN Case Study738 Words   |  3 Pagespsychological functioning. The glycemic control: several studies showed that intensive glycemic therapy can result in a statistically insignificant reduction in the development of neuropathy. (Callaghan BC, et al 2012) Support for a positive effect of intensive treatment comes from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group (1998) which revealed a statistically significant decrease in the risk of DPN with intensive treatment after 15 years duration of treatment. Overall, this controversialRead MoreEssay on Diabetes Mellitus1447 Words   |  6 PagesDiabetes Mellitus Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death listed in the United States. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness. â€Å"In 1996 diabetes contributed to more than 162,000 deaths†(Lewis 1367).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but a group of disorders with glucose intolerance in common† (McCance 674). Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar) and results from defective insulin production, secretion, andRead MoreInformative Essay on Diabetes1506 Words   |  7 PagesAn Informative Essay On Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death listed in the United States. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness. In 1996 diabetes contributed to more than 162,000 deaths(Lewis 1367). Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but a group of disorders with glucose intolerance in common (McCance 674). Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar) and results from defective insulin productionRead MorePathophysiology Of Type II Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1575 Words   |  7 PagesPathophysiology of Type II Non-Insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): Type II Non-insulin dependent diabetes is the most common. It often occurs in older adults, patients who are overweight, and patient with metabolic disorders. It can happen at any age though. The tissues in the body have built some resistance to insulin. The insulin levels in these patients can vary from low to high and can also be normal. You might be at risk of developing Non-insulin dependent diabetes if you have a familyRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Type II Diabetes1253 Words   |  6 PagesA 60-year-old woman with a 10-year history of Type II diabetes presents with multiple complications including retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and declining renal function. She has not had the urge to eat as of recently she feels â€Å"full† after a few bites. The incidence of nausea and feeling bloated occurs at least twice a day and even after a glass of water she feels bloated. She also complains of fatigue and not been able to keep up with daily chores. A radiographic gastri c emptying study showsRead MoreDiabetic Nephropathy : The Major Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus1573 Words   |  7 PagesDiabetic Nephropathy Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus. Current statistics suggests that diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in the United States as well as many other Western societies. It is also reported to be one of the most significant long-term complications in terms of morbidity and mortality for individual patients with diabetes. Diabetes is responsible for 30-40% of all end-stage renal disease (ESRD) cases in the UnitedRead MoreEndocrine Research Paper Pathophysiology: Diabetes Mellitus1384 Words   |  6 Pagesworld population)(Diabetes Facts). When people think about epidemics that affect the world today, the first ones that usually come to mind are those that kill of millions of people every year such as HIV, malaria, or the influenza. There are even those that haven’t been as deadly but have gained extreme notoriety such as the H1N1 virus, cholera, and anthrax. For this paper forget about HIV, H1N1, cholera, a nd the influenza; introducing Diabetes mellitus: a silent epidemic. Diabetes mellitus or commonly

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Lung Cancer Essay Research Paper Lung cancer free essay sample

Lung Cancer Essay, Research Paper Lung malignant neoplastic disease is non merely one disease but instead a group of diseases. All signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease cause cells in the organic structure to alter and turn out of control. Most types of malignant neoplastic disease cells form a ball or mass called a tumour. Cells from the tumour can interrupt off and travel to other parts of the organic structure where they can go on to turn. This distributing procedure is called metastasis. When malignant neoplastic disease spreads, it is still named after the portion of the organic structure where it started. For illustration, if breast malignant neoplastic disease spreads to the lungs, it is still breast malignant neoplastic disease, non lung malignant neoplastic disease. Another word for cancerous is malignant, so a cancerous tumour is referred to as malignant. But non all tumours are malignant neoplastic disease. A tumour that is non malignant neoplastic disease is called benign. Benign tumours do non turn and distribute the manner malignant neoplastic disease does. They are normally non a menace to life. A few malignant neoplastic diseases, such as blood malignant neoplastic diseases ( leukaemia ) , do non organize a tumour. Most malignant neoplastic diseases are named after the portion of the organic structure where the malignant neoplastic disease foremost starts. Lung malignant neoplastic disease begins in the lungs. The lungs are two sponge-like variety meats in the thorax. The right lung has three subdivisions, called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. It is smaller because the bosom takes up more room on that side of the organic structure. The lungs bring air in and out of the organic structure, taking in O and acquiring rid of C dioxide gas, a waste merchandise. The run alonging around the lungs, called the pleura, helps to protect the lungs and allows them to travel during external respiration. The trachea ( windpipe ) brings air down into the lung s. It divides into tubings called bronchial tube, which divide into smaller subdivisions called bronchioles. At the terminal of these little subdivisions are bantam air sacs known as air sac. Most lung malignant neoplastic diseases start in the liner of the bronchial tubes but they can besides get down in other countries such as the windpipe, bronchioles, or air sac. Lung malignant neoplastic disease frequently takes many old ages to develop. Once the lung malignant neoplastic disease occurs, malignant neoplastic disease cells can interrupt off and spread to other parts of the organic structure. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is a life- threatening disease because it frequently spreads in this manner before it is found. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is the taking cause of malignant neoplastic disease decease for both work forces and adult females. During the twelvemonth 2000 there will be approximately 164,100 new instances of lung malignant neoplastic disease in this state. About 156,900 people will decease of lung malignant neoplastic disease: about 89,300 work forces and 67,600 adult females. More people dice of lung malignant neoplastic disease than of colon, chest, and prostate malignant neoplastic diseases combined. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is reasonably rare in people under the age of 40. The mean age of people found to hold lung malignant neoplastic disease is 60. If lung malignant neoplastic disease is found and treated by surgery early, before it has spread to lymph nodes or other variety meats, the five-year endurance rate is about 42 % . However, few lung malignant neoplastic diseases are found at this early phase. The five-year endurance rate for all phases of lung malignant neoplastic disease combined was 14 % in 1995, the last twelvemonth for which we have national informations. A hazard factor is something that increases a individual # 8217 ; s opportunity of acquiring a disease. Some hazard factors, like smoke, can be controll ed. Others, such as a individual # 8217 ; s age, can # 8217 ; t be changed. Smoke is by far the taking hazard factor for lung malignant neoplastic disease. More than 8 out of 10 lung malignant neoplastic diseases are thought to ensue from smoke. The longer a individual has been smoking, and the more battalions per twenty-four hours smoked, the greater the hazard. If a individual stops smoking before lung malignant neoplastic disease develops, the lung tissue easy returns to normal. Stoping smoking at any age lowers the hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease. Cigar and pipe smoke are about as likely to do lung malignant neoplastic disease as coffin nail smoke. There is no grounds that smoking low pitch coffin nails reduces the hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease. Nonsmokers who breathe the fume of others besides increase their hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease. Non- smoke partners of tobacco users, for illustration, have a 30 % greater hazard of developing lu ng malignant neoplastic disease than do partners of nonsmokers. Workers exposed to tobacco fume in the workplace are besides more likely to acquire lung malignant neoplastic disease. There are other hazard factors for lung malignant neoplastic disease besides smoke. Peoples who work with asbestos have a higher hazard of acquiring lung malignant neoplastic disease. If they besides smoke, the hazard is greatly increased. The type of lung malignant neoplastic disease linked to asbestos, mesothelioma, frequently starts in the pleura. This type of malignant neoplastic disease is covered in a separate American Cancer Society papers. Although asbestos was used for many old ages, the authorities has now about stopped its usage in the workplace and in place merchandises. Besides smoke and asbestos, there are a few other hazard factors for lung malignant neoplastic disease. These include certain cancer-causing agents in the workplace, Rn gas, and lung scarring from some types of pneumonia. Be sides, people who have had lung malignant neoplastic disease in the yesteryear have a higher opportunity of holding it once more and, as mentioned earlier, the hazard of lung malignant neoplastic disease increases with age. Some surveies have shown that the lung cells of adult females who smoke may develop malignant neoplastic disease more easy than those of work forces. Clearly, the best manner to forestall lung malignant neoplastic disease is non to smoke or be around those who do. Young people should non get down smoke, and those who already smoke should discontinue. Everyone, particularly babes and kids, should be protected from take a breathing in other people # 8217 ; s fume. While some people believe that air pollution is a major cause of lung malignant neoplastic disease, the truth is that air pollution merely somewhat increases the hazard. Smoke is by far the more of import cause. Even so, some people who have neer smoked or worked with asbestos still acquire lung malignan t neoplastic disease. Since we do non cognize why this happens, there is no certain manner to forestall it. Since most people with early lung malignant neoplastic disease do non hold any symptoms, merely approximately 15 % of lung malignant neoplastic diseases are found in the early phases. Although most lung malignant neoplastic diseases do non do symptoms until they have spread, you should describe any of the following symptoms to your physician right off. Often these jobs are caused by some other status, but if lung malignant neoplastic disease is found, prompt intervention could widen your life and relieve symptoms. A cough that does non travel off Chest hurting, frequently made worse by deep external respiration Hoarseness Weight loss and loss of appetite Bloody or rust-colored phlegm ( tongue or emotionlessness ) Shortness of breath Fever without a known ground Recuring infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia New oncoming of wheezing When lung malignant neoplastic disease spreads to distant variety meats, it may do: Bone hurting Weakness or numbness of the weaponries or legs, dizziness Yellow colouring of the tegument and eyes ( icterus ) Masses near the surface of the organic structure, caused by malignant neoplastic disease distributing to the tegument or to lymph nodes in the cervix or above the clavicle Less frequently, there are some other bunchs of symptoms ( called syndromes ) that can indicate to a possible lung malignant neoplastic disease. Recently, some new trials to happen lung malignant neoplastic disease early have been developed. These trials are still being studied and are non yet used on a regular footing. If there is a ground to surmise you may hold lung malignant neoplastic disease, the physician will utilize one or more methods to happen out if the disease is truly present. In add-on, a biopsy of the lung tissue will corroborate the diagnosing of malignant neoplastic disease and besides give valuable information that will assist i n doing intervention determinations. If these trials find lung malignant neoplastic disease, more trials will be done to happen out how far the malignant neoplastic disease has spread. After taking your medical history and making a physical test the physician might desire to make some of the followers: Imaging trials: these trials use x- beams, magnetic Fieldss, sound moving ridges or radioactive substances to make images of the interior of the organic structure. Some of the imagination trials used to happen lung malignant neoplastic disease and to see where in the organic structure it may hold spread include X raies, CT scan ( computed imaging ) , MRI ( magnetic resonance imagination ) , PET ( positron emanation imaging ) scans, and bone scans. Sputum cytology: a sample of emotionlessness ( tongue ) is looked at under a microscope to see if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Needle biopsy: a acerate leaf is placed into the tumour to take a piece of tissue. The tissue i s looked at in the lab to see if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Bronchoscopy: a lighted, flexible tubing is passed through the oral cavity into the bronchial tube. This trial can assist happen tumours or it can be used to take samples of tissue or fluids to see if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Mediastinoscopy: with the patient asleep, tissue samples are taken from the lymph nodes along the trachea through a little hole cut into the cervix. Again, looking at the tissue under a microscope can demo if malignant neoplastic disease cells are present. Bone marrow biopsy: a acerate leaf is used to take a little piece of bone, normally from the dorsum of the hip bone. The sample is checked for malignant neoplastic disease cells. Blood trials: certain blood trials are frequently done to assist see if the lung malignant neoplastic disease has spread to the liver or castanetss. There are two major types of lung malignant neoplastic disease. The first is littl e cell lung malignant neoplastic disease, or SCLC. The other is non- little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease, or NSCLC. If the malignant neoplastic disease has characteristics of both types, it is called assorted little cell/large cell malignant neoplastic disease. Small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease histories for approximately 20 % of all lung malignant neoplastic diseases. Although the malignant neoplastic disease cells are little, they can multiply rapidly and organize big tumours. The tumours can distribute to the lymph nodes and to other variety meats such as the encephalon, the liver, and the castanetss. Small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease is normally caused by smoking. Other names for little cell lung malignant neoplastic disease are oat cell malignant neoplastic disease and little cell uniform carcinoma. Non-small cell lung malignant neoplastic disease is the most common type of lung malignant neoplastic disease, accounting for about 80 % of lung mali gnant neoplastic diseases. There are three subtypes within this group. Some types grow m ore quickly than others. Ask your doctor to explain which of these you have. There are a few other rare types of lung cancer not covered in this document. Staging is the process of finding out how far the cancer has spread. This is very important because your treatment and the outlook for your recovery depend on the stage of your cancer. There are different staging systems for small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer staging For small cell lung cancer a two-stage system is most often used. These are limited stage and extensive stage. Limited stage usually means that the cancer is only in one lung and in lymph nodes on the same side of the chest. If the cancer has spread to the other lung, to lymph nodes on the other side of the chest, or to distant organs, it is called extensive. Small cell lung cancer is staged in this way because it helps to determine the best treatment for each group. Many people with small cell lung cancer will already have extensive di sease when it is found. The staging system most often used for non-small cell lung cancer is the TNM system, also known as the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) system. T stands for tumor (its size and how far it has spread within the lung and to nearby organs) N stands for spread to lymph nodes M stands for metastasis (spread to distant organs) All of this information is combined and a stage is assigned. The stages are described using Roman numerals 0-IV (1-4). In general, the lower the number, the less the cancer has spread. A higher number, such as stage IV (4), means a more serious cancer. After looking at your test results, the doctor will tell you the stage of your cancer. Be sure to ask your doctor to explain your stage in a way you understand. This will help you both decide on the best treatment for you. There is a lot for you to think about when choosing the best way to treat or manage your cancer. There may be more than one treatment to choose from. You may feel th at you need to make a decision quickly. But give yourself time to absorb the information you have learned. Talk to your doctor. Look at the list of questions at the end of this piece to get some ideas. Then add your own. You may want to get a second opinion. Your doctor should not mind your doing this. In fact, some insurance companies require you to get a second opinion. You may not need to have tests done again since the results can often be sent to the second doctor. If you are in an HMO (health maintenance organization), find out about their policy concerning second opinions. The treatment options for lung cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, either alone or in combination, depending on the stage of the tumor. Depending on the type and stage of the cancer, surgery may be used to remove the tumor and some of the lung tissue around it. If a lobe (section) of the lung is removed, the surgery is called a lobectomy. Removing only part of the lobe is called a wedge resection. If the entire lung is removed, the surgery is called a pnuemonectomy. These operations are done with the patient asleep. A hospital stay of one or two weeks is usually needed. There will be some pain after the surgery because the surgeon has to cut through the ribs to get to the lungs. People whose lungs are in good condition (other than the cancer) can often return to normal activities after a lobe or even an entire lung is removed. However, if they also have diseases such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis (common among heavy smokers), then they may have long-term shortness of breath. For people who can’t have the usual surgery because of lung disease or other medical problems, or because the cancer is widespread, other types of surgery (for example, laser surgery) can be done to relieve symptoms. Chemotherapy refers to the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Usually the drugs are given into a vein or by mouth. Once the drugs enter the bloodstream, they spread th roughout the body.Often several drugs are given at the same time. Depending on the type and stage of lung cancer, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or in addition to surgery. Chemotherapy can have some side effects. These side effects will depend on the type of drugs given, the amount taken, and how long treatment lasts. Common side effects could include nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, temporary hair loss, mouth sores, an increased risk of infections, and fatigue. Anyone who has problems with side effects should talk with their doctor or nurse as there are often ways to help. Radiation therapy is treatment with high energy rays (such as x-rays) to kill or shrink cancer cells. The radiation may come from outside the body (external radiation) or from radioactive materials placed directly in the tumor (internal or implant radiation). External radiation is the type most often used to treat lung cancer. Radiation is sometimes used as the main treatment of lung cancer , for example, for those people who may not be healthy enough to have surgery. For other patients, radiation might be used after surgery to kill small areas of cancer that can’t be seen and removed during surgery. Radiation can also be used to relieve symptoms such as pain, bleeding, and trouble swallowing. Side effects of radiation therapy could include mild skin problems, nausea, vomiting, and tiredness. Often these go away after a short while. Chest radiation may cause lung damage and difficulty breathing. Side effects of radiation therapy to the brain (to treat metastasis) usually become most serious one or two years after treatment, and include headaches and trouble with thinking. Be sure to talk with your doctor if you have any side effects. Studies of new treatments in patients are known as clinical trials. A clinical trial is only done when there is some reason to believe that the treatment being studied may be of value to the patient. The main questions the researche rs want to answer are: Does this treatment work? Does it work better than the one we’re now using? What side effects does it cause? Do the benefits outweigh the risks? Which patients are most likely to find this treatment helpful? During your course of treatment, your doctor may suggest that you look into a clinical trial. This does not mean that you are being asked to be a human guinea pig. Nor does it mean that your case is hopeless. However, there are some risks. No one knows in advance if the treatment will work or exactly what side effects will occur. That’s what the study is designed to find out. Keep in mind that standard treatments, too, can have side effects. Clinical trials are carried out in steps called phases. Each phase is designed to answer certain questions. Ask your doctor if there is a clinical trial that might be right for you. Then learn all you can about that trial. Because you volunteer to take part in a clinical trial, you can leave the trial at any time. As you cope with cancer and cancer treatment, you need to have honest, open discussions with your doctor. You should feel free to ask any question that’s on your mind, no matter how small it might seem. Here are some questions you might want to ask. Be sure and add your own. Would you please write down the exact type of lung cancer I have? Has my cancer spread? What is the stage of my cancer and what does that mean in my case? What treatment choices do I have? What do you suggest and why? What is the goal of this treatment? What risks or side effects are there to the treatment you suggest? If I will lose my hair, what can I do about it? Based on what you’ve learned about my cancer, how long do you think I’ll survive? What are the chances of the cancer coming back after treatment? What should I do to get ready for treatment? Remember that your body is unique, and so are your emotional needs and your personal circumstances. In some ways, your cancer is l ike no one else’s. No one can predict how your cancer will respond to treatment. Statistics can paint an overall picture, but you may have special strengths such as a healthy immune system, a strong family support system, or a deep spiritual faith. All of these have an impact on how you cope with cancer. Cancer treatment can make you feel tired. Give some time to recover. Don’t feel the need to rush back to work or resume all of your normal activities right away. The doctor will let you know what follow-up tests need to be done and when. Chest x-rays and blood tests may be done to see if the cancer has come back or if a new tumor has formed. Be sure to report any new or recurring symptoms to the doctor right away. Even after lung cancer has developed, it is very important to quit smoking. Quitting helps improve appetite and overall health and can reduce the chance of a new cancer. Ask theyour doctor or nurse for ideas about how to quit smoking. Do as much as you can to stay healthy and active. Eat a balanced diet of healthy foods, including plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Once you get your strength back, try to exercise a few hours each week. Check with the doctor before you start an exercise program. The doctor can suggest the types of exercise that are right for you. The doctor or nurse can suggest other resources that might help you during your recovery from treatment. There are many support groups that provide emotional support, friendship, and understanding.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

The Breakdown Of Society Essays - Parenting, Divorce, Marriage

The Breakdown of Society : Over the years, people have brought forward hundreds of proposals for the breakdown of society. One of the more popular, or perhaps notorious, depending on your point of view, has placed the blame on the rising predominance of single parent households in society. I personally have trouble believing that one problem can be held responsible for all of societys ills. However, I can definitely see how some people could feel so strongly about this. Coming from a two-parent family, I cannot speak from experience about life in a single parent household; but I do have friends and acquaintances that were brought up in single parent households. When I spent time with these people and their families, it became quite clear to me that their way of life, though not necessarily better or worse than mine, was certainly not the same. They were clearly missing certain aspects of life that I was accustomed to. For instance, while growing up, I always had the experience of two adults on which I could draw in order to form my own opinions, whereas the children who had grown up with only one parent were not afforded this luxury. I always felt bad for them because I had something that they didnt have. Whenever I brought it up, they became very defensive of the parent they lived with, and accused me of being shortsighted. Financially, single parent households seem to be at a definite disadvantage compared to households with both parents. There are many statistics showing how difficult it is to support a family on one income. Even the United States department of Health and Human Services has declared, It is no longer feasible in America to enjoy a middle class standard of living without the presence of two incomes (Burk, 1). This problem seems to be worsened by the unfair system of transfer payments that has been implemented by our government. It becomes a case of two families living on two incomes, rather than the traditional system of one family living on the same two incomes. Recent efforts to criminalize non-payment of child support are ludicrous. It gives boys the message that when they grow up and foolishly become fathers themselves, their lives will be destroyed by bitter wives, just like their fathers before them had their lives ruined. Girls, on the other hand, get the impression that they can grow up and become breeder mommies whose lives will be subsidized by government sanctioned child support. The net effect is bitter children with a warped sense of values. In addition to marring the children, this also poses the question of how a father would be able to pay child support from prison (Burk, 2). Clearly, this is a very obtuse point of view. To blame all of this problem solely on either the mothers or the fathers would be cruelly unfair. Obviously both parents should be held both financially and emotionally responsible for the raising of a child, even if the child only lives with one of these parents. Some fair system must be designed so that a child can be financially supported, without draining the assets of the non-custodial parent. I personally feel that a child would be able to get just as much love and emotional nourishment from one parent as a child would get from both. Though there may be more of a financial burden, I think that children of single parent families can live as full, happy, and successful a life as their two-parent counterparts. Surely, there must be thousands of children from single parent households who have made very successful lives for themselves despite their upbringings. Or, maybe their single parent upbringing actually contr! ibuted to their success. Perhaps some children thrive on the difficulties that they faced as children and are all the better for having gone through it. Statistically, however, far more social pathologies can be found among children from single parent households than can be found among children from two parent households. There is a broad spectrum of these problems, obviously rooted in single parenting: 63% of all youth suicides are committed by children from single parent households; 70% of all teenage pregnancies